The French Wikipedia is the French language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. It has the third-largest number of edits and it was the third edition, after the English Wikipedia and German Wikipedia, to exceed 1 million encyclopedia articles, this occurred on 23 September 2010. In April 2016, the project had 4657 active editors who made at least five edits in that month, in 2008, the French encyclopaedia, cancelled its 2008 edition, citing falling sales on competition from the French edition of Wikipedia. As of June 2014, Wikipedia has an Alexa ranking of 6 and 5. 06% of those visits are to the French-language edition, as of April 2017, there are 2,758,000 users,159 admins and 50,909 files on the French Wikipedia. According to a 2013 study by the Oxford Internet Institute, Ségolène Royal, the audience measurement company Médiamétrie questioned a sample of 8,500 users residing in France with access to Internet at home or at their place of work. Médiamétrie found that in June 2007, French Wikipedia had,7,910,000 unique visitors visited the site at least once during the month of June 2007,2.
By August 2011, French Wikipedia was the 7th most visited site in France, in April 2012, it had 20 million unique visitors per month, or 2.4 million per day with over 700 million page views
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
John, Duke of Berry
John of Berry or John the Magnificent was Duke of Berry and Auvergne and Count of Poitiers and Montpensier. He was the son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxemburg, his brothers were King Charles V of France, Duke Louis I of Anjou. He is primarily remembered as a collector of the important illuminated manuscripts and other works of art commissioned by him and he was born at the castle of Vincennes on 30 November 1340. When Poitiers was ceded to England in 1360, John II granted John the newly raised duchies of Berry, by the terms of the Treaty of Brétigny, signed that May, John became a hostage of the English Crown and remained in England until 1369. Upon his return to France, his brother, now King Charles V, appointed him lieutenant general for Berry, Bourbonnais, Sologne, Anjou and Normandy. Upon the death of his older brother Charles V in 1380, his son and heir, Charles VI was a minor, so Berry and his brothers, following the death of Louis of Anjou in 1384, Berry and his brother Burgundy were the dominant figures in the kingdom.
John was stripped of his offices in Languedoc at that time and Burgundy bided their time, and were soon able to retake power, in 1392, when the King had his first attack of insanity, an affliction which would remain with him throughout his life. The two royal dukes continued to rule until 1402, when the king, in one of his moments of lucidity, took power from them and gave it to his brother Louis, Duke of Orléans. Simon of Cramaud, a canonist and prelate, served the Duke in his efforts to find a way to end the Great Western schism that was not unfavorable to French interests, in his years, John became a more conciliatory figure in France. It was largely due to his urging that Charles VI and his sons were not present at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 and he died a few months after the battle, which proved as disastrous as he had feared, on June 151416 in Paris. In 1389 he married his wife, Joan II, Countess of Auvergne. John of Berry was a patron who commissioned among other works the most famous Book of Hours.
His spending on his art collection severely taxed his estates, works created for him include the manuscripts known as the Très Riches Heures, the Belles Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry and the Turin-Milan Hours. Goldsmiths work includes the Holy Thorn Reliquary and Royal Gold Cup, among the artists working for him were the Limbourg Brothers, Jacquemart de Hesdin and André Beauneveu. The web site of the Louvre says of him, key Figures in Medieval Europe, An Encyclopedia. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–
Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1. 5–1.6 million people. Valencia is Spains third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million, the Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea. The city is ranked at Gamma in the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, and called Valentia Edetanorum. In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon reconquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it and he created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812.
It served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic, the city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea. Valencia is integrated into an area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencias main festival is the Falles, the traditional Spanish dish, originated in Valencia. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning strength, or valour, the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. It is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city, by gradual sound changes, Valentia /waˈlentia/ has become Valencia or in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent <è> /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent <é> /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule and it is spelled according to Catalan etymology, though its pronunciation is closer to Vulgar Latin.
Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, at its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in the Turia,6.4 km from the sea. The Albufera, a lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain. The City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, in 1986, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate with short, very mild winters and long and its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C.23.0 °C during the day and 13.8 °C at night. In the coldest month – January, the temperature typically during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C. In the warmest month – August, the temperature during the day typically ranges from 28–34 °C. Generally, similar temperatures to those experienced in the part of Europe in summer last about 8 months
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
He was a founding member and the second Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348, and in 1351 was created duke. Grosmont was the author of the book Livre de seyntz medicines and he is remembered as one of the founders and early patrons of Corpus Christi College, which was established by two of the guilds of the town in 1352. Grosmonts uncle, Thomas of Lancaster, was the son and heir of Edward Is brother Edmund Crouchback, through his inheritance and a fortunate marriage, Thomas became the wealthiest peer in England, but constant quarrels with King Edward II led to his execution in 1322. Having no heir, Thomass possessions and titles went to his younger brother Henry – Grosmonts father, Earl Henry of Lancaster assented to the deposition of Edward II in 1327, but did not long stay in favour with the regency of Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer. When Edward III took personal control of the government in 1330, relations with the Crown improved, little is known of Grosmonts early years, but that he was born at Grosmont Castle in Grosmont, Monmouthshire and that he was born c. 1310, not around the turn of the century as previously held, according to his own memoirs, he was better at martial arts than at academic subjects, and did not learn to read until in life.
In 1330 he was knighted, and represented his father in parliament, the next year he is recorded as participating in a royal tournament at Cheapside. In 1333 he took part in Edwards Scottish campaign, though it is whether he was present at the great English victory at the Battle of Halidon Hill. After further service in the north, he was appointed the Kings lieutenant in Scotland in 1336, the next year he was one of the six men Edward III promoted to the higher levels of the peerage. One of his fathers titles, that of Earl of Derby, was bestowed upon Grosmont. With the outbreak of the Hundred Years War in 1337, Grosmonts attention was turned towards France and he took part in several diplomatic missions and minor campaigns and was present at the great English victory in the naval Battle of Sluys in 1340. Later the same year, he was required to commit himself as hostage in the Low Countries for the considerable debts. He remained hostage until the year and had to pay a large ransom for his own release.
On his return he was made the lieutenant in the north. The next years he spent in negotiations in the Low Countries, Castile. In 1345 Edward III was planning an assault on France. A three-pronged attack would have the Earl of Northampton attacking from Brittany, the ransom from the prisoners has been estimated at £50,000. The next year, while Edward was carrying out his Crécy campaign, Grosmont laid siege to, in 1345, while Grosmont was in France, his father died
Hundred Years' War
Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, the war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries. After the Norman Conquest, the kings of England were vassals of the kings of France for their possessions in France, the French kings had endeavored, over the centuries, to reduce these possessions, to the effect that only Gascony was left to the English. Through his mother, Isabella of France, Edward III of England was the grandson of Philip IV of France and nephew of Charles IV of France, in 1316, a principle was established denying women succession to the French throne. When Charles IV died in 1328, unable to claim the French throne for herself, the French rejected the claim, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right that she did not possess. Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crecy, however, the greater resources of the French monarchy precluded a complete conquest.
Historians commonly divide the war into three separated by truces, the Edwardian Era War, the Caroline War, and the Lancastrian War. Later historians adopted the term Hundred Years War as a historiography periodization to encompass all of these events, the war owes its historical significance to multiple factors. By its end, feudal armies had been replaced by professional troops. Although primarily a conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of French. The wider introduction of weapons and tactics supplanted the feudal armies where heavy cavalry had dominated, the war precipitated the creation of the first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire and thus helping to change their role in warfare. With respect to the belligerents, in France, civil wars, deadly epidemics, English political forces over time came to oppose the costly venture. The dissatisfaction of English nobles, resulting from the loss of their continental landholdings, the root causes of the conflict can be found in the demographic and political crises of 14th century Europe.
The outbreak of war was motivated by a rise in tension between the Kings of France and England about Guyenne and Scotland. The dynastic question, which due to an interruption of the direct male line of the Capetians, was the official pretext. The question of succession to the French throne was raised after the death of Louis X in 1316. Louis X left only a daughter, and his posthumous son John I lived only a few days, Count of Poitiers, brother of Louis X, asserted that women were ineligible to succeed to the French throne. Through his political sagacity he won over his adversaries and succeeded to the French throne as Philip V of France, by the same law that he procured, his daughters were denied the succession, which passed to his younger brother, Charles IV, in 1322
Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious, called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781. He was King of the Franks and co-Emperor with his father, during his reign in Aquitaine, Louis was charged with the defence of the empires southwestern frontier. He conquered Barcelona from the Muslims in 801 and asserted Frankish authority over Pamplona, as emperor he included his adult sons, Lothair and Louis, in the government and sought to establish a suitable division of the realm among them. In the 830s his empire was torn by war between his sons, only exacerbated by Louiss attempts to include his son Charles by his second wife in the succession plans. Though his reign ended on a note, with order largely restored to his empire. Louis is generally compared unfavourably to his father, though the problems he faced were of a different sort. He was the son of Charlemagne by his wife Hildegard. His grandfather was King Pepin the Younger, Louis was crowned King of Aquitaine as a child in 781 and sent there with regents and a court.
Charlemagne wanted his son Louis to grow up in the area where he was to reign, Charlemagnes intention was to see all his sons brought up as natives of their given territories, wearing the national costume of the region and ruling by the local customs. Thus were the children sent to their respective realms at so young an age, each kingdom had its importance in keeping some frontier, Louiss was the Spanish March. In 797, the greatest city of the Marca, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba and, the Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799. Louis campaigned in the Italian Mezzogiorno against the Beneventans at least once, Louis was one of Charlemagnes three legitimate sons to survive infancy. He had a brother, Lothair who died during infancy. According to Frankish custom, Louis had expected to share his inheritance with his brothers, Charles the Younger, King of Neustria, to Louiss kingdom of Aquitaine, he added Septimania and part of Burgundy. However, Charlemagnes other legitimate sons died – Pepin in 810 and Charles in 811 –, on his fathers death in 814, he inherited the entire Frankish kingdom and all its possessions.
While at his villa of Doué-la-Fontaine, Louis received news of his fathers death and he rushed to Aachen and crowned himself emperor to shouts of Vivat Imperator Ludovicus by the attending nobles. From start of his reign, his coinage imitated his father Charlemagnes portrait and he quickly sent all of his unmarried sisters to nunneries, to avoid any possible entanglements from overly powerful brothers-in-laws. Sparing his illegitimate half-brothers, he forced his fathers cousins and Wala to be tonsured, placing them in Noirmoutier and Corbie and his chief counsellors were Bernard, margrave of Septimania, and Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims
Hugh X of Lusignan
Hugh X de Lusignan, Hugh V of La Marche or Hugh I of Angoulême succeeded his father Hugh IX as Seigneur de Lusignan and Count of La Marche in November 1219 and was Count of Angoulême by marriage. Together they founded the abbey of Valence and they had nine children, Hugh XI de Lusignan, seigneur of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulême Aymer de Lusignan, Bishop of Winchester c. Hugh X was succeeded by his eldest son, Hugh XI of Lusignan, according to explanations in the manuscripts of Gaucelm Faidits poems, this troubadour was a rival of Hugh X of Lusignan for the love of Marguerite dAubusson. Fonteneau, Tables des Manuscrits 1,195,197, 202–205,208, bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes 4th Ser. Douet d’Arcq, Collection de Sceaux des Archives de l’Empire 1, 397–398. Teulet, Layettes du Trésor des Chartes,2, 38–39,68,121,140, 175–176, 182–183,241,313,453,457, 476–477, 498–499,513, 571–572, 574–576, delisle “Chronologie Hist. des Comtes de la Marche” 4th Ser. Duval, Cartulaire de l’Abbaye royale de Notre-Dame des Châtelliers,56, 80–81, inventaire Sommaire des Archives départmentales antérieures à1790, Haute Vienne, Série H.
Supp. La Porta, Les Gens de Qualité en Basse-Marche 1, 1–60, pour servir a l’Hist. de l’Abbaye de Saint-Maixent, 38–39, 45–46, 46–47, 59–60, 65–66, 79–80. Biographies des troubadours ed. J. Boutière, A. -H, Cartulaire de Saint-Amand-de-Boixe, 271–272,300. Recueil des Documents de l’Abbaye de Fontaine-le-Comte,82,87, Papal Government & England during the Pontificate of Honorius III,232. Sayers, Original Papal Docs. in England & Wales,44
Duke of Aquitaine
The Duke of Aquitaine was the ruler of the ancient region of Aquitaine under the supremacy of Frankish and French kings. As a consequence, male-preference primogeniture was the succession law for the nobility. The Merovingian kings and dukes of Aquitaine had their capital at Toulouse, the Carolingian kings used different capitals situated further north. In 765, Pepin the Short bestowed the captured golden banner of the Aquitainian duke, Pepin I of Aquitaine was buried in Poitiers. Charles the Child was crowned at Limoges and buried at Bourges, when Aquitaine briefly asserted its independence after the death of Charles the Fat, it was Ranulf II of Poitou who took the royal title. In the late century, Louis the Indolent was crowned at Brioude. The Aquitainian ducal coronation procedure is preserved in a late twelfth-century ordo from Saint-Étienne in Limoges, in the early thirteenth century a commentary was added to this ordo, which emphasised Limoges as the capital of Aquitaine. The ordo indicated that the received a silk mantle, banner, spurs.
The Carolingian kings again appointed Dukes of Aquitaine, first in 852, this duchy was called Guyenne. Ranulph I, Count of Poitiers from 835, Duke of Aquitaine from 852, Ranulph II, son of Ranulf I, Count of Poitiers, called himself King of Aquitaine from 888 until his death. Ebalus the Bastard, illegitimate son of Ranulph, Count of Poitiers, William I the Pious, Count of Auvergne William II the Younger, nephew of William I, Count of Auvergne. Acfred, brother of William II, Count of Auvergne, Ebalus the Bastard, for a second time. Raymond I Pons Raymond II Hugh the Great William III Towhead, son of Ebalus, Count of Poitiers, William IV Iron Arm, son of William III, Count of Poitiers. William V the Great, son of William IV, Count of Poitiers, William VI the Fat, first son of William V, Count of Poitiers. Odo, second son of William V, Count of Poitiers, William VII the Eagle, third son of William V, Count of Poitiers. William VIII, fourth son of William V, Count of Poitiers, William IX the Troubadour, son of William VIII, Count of Poitiers and Duke of Gascony.
William X the Saint, son of William IX, Count of Poitiers, Eleanor of Aquitaine, daughter of William X, Countess of Poitiers and Duchess of Gascony, married the kings of France and England in succession. Louis the Younger, King of France, duke in right of his wife, from 1152, the Duchy of Aquitaine was held by the Plantagenets, who ruled England as independent monarchs and held other territories in France by separate inheritance
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France. It is a commune and the capital of the Vienne department, Poitiers is a major university centre. The centre of town is picturesque and its streets include predominant historical architecture, especially religious architecture and this battles consequences partly provoked the Jacquerie. The city of Poitiers is strategically situated on the Seuil du Poitou, the Seuil du Poitou connects the Aquitaine Basin to the South to the Paris Basin to the North. This area is an important geographic crossroads in France and Western Europe, poitierss primary site sits on a vast promontory between the valleys of the Boivre and the Clain. The old town occupies the slopes and the summit of a plateau which rises 130 feet above the streams which surround it on three sides, thus Poitiers benefits from a very strong tactical situation. This was an important factor before and throughout the Middle Ages. Inhabitants of Poitiers are referred to as Poitevins or Poitevines, although this denomination can be used for anyone from the Poitou province, as of 2015, the population of Poitiers was 298,339.
One out of three people in Poitiers is under the age of 30 and one out of four residents in Poitiers is a student, the climate in the Poitiers area is mild with mild temperature amplitudes, and adequate rainfall throughout the year. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this type of climate is Cfb, Poitiers was founded by the Celtic tribe of the Pictones and was known as the oppidum Lemonum before Roman influence. The name is said to have come from the Celtic word for elm, after Roman influence took over, the town became known as Pictavium, or Pictavis, after the original Pictones inhabitants themselves. There is a history of archeological finds from the Roman era in Poitiers. In fact until 1857 Poitiers hosted the ruins of a vast Roman amphitheatre, remains of Roman baths, built in the 1st century and demolished in the 3rd century, were uncovered in 1877. In 1879 a burial-place and tombs of a number of Christian martyrs were discovered on the heights to the south-east of the town, the names of some of the Christians had been preserved in paintings and inscriptions.
Not far from these tombs is a dolmen, which is 6.7 metres long,4.9 metres broad and 2.1 metres high. The Romans built at least three aqueducts and this extensive ensemble of Roman constructions suggests Poitiers was a town of first importance, possibly even the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Aquitania during the 2nd century. The first foundations of the Baptistère Saint-Jean can be traced to that era of open Christian evangelization and he was named Doctor of The Church by Pope Pius IX. In the 4th century, a thick wall 6m wide and 10m high was built around the town and it was 2.5 km long and stood lower on the naturally defended east side and at the top of the promontory
Tin-glazed pottery is earthenware covered in glaze containing tin oxide which is white and opaque, usually this provides a background for brightly-painted decoration. It has been important in Islamic and European pottery, but very little used in East Asia, the pottery body is usually made of red or buff colored earthenware and the white glaze imitated Chinese porcelain. The makers of Italian tin-glazed pottery from the late Renaissance blended oxides to produce detailed, from there it spread to Egypt and Spain before reaching Italy in the Renaissance, Holland in the 16th century and England and other European countries shortly after. The rise in the cost of tin oxide during the First World War led to its substitution by zirconium compounds in the glaze. Tin-glazed pottery of different periods and styles is known by different names, the pottery from Muslim Spain is known as Hispano-Moresque ware. The decorated tin-glaze of Renaissance Italy is called maiolica, sometimes pronounced majolica by English speakers, when the technique was taken up in the Netherlands it became known as delftware as much of it was made in the town of Delft.
Dutch potters brought it to England in around 1600 and wares produced there are known as English delftware or galleyware, in France it was known as faience. During the Renaissance, the term maiolica was adopted for Italian-made luster pottery copying Spanish examples, in the late 18th century, old Italian maiolica became popular among the British, who referred to it by the anglicized pronunciation majolica. The Minton pottery copied it and applied the term majolica ware to their product, at the Great Exhibition of 1851, Minton launched the colorful lead-glazed earthenware which they called Palissy ware soon to become known as majolica. So now we have two distinct products with the same name, for the article about 19th century lead-glazed earthenware, see Victorian majolica W. B. The term maiolica is sometimes applied to modern tin-glazed ware made by studio potters, the Moors introduced tin-glazed pottery to Spain after the conquest of 711. With the Spanish conquest of Mexico, tin-glazed pottery came to be produced in the Valley of Mexico as early as 1540, although the Moors were expelled from Spain in the early 17th century, the Hispano-Moresque style survived in the province of Valencia.
Later wares usually have a coarse reddish-buff body, dark blue decoration, such archaic wares are sometimes dubbed proto-maiolica. During the 14th century, the palette of colors was expanded from the traditional manganese purple and copper green to embrace cobalt blue, antimony yellow. Sgraffito wares were produced, in which the white tin-oxide slip was decoratively scratched to produce a design from the revealed body of the ware. Refined production of tin-glazed earthenware made for more local needs was concentrated in central Italy from the 13th century. The city itself declined in importance in the half of the 15th century. Italian cities encouraged the start of a new industry by offering tax relief, monopoly rights
La Rochelle is a city in southwestern France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime department, the city is connected to the Île de Ré by a 2. 9-kilometre bridge completed on 19 May 1988. Its harbour opens into a protected strait, the Pertuis dAntioche, the area of La Rochelle was occupied in antiquity by the Gallic tribe of the Santones, who gave their name to the nearby region of Saintonge and the city of Saintes. The Romans subsequently occupied the area, where they developed salt production along the coast as well as wine production, roman villas have been found at Saint-Éloi and at Les Minimes, as well as salt evaporation ponds dating from the same period. La Rochelle was founded during the 10th century and became an important harbour in the 12th century, in 1137, Guillaume X to all intents and purposes made La Rochelle a free port and gave it the right to establish itself as a commune. Fifty years Eleanor of Aquitaine upheld the communal charter promulgated by her father, and for the first time in France, Guillaume was assisted in his responsibilities by 24 municipal magistrates, and 75 notables who had jurisdiction over the inhabitants.
During the Plantagenet control of the city in 1185, Henry II had the Vauclair castle built, the main activities of the city were in the areas of maritime commerce and trade, especially with England, the Netherlands and Spain. In 1196, a wealthy bourgeois named Alexandre Auffredi sent a fleet of seven ships to Africa to tap the riches of the continent. He went bankrupt and went into poverty as he waited for the return of his ships, the Knights Templar had a strong presence in La Rochelle since before the time of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who exempted them from duties and gave them mills in her 1139 Charter. La Rochelle was for the Templars their largest base on the Atlantic Ocean, from La Rochelle, they were able to act as intermediaries in trade between England and the Mediterranean. The fleet allegedly left laden with knights and treasures just before the issue of the warrant for the arrest of the Order in October 1307, during the Hundred Years War in 1360, following the Treaty of Bretigny La Rochelle again came under the rule of the English monarch.
La Rochelle however expelled the English in June 1372, following the naval Battle of La Rochelle, the French and Spanish decisively defeated the English, securing French control of the Channel for the first time since the Battle of Sluys in 1340. The naval battle of La Rochelle was one of the first cases of the use of handguns on warships, having recovered freedom, La Rochelle refused entry to Du Guesclin, until Charles V recognized the privileges of the city in November 1372. In 1402, the French adventurer Jean de Béthencourt left La Rochelle, until the 15th century, La Rochelle was to be the largest French harbour on the Atlantic coast, dealing mainly in wine and cheese. During the Renaissance, La Rochelle adopted Protestant ideas, calvinism started to be propagated in the region of La Rochelle, resulting in its suppression through the establishment of Cours présidiaux tribunals by Henry II. An early result of this was the burning at the stake of two heretics in La Rochelle in 1552. On the initiative of Gaspard de Coligny, the Calvinists attempted to colonize the New World to find a new home for their religion, with the likes of Pierre Richier and Jean de Léry.
After the short-lived attempt of France Antarctique, they failed to establish a colony in Brazil and he has been described, by Lancelot Voisin de La Popelinière, as le père de léglise de La Rochelle