Savamala is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipalities of Stari Grad. Savamala is located south of the Kalemegdan fortress and the neighborhood of Kosančićev Venac, stretches along the right bank of the Sava river, its northern section belongs to the municipality of Stari Grad, while central and southern sections belong to the municipality of Savski Venac. The central street in the neighborhood is Karađorđeva; the entire western section of today's city center was called Savamala bounded by the modern streets and squares of Terazije, King Milan's, Slavija and Prince Miloš'. The entire area was known as Zapadni Vračar, but that name disappeared from usage, while as Savamala today is considered only a section along the Karađorđeva street. Today, the zone of “preventive protection Savamala” is bounded by the streets: Brankova, Kraljice Natalije, Admirala Geprata, Hajduk Veljkov venac, Vojvode Milenka, Karađorđeva, Zemunski put and the Branko's bridge.
That means it encompasses the neighborhoods of Terazijska Terasa. First inhabitants were settled in the early 18th century, during the Austrian occupation of the northern Serbia 1717-39, when Austrians moved Christian population out of the Belgrade Fortress; the area was a bog called Ciganska bara. The bog was charted for the first time in an Austrian map from 1789, it was a marsh which covered a wide area from modern Karađorđeva street to the mouth of the Topčiderska Reka into the Sava, across the northern tip of Ada Ciganlija. Marshy area covered modern location of the Belgrade Main railway station and parts of the Sarajevska and Hajduk-Veljkov venac streets. Ciganska bara drained two other bogs. One was located on Slavija, which drained through the creek which flew down the area of the modern Nemanjina street. Other pond whose water drained into the Ciganska bara was Zeleni Venac. Romanies who lived in the area, used the mud from the bog to make roof tiles, they lived in small huts or caravans, between the high grass and rush, with their horses and water buffaloes grazing in the area.
As most of the huts were stilt houses, built on piles due to the marshy land, the area was named Bara Venecija. By 1884 the bog was drained and buried under the rubble from all parts of the city and from Prokop, because of the construction of the Belgrade Main railway station. Savamala was the first new settlement constructed outside the fortress walls of Kalemegdan. Construction began in the 1830s as ordered by the prince of Serbia, Miloš Obrenović, after a popular pressure to build a Serbian settlement outside the fortress and the Turkish settlement. Prince Miloš relocated the city’s port from the Danube to the Sava river and the customs house, called Đumrukana was built around 1835; the prince issued a decree that “merchants and trade agents must settle along the Sava”. By 1841, when Đumrukana was adapted into the first regular theatre house in Belgrade, the commerce blossomed and the „Kovačević Han“ was built where the modern Hotel Bristol is. „Beogradski mali pijac“ was established at the center of Savamala and with the Karađorđeva street, became the focal point of city’s commerce.
Storages and shops were abundant and the most esteemed merchants in Belgrade began buying lots and building houses: the Krsmanović brothers, Rista Paranos, Konstantin Antul, Luka Ćelović and Đorđe Vučo. State financially supported the construction of 46 shops, administrative building of the State Council, building of the Ministry of Finance with the Financial Park and the Assencion Church; the first foreign consulate in Belgrade was opened in Savamala. It is recorded that in 1854, at the Liman section of Savamala, a trading caravan arrived with 550 big and 105 small camels. By the late 19th century, a tram line connected the peer with the Slavija Square. In the late 1820s, a popular Cannoneer's Greenmarket was established, when Prince Miloš resettled inhabitants of Savamala to Palilula, it was located. A building of the Ministry of Transportation was built next to it. For the most part it had no permanent market stalls and the goods were sold directly of the carts; when Belgrade was divided into six quarters in 1860, Savamala was one of them.
By the census of 1883 it had a population of 5,547. According to the further censuses, the population of Savamala was 6,981 in 1890, 6,516 in 1895, 8,033 in 1900, 9,504 in 1905, 9,567 in 1910 and 11,924 in 1921. Early 20th century was Savamala’s golden age. Through neighborhood, the spirit of modern Europe was arriving in Belgrade. In 1900, the first ice rink in Belgrade was built near the railway station. By 1914, it was the most densely populated area of Belgrade with arranged streets, primary school, first bank in Serbia and a quay along the bank of Sava was under construction; the area around the “Mali pijac” became to most prestigious one in the entire city and was affordable only to the wealthiest ones. Having both the port and the railway by which visitors arrived, soon numerous hotels were built, both in Savamala and the Kosančićev Venac above it. Hotels Bosna and Bristol were built close to the port. There were the hotels Solun and Petrograd, built on the Wilson's Square. Hotel Orient was located at the corner of the Hajduk-Veljkov Venac and Nemanjina streets, close to the Financial Park.
Savamala was bombarded in both world wars and demolish
Ušće Tower is a 25-story mixed use skyscraper located at 6 Mihajlo Pupin Boulevard in the New Belgrade municipality of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is the tallest building in Serbia, the second-tallest freestanding structure, after the Avala Tower. Built in 1964, the glass building overlooks the confluence Danube and Sava rivers from the New Belgrade side, it was 105 meters tall and used as the headquarters of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia in the former Yugoslavia, which broke apart in 1990. Ušće was leased out to commercial interests until April 21, 1999, when it was badly damaged by successive NATO air-strikes as part of the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. Beginning in 2003, the tower was reconstructed, including a 2-floor increase in height, with the addition of a 26m antenna, which in strict architectural terms does not count as structural height, however, in structural height would be 115 m or 377 ft; the reconstructed tower is now being rented out to tenants.
Ušće Tower was built in 1964 as the headquarters of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. The original building was 105 meters tall. Today many people still call it "CK", the acronym for Centralni Komitet. During the "golden years" of Yugoslavia the lights were left turned on during the night to spell out "TITO", after president Josip Broz Tito. In 1979, the Tower became a target of Nikola Kavaja, who hijacked American Airlines Flight 293 with the intention of crashing the plane into the building. During the collapse of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, the Socialist Party of Serbia occupied the first ten floors of the building; the party leased out many of the floors to domestic companies. They kept however 9 levels as offices for their party; the cabinet of Josip Broz Tito was cleared out. In the 1990s, three Serbian television stations occupied some of the levels in the building: RTV BK Telecom, RTV Pink and TV Košava. MPC Holding, a holding company of Petar Matić, purchased the building in 2002.
On April 21, 1999 NATO air strikes hit the building, setting the upper floors on fire, few days NATO repeated the attack. Several Tomahawk cruise missiles were fired at the building. Despite the heavy damage, the building remained structurally intact. There were no reported injuries in the attack as the building was unoccupied at the time. Reconstruction work on the building started in early 2003 and was carried out by European Construction; the reconstruction was completed in 2005 and the official opening took place in July that year. Two additional floors were added—conference halls are located on 24th and a restaurant on the 25th The multimillion-dollar project has 25 stories, totaling around 25,000 m2 of office space. An observation deck, fitness area and cafe are located on the top floor of the building; the observation deck is closed to the public, although there are plans to open it in the future. The facade was redesigned and is now made out of glass. Addiko Bank is now renting out the first four floors of the building and has become the anchor tenant.
This bank has a light-ad on the building roof. City announced an architectural design competition in February 2003 for the Block 16, a section of New Belgrade in which the tower is located. Winning project was a design by architect Branislav Redžić, who envisioned a multi-functional urban center which would consist of two towers and a shopping mall. Tower I was reconstructed, shopping mall was built, albeit much larger than the one Redžić projected, but the Tower II remained on paper and a temporary parking lot was built instead. After years of announcing it, MPC Properties, another Matić's company, revealed in January 2018 that the construction of the new tower, next to the old one, will commence in February. Characteristics of the new tower include height of 22 floors and 103.9 m and a total floor area of 28.000 m2 of an A-class commercial space. It is planned to have a bank on the ground floor. Chapman Taylor architectural company was hired to do the project, just as MPC hired Chapman Taylor to do the interiors and parts of the façade of the Ušće shopping mall.
There will be two-leveled garage below ground, with a total area equal to the total floor area of the building. The foundation stone was laid on 27 February 2018; the building of the 22-stories high skyscraper will cost €65 million. The Ušće Mall was opened on April 2009; the mall has an area of 130,000 square metres on 6 levels, of which 50,000 square metres is retail space, with 150 stores and cafés. The shopping mall has a multiplex cinema with 11 screens, a bowling alley and a casino. Subterranean levels house a 4,000 m2 hypermarket and two levels of parking. A second tower has been approved by city officials. Usce Tower II will have additional garage with 750 parking spaces. Designed by Chapman Taylor, tower will be the same height. List of tallest structures in Serbia List of tallest structures in Yugoslavia Ušće Tower Ušće Shopping Center
Architecture of Belgrade
Architecture of Belgrade refers to the architecture and styles developed in Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade has wildly varying architecture, from the centre of Zemun, typical of a Central European town, to the more modern architecture and spacious layout of New Belgrade; the oldest architecture is found in Kalemegdan park. Outside of Kalemegdan, the oldest buildings date only from 19th century, due to its geographic position and frequent wars and destructions; the oldest public structure in Belgrade is a nondescript Turkish türbe, while the oldest house is a modest clay house on Dorćol, the House at 10 Cara Dušana Street from 1727. Western influence began in the 19th century, when the city transformed from an oriental town to the contemporary architecture of the time, with influences from neoclassicism and academic art. Serbian architects took over the development from the foreign builders in the late 19th century, producing the National Theatre, Old Palace, Cathedral Church and in the early 20th century, the National Assembly and National Museum, influenced by art nouveau.
Elements of Neo-Byzantine architecture are present in buildings such as Vuk's Foundation, old Post Office in Kosovska street, sacral architecture, such as St. Mark's Church, the Temple of Saint Sava. During the period of Communist rule, much housing was built and cheaply to house the huge influx of people from the countryside following World War II, sometimes resulting in the brutalist architecture of the blokovi of New Belgrade. However, in the mid-1950s, the modernist trends took over, still dominate the Belgrade architecture. List of notable buildings in Belgrade List of notable streets and squares in Belgrade Architectural projects under construction in Belgrade Religious architecture in Belgrade Gates of Belgrade Architecture of Serbia
Belgrade Main railway station
The Belgrade Main railway station was a train station in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It was built between 1882 and 1885 after the designs of the architect Dragutin Milutinović, it has the status of a сultural monument of great importance; until opening of the new Belgrade Center station in 2016, it was the city's main station, the busiest train station in the country. In order to free up the space for the Belgrade Waterfront project, the station was closed on 1 July 2018, repurposed to become a museum. Passenger trains have been relocated to the new station during 2016 and 2017; the most of the national railway traffic was moved to the new station in December 2017, thus leaving only international trains and two trains to Novi Sad in the old station. The Main station served its purpose for the last time on 30 June 2018, when the last train, international train 340 to Budapest, left the station at 21:40. International trains were relocated to Prokop and train to Bar relocated to the Topčider railway station.
At the 1878 Congress of Berlin, Principality of Serbia was de jure recognized as an independent state and the great powers of the day decided that Serbia should construct the railway. Not economically developed to begin with, Serbia was additionally pauperized after the Serbian-Ottoman wars from 1876 to 1878, so it lacked the funds. Prince Milan Obrenović and the government announced the request for tender and the bidding was won by a French company. Popular story goes that prince Milan took a bribe of 1 million francs in gold, in order to give the job to the French, but, never proven; the concession included the construction of the Belgrade–Niš railway, the train bridge over the Sava river and a railway which will connect Belgrade to Zemun, at the time, the border town of Austria-Hungary. As a location of the future station building, a marshy bog called Ciganska bara; the bog was charted for the first time in an Austrian map from 1789. It was a marsh which covered a wide area from the modern Karađorđeva street to the mouth of the Topčiderska Reka into the Sava, across the northern tip of Ada Ciganlija.
The marshy area covered the today's location of the Belgrade Main railway station and parts of the Sarajevska and Hajduk-Veljkov venac streets. Ciganska bara drained two other bogs. One was located on Slavija, which drained through the creek of Vračarski potok which flew down the area of the today's Nemanjina Street; the other pond was Zeleni Venac. Gypsies who lived in the area, hence the name, used the mud from the bog to make roof tiles, they lived in small huts or caravans, between the high grass and rush, with their horses and water buffaloes grazing in the area. As most of the huts were stilt houses, built on piles due to the marshy land, the area was named Bara Venecija; as such, the location was inappropriate for any construction work and the marsh had to be filled first. By 1884 the bog was drained and buried under the rubble from all parts of the city but from Prokop. Prokop is located in the eastern section of the former neighborhood of Jatagan Mala, it was a geographical reference, as the area was located in the lower valley of the now underground stream of Mokroluški Potok.
Earth and gravel were dug and used to cover and drain the swamps on the Sava's right bank, so that neighborhoods of Savamala and Bara Venecija could be constructed, along with the building of central railway station. After the works were completed, the area around Mokroluški Potok was left as a steep, elongated cut in the ground and so got its name. Prince Milan suggested this area, which stretched above the Đorđe Vajfert's brewery and the neighborhood of Smutekovac, he cited many reasons like the quality of the earth or closeness to the construction site which would reduce the transportation costs. However, that land belonged to his wife, Princess Natalie, so the prince earned money from the station's construction. In a historical twist, the Prokop is today location of the future central railway station in Belgrade; the foundation stone was laid by prince Milan on 15 July 1881. The building of the station lagged behind the construction of the railway and the bridge, so when the time came for the first train to pass through Belgrade, the object wasn't finished.
It had to be ceremonially open though it was still covered with scaffolds. The first train from this station departed towards Zemun with courtly honours, on 1 September 1884, at 3 p.m. As Serbia was declard a kingdom in 1882, the first passengers were now King Milan, Queen Natalie and the Crown Prince Alexander, on the way to Vienna. More than 200 foreign guests and couple of thousands of citizens attended the opening ceremony of the station. Military orchestra played music all the way. Three days the station was again decorated with flags and flowers as the railway to Niš was open and the first, promotional composition towards Niš departed. Cannons from the Belgrade Fortress marked the occasion; the journal Novi beogradski dnevnik wrote: "Young and old and poor, pretty and ugly, they all gathered in Bara Venecija to see the start of the first Serbian railway". The first train departed with 100 passengers in nine cars with three classes. Just to accommodate the huge crowds of journalists and cheering citizens, another train departed just five minutes later.
The first regular line to Niš started on 15 September 1884 at six o`clock. On the same day, the line to Pest was established, at the beginning only two tra
Bogosav Živković was a prominent Serbian sculptor and painter of Naïve and Outsider art. Bogosav Živković was born in Leskovac, near Lazarevac, in 1920; as a young man, he was trained in the craft of leather working, was taught how to sew leather jackets decorated with floral and geometric borders. Due to poor health, he gave up working with leather in 1945 and moved to Belgrade, where he found a job as a door attendant, he created his first sculpture in 1957, held his first independent exhibition in 1960. He was soon recognized globally as an important leader in marginal art, his work is categorized as Art Brut, has been the central subject of exhibitions in major museums in Europe, as well as in North America and South America. He died in Belgrade in 2005. Much of Živković's work was inspired by a seminal dream. In his dream, he saw a large serpent moving swiftly across a meadow. With its tail, the serpent caught a stranger dressed in a monk's robe; the intensity of the dream led Živković to carve his visions in wood in order to gain a sense of release from his nightmare.
To express himself, Živković used the natural shape of the trunk with or without branches smaller and thinner parts of branches ivy roots. Natural protuberances and hollows, various gnarls, the mere mass of the matter inspired the artist to create the most diverse forms, his chisel followed the natural configuration of the wood, thus liberating, cutting and shaping anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figures, less animal or architectural shapes. He carved in relief, which he used to cover his monumental columns. Oto Bihalji-Merin, Michel Thevos, Roger Cardinal, others wrote about his work. A great number of his monumental sculptures are in museums. Some, such as My Home and Dreams and Thought, are in the collection of the Museum of Naïve and Marginal Art, in Jagodina; the Magic Garden, in his native village, is a temple of his art with many sculptures – in stone and wood, reliefs of carved objects, coloured accessory edifices, etc. – which bears best witness to his work.Živković had a number of independent and group exhibitions worldwide.
He has had solo exhibitions in Belgrade, Paris, Stockholm and Amsterdam. Among his awards are Grand Prix at the Second Biennial of Yugoslav Naïve Art in 1983 and Award for Entire Artistic Work in 1991, MNMA, Serbia. Ото Бихаљи-Мерин, Снови и трауме у дрвету, Београд, 1962 М. Бошковић. Маширевић, Самоуки ликовни уметници у Србији, Торино, 1977 Ото Бихаљи-Мерин. Крстић, Наивна уметност Србије, САНУ, МНМУ, Јагодина, 2003 Н. Крстић, Наивна и маргинална уметност Србије, МНМУ, Јагодина, 2007 Љ. Којић, Богосав Живковић, МНМУ, Јагодина, 2011 N. Krstić, catalogue, МНМУ, Јагодина, 2013 N. Krstić, Outsider Art in Serbia, monograph, MNMA, Јагодина, 2014, pp. 74–81 Cardinal, Outsider Art DuBuffet, Art Brut Oto Bihalji-Merin, Bogosav Zivkovic. The world of a primitive sculptor. MNMA – Museum of Naïve and Marginal Art marginalart.rs
The Partizan Stadium is a football and track-and-field stadium in Autokomanda, municipality of Savski Venac, Serbia, which has a seating capacity of 32,710. Situated on the Topčider Hill at Humska 1 street, it is a home field of Partizan Belgrade, it was the home of Partizan's main rival Red Star Belgrade from 1959 to 1963, when they moved to the Rajko Mitić Stadium. It was the site of Youth Day parade. Today, the majority of football fans in all countries of the former SFR Yugoslavia call it by its old name. Partizan fans, the Grobari, call it Fudbalski hram; the stadium has four stands: the south, north and east. Before conversion to an all-seater stadium, the ground had a capacity of 50,000 people. There were plans to replace the current stadium with a new one. Swiss companies Mob Lab and Marazzi-Paul presented a project of a 38,000 seated stadium with commercial contents; the construction was supposed to start in 2006 but it was postponed and cancelled. Construction of the stadium was started after World War II, on the site of BSK Stadion, a 25,000 seat stadium that hosted the Yugoslav national team as well as BSK Beograd.
The stadium was built with the help of the Yugoslav People's Army, in the period between 1948 and 1951. Although the stadium was not finished, the first match was Yugoslavia against France on 9 October 1949, which ended 1–1; the ground was opened on Yugoslav People's Army Day, on 22 December 1951. From 1957 to 1987 the stadium was the site of Youth Day parade; every year on 25 May the Relay of Youth were held in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Participants carried a baton with a birthday message to President Josip Broz Tito; the Relay of Youth was a symbolic relay race which started in Tito's birth town Kumrovec and went through all major towns and cities of the country and it ended in Belgrade at JNA Stadium. On 1 April 1957, the stadium received its first electronic scoreboard. First time it was used on a match between Partizan and Vardar Skopje on 30 November 1957; the stadium was a site of the 7th European Athletics Championship, held from 12 to 16 September 1962. In April 1989, Partizan Belgrade purchased the stadium from the former Yugoslav People's Army, thus became the owner.
The name of the stadium were changed in Partizan Stadium. Partizan stadium had a 50,000 capacity. There were 33 000 standing places and 585 box seats, it was renovated in 1998, has had a capacity of 32,710 since. The stadium hosted Partizan in the 2003-04 edition. In the qualifiers they eliminated Bobby Robson's Newcastle United. Despite being drawn in a tough group with Real Madrid and Marseille; the stadium proved a tough ground for the opposition and the team did not lost a home game, playing out a 0–0 draw with Real Madrid's famous Galácticos, which included players such as Zinedine Zidane, Ronaldo, Luís Figo, Roberto Carlos, Raúl and David Beckham. On September 2010, Partizan stadium was reorganized in a few places for the UEFA Champions League. Due to UEFA stadium standards, the fences on the eastern and western stands were shortened from 2.25m to 0.70m. The football pitch was extended by 1 square meter. New, modern goal-posts were mounted, brand new media boxes were constructed on top of the western stand.
Partizan's Champions League game against Arsenal on 20 September, was postponed due to two of the stadium's floodlights failing. However one of them was fixed and the referee, Wolfgang Stark gave consent for the match to be played with only 3 floodlights. In March 2012, the old scoreboard was replaced with a new LED display after 55 years of service. On 7 September 2012, Partizan Belgrade announced a sponsorship agreement between the Carlsberg Group and the club, which includes the placement of black and white chairs on the whole stadium; the Partizan Stadium has 32,710 seats split between four stands: the south, north and east. The stands have a span of 236 metres in length and 150 metres in width. There are 30 entry and exit gates for spectators; the playing field measures 105 by 68 metres, is illuminated at 1,400 lux. Stadium have athletic trace, two grass fields, a training court with locker rooms, press center and restaurant. Within the stadium complex is 18 tennis courts, boxing hall, shooting range, medical center and commercial area.
In 2006 the current stadium was to be redesigned by Swiss firm Mob Lab. The capacity of the new Partizan stadium would have been 38,000 seats with a modern business park filled with hotels, office buildings, tennis courts and multiplex cinema. Beside sport events, the stadium is a place for various concerts and shows; the stadium facilities and acoustics meet demands of international superstars. Bijelo Dugme headlined a da
The Non-Aligned Movement is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states world-wide. Drawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference in 1955, the NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia through an initiative of the Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito; this led to the first Conference of Governments of Non-Aligned Countries. The term non-aligned movement first appears in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as "members of the movement"; the purpose of the organization was enumerated by Fidel Castro in his Havana Declaration of 1979 as to ensure "the national independence, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, neo-colonialism and all forms of foreign aggression, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics."
The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, though the Non-Aligned Movement has a number of developed nations. Although many of the Non-Aligned Movement's members were quite aligned with one or another of the superpowers, the movement still maintained cohesion throughout the Cold War despite several conflicts between members which threatened the movement. In the years since the Cold War's end, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world those within the Global South; the Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956, was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on 19 July 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser.
One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another". According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, an ideologue of the Congress party which ruled India for most part of the Cold War years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers"; the Movement advocates a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations, but it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961.
The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Sri Lanka. In this speech, Zhou Enlai and Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel; the five principles were: Mutual respect for each other's territorial sovereignty. Mutual non-aggression. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs. Equality and mutual benefit. Peaceful co-existence. A significant milestone in the development of the Non-Aligned Movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president Sukarno, who gave a significant contribution to promote this movement. Bringing together Sukarno, U Nu, Nehru, Tito and Menon with the likes of Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai, Norodom Sihanouk, as well as U Thant and a young Indira Gandhi, the conference adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Zhou Enlai and Nehru's five principles, a collective pledge to remain neutral in the Cold War.
Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, held in September 1961 in Belgrade. The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as members of the movement. At the Lusaka Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries; some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members. In the 1970s, Cuba made a major effort to assume a leadership role in the world's nonalignment movement, which represented over 90 Third World nations. Cuban combat troops in Angola impressed fellow non-aligned nations. Cuba established military advisory missions, economic and social reform programs; the 1976 world conference of the Nonaligned Movement applauded Cuban internationalism, "which assisted the people of Angola in frustrating the expansionist and colonialist strategy of South Africa's racist regime and its allies."
The next nonaligned conference was scheduled for Havana in 1979, to be chaired by Fidel Castro, with his becoming the de facto spokesman for the Movement. The confere