Royal Palace, Valencia
The now vanished Del Real Palace or Royal Palace was the former residence of the kings of Valencia in the «Cap i Casal» of the Kingdom, as the city of Valencia was called. It was on the left bank of the Turia River, it was known as «300 keys palace» in reference to the number of rooms it had in its heights. From 11th to 19th centuries it was royal seat whether for the kings of the Taifa of Valencia or the monarchs of the Crown of Aragon, the Habsburgs and the Bourbons, while it was less appreciated by the latter. Late-19th century Valencian political Teodoro Llorente quotes "What happened to you, Palacio del Real? Noble mansion of the Valencian monarchs and symbol of our ancient and glorious kingdom All disappeared with the institutions that you represented, the illustrious autonomy of that kingdom that you were head..." It was constructed in the 11th century by the king Abd al-Aziz as an almúnia or recreation residence on the outskirts of the city. In Xarq al-Andalus these rural residences of the urban oligarchy, located around the cities, were known as real, which must not be confused with the rafals, which were estates for agrarian production.
Thereupon, the Real Palace name arises from the fact that it was one of these almúnies, not because it was a royal residence. The Arabist Henri Péres, in his book Esplendor de Al-Andalus, talks about the beauty and grandeur of the palace, which "included a big garden planted with fruit trees and flowers and a river that crossed it, the palace is located in the middle, with richly decorated pavilions, which gaped open to the garden". In 1364, in the course of the war with Castile, the troops of Peter the Cruel burned it down and looted it. Afterwards, Peter the Ceremonious rebuilt it as the residence of the Aragonese monarchs entirely, incorporating some partial remains of the old architecture, broadened the gardens in the 14th century, keeping in mind to build a true bigger palace. John I enlarged it so as Alfonso the Magnanimous, during the few years he resided in Valencia before conquering Naples, consolidated it as a royal residence and made considerable expenses to turned it into one of the best regal palaces in the Crown of Aragon.
His wife, queen Maria, for whom it was one of her most favoured residences, lived there permanently with her court. From there she governed the peninsular kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon. Inventories of that time indicate that it was a sumptuously decorated palace, with abundant tapestries and rich furniture. Ferdinand the Catholic, Germaine of Foix and the Duke of Calabria improved the facilities; the palace was composed of two attached bodies, called Real Nou. The old Arab building had four towers. There were two patios in the new part; the main halls, where audiences and receptions were held, were on the first floor. There were gardens with ponds and exotic plants brought on purpose from America, a menagerie with lions, deer, pheasants and other animals; some of those gardens are the current Viveros. In the early modern period it was the residence of the viceroys of Valencia, headquarters of the Cancelleria Reial of the kingdom of Valencia archive, created by Alfonso the Magnanimous, originating part of the current Archive of the Kingdom of Valencia.
Subsequently, in the 18th century, after the Nueva Planta decree, it served as the residence of the captain generals. Thereupon it underwent major work. Captain general of Valencia from 1721 to 1737, the nobleman of Italian origin Luigi Reggio, 4th prince of Campofiorito, took the initiative to organise in the Real Gardens the first opera performances played in Valencia. Thus, the Palace had a long history with numerous extensions and reforms that made him the recipient of a cluster of architectural experiences, reflecting constructive ways and forms of different eras lived. In 1810, during the Peninsular War, in order to deny the palace to the Napoleonic troops and avoid they using it as a bastion against the city, Valencians themselves decided to demolish it, useless. In fact, the demolition was due to a combination of factors: a poor military strategy, the economic needs of the Junta de Defensa and the perception by the bourgeois, liberal classes that this old grand palace was the main symbol of the past.
Only some fragment of the coffered ceiling, preserved at the Arxiu del Regne, was saved from its formidable brickwork. In 1986 in the wake of a works carried out in the collectors of the city, was lifted the asphalt of street General Elio, under it were the remains of the palace. After much controversy over whether the remains were to be buried or laid bare, it was decided to bury them because the street is one of the main arteries of the city. Earlier year 2009, new tastings with GPR were made, discarding a massive excavation and appear new remains that arouse interest for the palace, the emblem of the city. Although it is clear that the Del Real Palace is irrecoverable, in 1810 was razed to the ground, the illusion of archaeologists is increasing. Excavations at the Viveros garden were made. Archaeologists have unearthed last week the first walls, belonging to the Torre de la Reina. A magnificent tower, the residence of the Queen Maria, wife of Alfonso V of Aragon, although in the last period of the pal
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Bridge of the Exposición Regional Valenciana 1909
The Bridge of the Exposición Regional Valenciana 1909 was a bridge built in 1909 on the occasion of the celebration of the Valencian Regional Exhibition of 1909 was inaugurated May 22, 1909 and takes its name from the aforementioned exhibition. It was a bridge of reinforced concrete, but it was destroyed on October 14, 1957 in the flood of the Turia of that year, it was decorated with art-deco and modernisme elements. Instead was rise another bridge or rather an unsight gateway that late 20th century between 1991 and 1995 has been replaced by the current bridge by Santiago Calatrava and some known as the La Peineta
A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can be applied to smaller structures or features, that have become local or national symbols. In old English the word landmearc was used to describe an "object set up to mark the boundaries of a kingdom, etc.". Starting from approx. 1560, this understanding of landmark was replaced by a more general one. A landmark became a "conspicuous object in a landscape". A landmark meant a geographic feature used by explorers and others to find their way back or through an area. For example, the Table Mountain near Cape Town, South Africa is used as the landmark to help sailors to navigate around southern tip of Africa during the Age of Exploration. Artificial structures are sometimes built to assist sailors in naval navigation; the Lighthouse of Alexandria and Colossus of Rhodes are ancient structures built to lead ships to the port.
In modern usage, a landmark includes anything, recognizable, such as a monument, building, or other structure. In American English it is the main term used to designate places that might be of interest to tourists due to notable physical features or historical significance. Landmarks in the British English sense are used for casual navigation, such as giving directions; this is done in American English as well. In urban studies as well as in geography, a landmark is furthermore defined as an external point of reference that helps orienting in a familiar or unfamiliar environment. Landmarks are used in verbal route instructions and as such an object of study by linguists as well as in other fields of study. Landmarks are classified as either natural landmarks or man-made landmarks, both are used to support navigation on finding directions. A variant is a seamark or daymark, a structure built intentionally to aid sailors navigating featureless coasts. Natural landmarks can be characteristic features, such as plateaus.
Examples of natural landmarks are Table Mountain in South Africa, Mount Ararat in Turkey, Uluru in Australia, Mount Fuji in Japan and Grand Canyon in the United States. Trees might serve as local landmarks, such as jubilee oaks or conifers; some landmark trees may be nicknamed, examples being Hanging Oak or Centennial Tree. In modern sense, landmarks are referred to as monuments or prominent distinctive buildings, used as the symbol of a certain area, city, or nation; some examples include the Statue of Unity in Narmada, the White House in Washington, D. C. the Statue of Liberty in New York City, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Colosseum in Rome, Big Ben in London, Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro, Bratislava Castle in Bratislava, the Space Needle in Seattle, the Sydney Harbour Bridge or the Sydney Opera House, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, the CN Tower In Toronto, or Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw. Church spires and mosque's minarets are very tall and visible from many miles around, thus serve as built landmarks.
Town hall towers and belfries have a landmark character. Contemporary history Cultural heritage management Cultural heritage tourism National landmark National symbol Media related to Landmarks at Wikimedia Commons
Casa de la Ciutat (Valencia)
The Casa de la Ciutat or what it now call the City Hall, was in the place where today the Gardens known as de la Audiencia or more the gardens next to the Palau de la Generalitat. It was therefore the headquarters of the Municipal Council of Valencia; the King James I of Aragon granted houses and privilege to build the Casa de la Ciutat in the 13th century in a place near the present plaza de la Almoina and near the Archbishop's Palace, but this will be place in any case interim. The first Casa de la Ciutat in its usual location is built in 1302, but will be in 1311 when King James II of Aragon authorized to expand the locals which by had become too small; the Casa de la Ciutat would be completed in 1342 and would lodge halls for the juries of the city, Hall of inkstand, courts of justices of criminal and civil, imprisonment of men and women, offices of notaries, Hall of the Rational, Hall of Archives, halls for tax administrators, a Hall dedicated to Chapel, made around 1454 and as was one of the most important of the Casa.
In 1517 the master builder Jaume Vicent would make a new Chapel with ribbed vaulted roofs. In 1376 the building was wide again to build a hall for the called Secret Council or Council of the Juries, another hall for tax administrators. In these works involved the major master of the walls and moats of the city Bernat Boix. By 1392 the painter Marçal de Sax decorate with murals the walls of the Hall of the Secret Council, with scenes of the Last Judgment, the Heaven, the Hell and the Guardian Angel of the city. Between 1418 and 1426 it concludes the so-called Golden Hall, well known for the rich paneled ceiling that it closed; the hall it devoted to representative and ceremonial functions. Between 1421 and 1423 are constructed new halls that are expanding the perimeter and height of the building. In 1458 still it is working on minor details of the halls. In 1423 the Great Hall of the Council suffered a fire consuming the roof of it. Between 1425 and 1428 are made the repair work that would run under the direction of Joan del Poyo and is constructed a new wooden roof.
Once rebuilt this hall would be known as Hall of the Angels because of the large number of angels with shields of the city that decorated the roof. On February 15, 1586 the Casa de la Ciutat suffers another fire, this time dreadful, had to be rebuilt largely; that last fire was caused by the prisoners serving sentences in the jails that were on the ground floor of the building. One of the direct consequences of the fire was that some of the prisoners were to be transferred to the House of the Brotherhood of San Narciso, from that time this house would be known as Prison of San Narciso. Between 1854 and 1860 the municipal building that threatened ruin was demolished and its dependencies were moved to the current City Hall House of Education of girls created by Archbishop Mayoral in the 18th century. Of the Casa de la Ciutat just has reached a few graphic documents of its facade and little documentation; however has come down the coffered ceiling of the so-called Golden Hall that made between 1418 and 1438 by Joan del Poyo would be saved from destruction to be demolished the building, being piled up in the old Archbishop's Palace.
Between 1442 and 1445 the work polychromed it being finished the work. Today it is restored and placed since 1920 on the main floor of the Pavilion of the Consulate of the Llotja de la Seda; this hall would be the main and most sumptuous of the building and its destination were meetings of jurors and representative functions. The elements that made up this coffered or more properly the alfarje were made up of heraldic motifs of the city, busts of prophets, grotesque masks, musical allusions and chimeric animals among others, it was of gilded wood. Joan del Poyo directed the work between 1418 and 1438 with a group of architects among which Bertomeu Santalinea, Juliá Sanxo, the brothers Joan y Andreu Çanou, Domingo Minguez and the painter Jaume Mateu. Joan del Poyo, "master of the works of city", whose birthplace is unknown, died in Valencia in 1439, he is known for his activity in the city between 1439 as manager of the works of the city. In the Casa de la Ciutat are known his works in the "Hall of the Rational" and in the "Archive", in addition to the aforementioned roofs.
Was recognized his skill as manager of the clock housed in the Torre del Micalet. It is said that the Roca Valencia made in 1855 and that it procession in the Corpus Christi is built with wood from the Hall of the Council which as mentioned was called Hall of the angels, it is documented that between 1427 and 1428 the painters Gonçal Peris Sarriá and Jaume Mateu made a series of paintings on wooden boards of pine with paintings of kings of the Crown of Aragon for this Hall of the Council, of which only are preserved four in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya. Of the Chapel of the Casa de la Ciutat is preserved in the City Museum, the central panel of the Triptych of the Judgment by Vrancke van der Stockt; the triptych was made up of a central table with a scene of Jesus in Majesty between St. John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary, at the bottom of the Archangel Michael weighing the souls of the damned while the devil tries to cheat; the side tables are preserved in the Museu de Belles Arts de València and represent the blessed ways of Paradise and the damned road to hell on its inner face, while the outer face depicted Adam and Eve are expelled from Paradise.
This triptych was acquired in 1494 by the City Council. The fact that although the complete triptych is located in the city of Valencia, are its parts divid
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Modernisme Plaza of the City Hall of Valencia
The Modernisme Plaza of the City Hall of Valencia was the transformation of the square of the City Hall of Valencia by Javier Goerlich in 1931, now in its site is the current Plaza of the City Hall and its fountain. The Dr. Daniel Benito Goerlich, Professor of Art History and Curator of Cultural Heritage of the University of Valencia, assures that the reform of the 1930s "belongs to a specific social context, was destroyed a few years in a different context, the repressive postwar, towards the "disaffected" to the political regime of the time." Benito Goerlich, is, nephew of architect Goerlich Lleó. The work of the Plaza del Ayuntamiento ended the previous "Bajada de San Francisco", so it was expropriations that caused expected unrest among the owners and neighbors; the subsequent Plaza and Parque de Emilio Castelar is part of the height of the architectural work of Goerlich Lleó starring purist, Art Deco and Modernisme styles. Which was destined to become the new civic center of the city, competing with the plazas de la Reina and de la Virgen, it was carried out by a high and triangular platform.
The corners, culminated with fountains, representing the three provinces of the region. The square had the bad nickname tortada, referring to the upper platform, it included two elements: the steps of classic style and Mercado de las Flores; the latter was an underground space, that inserted into the square itself, served for florists of the city sell their product. However, they were opposed to be housed inside from the start; the space them was narrow and dark and, although it was a badge element to the square and the city, considered that supposed its "commercial ruin". The architect behind the popular Plaza de Emilio Castelar was the son of the consul of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Javier Goerlich Lleó; this decisive man in the image of the city of Valencia signed buildings like the headquarters of Bank of Valencia, in addition to expanding streets and avenues among which stand de la Paz, Poeta querol or Barón de Cárcer. Among other buildings of major streets of the downtown, Goerlich Lleó replaced the old "Bajada de San Francisco" by this.
After years of disputes with florists to the front, they left in 1944 from underground. Just over a decade the platform began to dismantle, to lose its appearance at different levels giving way to a flat space and demystified of all its baroque motifs. Shortly thereafter, the balcony of the City Hall of Valencia became a platform designed to preside over the military parades -work by Emilio Rieta and Román Jiménez- with a nondescript plaza and specially designed, according to the consulted historians, to carry out acts of falles traditMies van der Roheions; that is, able to accommodate host the mascletá and the falles of the City Hall. The square -then "del Caudillo"- passed to house from 1962 the light fountain by Engineer Carlos Buigues and the equestrian statue of General Francisco Franco, designed by Valencian sculptor José Capuz and is located at the military base of Bétera; the Plaza of the City Hall of Valencia hosts few symbolic values for much of the year, beyond the buildings that surround it.
However, the architecture shown by the "Goerlich reform" does not find favor among some Valencian architects. Rafael Rivera, municipal architect of Valencia during the 1980s and professor of urbanism at the School of Architecture of Valencia, considered "a horror the square" of Goerlich. "I read with surprise the comments on Facebook. People talk about the square with enthusiasm for the old, but not because it is something old of original form. In the 1930s Mies van der Rohe was doing wonders for Europe and why the work only talks about the cultural poverty of the power and the bourgeoisie of that time in Valencia"; this same Rivera stresses that "there is a total absence of the flowers and it bury the posts, something that makes no sense. However, the subsequent result not I think not commendable because it is conditioned by a single use; the plaza of the City Hall is part of an axis abandoned by the Valencians between La Estacioneta and the Estación del Norte". This architect points out that, in addition, "people should think it would have been difficult for a public expression as the 15-M movement if had occurred in the modernisme square.
That versatility makes it modern, but lacks of distinctive elements to adds a statue to Francesc Vinatea, a character of second order pointless for a square of that importance"