Bosra spelled Bostra, Bozrah and known Busra al-Sham is a town in southern Syria, administratively belonging to the Daraa District of the Daraa Governorate and geographically being part of the Hauran region. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, Bosra had a population of 19,683 in the 2004 census, it is the administrative center of the nahiyah of Bosra which consisted of nine localities with a collective population of 33,839 in 2004. Bosra's inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims, although the town has a small Shia Muslim community. Bosra has an ancient history and during the Roman era it was a prosperous provincial capital and Metropolitan Archbishopric, under the jurisdiction of Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, it continued to be administratively important during the Islamic era, but became less prominent during the Ottoman era. It became a Latin Catholic titular see and the episcopal see of a Melkite Catholic Archeparchy. Today, it has been declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
The settlement was first mentioned in the documents of Thutmose Akhenaten. Bosra was the first Nabatean city in the 2nd century BC; the Nabatean Kingdom was conquered by Cornelius Palma, a general of Trajan, in 106 AD. Under the Roman Empire, Bosra was renamed Nova Trajana Bostra and was the residence of the legio III Cyrenaica, it was made capital of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea. The city flourished and became a major metropolis at the juncture of several trade routes, namely the Via Traiana Nova, a Roman road that connected Damascus to the Red Sea, it became an important center for food production and during the reign of Emperor Philip the Arab, Bosra began to mint its own coins. The two Councils of Arabia were held at Bosra in 246 and 247 AD. By the Byzantine period which began in the 5th-century, Christianity became the dominant religion in Bosra; the city became a Metropolitan archbishop's seat and a large cathedral was built in the sixth century. Bosra was conquered by the Sasanian Persians in the early seventh century, but was recaptured during a Byzantine reconquest.
Bosra played an important part in the early life of Muhammad, as described in the entry for the Christian monk Bahira. The forces of the Rashidun Caliphate under general Khalid ibn Walid captured the city from the Byzantines in the Battle of Bosra in 634. Throughout Islamic rule, Bosra would serve as the southernmost outpost of Damascus, its prosperity being contingent on the political importance of that city. Bosra held additional significance as a center of the pilgrim caravan between Damascus and the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina, the destinations of the annual hajj pilgrimage. Early Islamic rule did not alter the general architecture of Bosra, with only two structures dating to the Umayyad era when Damascus was the capital of the Caliphate; as Bosra's inhabitants converted to Islam the Roman-era holy sites were utilized for Muslim practices. In the 9th-century Ya ` qubi wrote. After the end of the Umayyad era in 750, major activity in Bosra ceased for around 300 years until the late 11th-century.
In the last years of Fatimid rule, in 1068, a number of building projects were commissioned. With the advent of Seljuk rule in 1076, increasing focus was paid to Bosra's defenses. In particular, the Roman theater was transformed into a fortress, with a new floor added to the interior staircase tower. With the coming to power of the Burid dynasty in Damascus, the general Kumushtakin was allotted the entire Hauran plain as a fief by the atabeg Tughtakin. Under Kumushtakin, efforts to enhance the Muslim nature of the city increased with the construction of a number of Islamic edifices. Of these projects was the restoration of the Umari Mosque, built by the Umayyads in 721. Another mosque commissioned was the smaller al-Khidr Mosque built at the northwestern part of the city, established under Kumushtakin, in 1134. Kumushtakin had a madrasa constructed alongside the Muslim shrine honoring the mabrak an-naqa, which marked the imprints of the camel the prophet Muhammad rode on when he entered Bosra in the early 7th-century.
A golden age of political and architectural activity in Bosra began during the reign of Ayyubid sultan al-Adil I. One of the first architectural developments in the city was the construction of eight large external towers in the Roman theater-turned-fortress; the project were completed in 1253, towards the end of the Ayyubid period. The two northern corner towers alone occupied more space than the remaining six. After al-Adil's death in 1218, his son as-Salih Ismail inherited the fief of Bosra who resided in its newly fortified citadel. During Ismail's rule, Bosra gained political prominence. Ismail used the city as his base when he claimed the sultanate in Damascus on two separate occasions, reigning between 1237–38 and 1239–45. In 1596 Bosra appeared in the Ottoman tax registers as Nafs Busra, being part of the nahiyah of Bani Nasiyya in the Qada of Hauran, it had a Muslim population consisting of 75 households and 27 bachelors, a Christian population of 15 households and 8 bachelors. Taxes were paid on wheat, summer crops, fruit- or other trees, goats and/or beehives and water mill.
Today, Bosra is a major archaeological site, containing ruins from Roman and Muslim times, its main feature being the well preserved Roman theatre. Every year there is a national music festival. Significant social and economic changes
The Nabataeans Nabateans, were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant. Their settlements, most prominently the assumed capital city of Raqmu gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Arabia and Syria, from the Euphrates to the Red Sea, their loosely controlled trading network, which centered on strings of oases that they controlled, where agriculture was intensively practiced in limited areas, on the routes that linked them, had no securely defined boundaries in the surrounding desert. Having maintained territorial independence from their emergence in the 4th century BC until Nabataea was conquered by Trajan in 106 AD, annexing it to the Roman Empire. Nabataeans' individual culture identified by their characteristic finely potted painted ceramics, was adopted into the larger Greco-Roman culture, they were converted to Christianity during the Byzantine Era. Jane Taylor, a writer, describes them as "one of the most gifted peoples of the ancient world"; the Nabataeans were one among several nomadic tribes which roamed the Arabian Desert, moving with their herds to wherever they could find pasture and water.
These nomads became familiar with their area as seasons passed, they struggled to survive during bad years when seasonal rainfall diminished. Although the Nabataeans were embedded in Aramaic culture, modern scholars reject theories about their having Aramean roots. Instead, historical and linguistic evidence identifies them as a northern Arabian tribe; the precise origin of this specific tribe of Arab nomads remains uncertain. One hypothesis locates their original homeland in today's Yemen, in the south-west of the Arabian peninsula. Another hypothesis argues; the suggestion that they came from Hejaz area is considered by Michele Murray to be more convincing, as they share many deities with the ancient people there, "nbtw", the root consonant of the tribe's name, is found in the early Semitic languages of Hejaz. Similarities between late Nabataean Arabic dialect and the ones found in Mesopotamia during the Neo-Assyrian period, the fact that the Assyrians listed a group with the name of "Nabatu" as one of several rebellious Arab tribes in the region, suggests a connection between the two.
The Nabataeans might have originated from there and migrated west between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE into northwestern Arabia and much of what is now Jordan. Nabataeans have been falsely associated with other groups of people. A people called the "Nabaiti" who were defeated by the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal and described as living "in a far off desert where there are no wild animals and not the birds build their nests", were associated by some with the Nabataeans due to the temptation to link their similar names and images. One claim by Jane Taylor alleges a misconception in their identification with the Nebaioth of the Hebrew Bible, the descendants of Ishmael, Abraham's son. Unlike the rest of the Arabian tribes, the Nabataeans emerged as vital players in the region during their times of prosperity. However, they faded and were forgotten; the brief Babylonian captivity of the Hebrews that began in 586 BCE opened a minor power vacuum in Judah. As Edomites moved into open Judaean grazing lands, Nabataean inscriptions began to appear in Edomite territory.
The first definite appearance dates from 312/311 BCE, when they were attacked at Sela or at Petra without success by Antigonus I's officer Athenaeus in the course of the Third War of the Diadochi. About 50 BCE, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus cited Hieronymus in his report, added the following: "Just as the Seleucids had tried to subdue them, so the Romans made several attempts to get their hands on that lucrative trade."The Nabataeans had some trace of Aramaic culture when they first appear in history. They wrote a letter to Antigonus in Syriac letters, Aramaic continued as the language of their coins and inscriptions when the tribe grew into a kingdom and profited by the decay of the Seleucids to extend its borders northward over the more fertile country east of the Jordan river, they occupied Hauran, in about 85 BCE their king Aretas III became lord of Damascus and Coele-Syria. Proper names on their inscriptions suggest that they were ethnically Arabs who had come under Aramaic influence.
Starcky identifies the Nabatu of southern Arabia as their ancestors. However, different groups amongst the Nabataeans wrote their names in different ways. Many examples of graffiti and inscriptions—largely of names and greetings—document the area of Nabataean culture, which extended as far north as the north end of the Dead Sea, testify to widespread literacy. Onomastic analysis has suggested. Classical references to the Nabataeans begin with Diodorus Siculus. Diodorus Siculus described them as a strong tribe of some 10,000 warriors, pre-eminent among the
Cyprus the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC; as a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878.
Cyprus was placed under the UK's administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them. Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960; the crisis of 1963–64 brought further intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots into enclaves and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece; this action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.
A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute; the Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under the UK's control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, comprising about 59% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone; the international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union.
Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. With an advanced, high-income economy and a high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone; the earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek, ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script. The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος; the etymology of the name is unknown. Suggestions include: the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree, κυπάρισσος the Greek name of the henna tree, κύπρος an Eteocypriot word for copper, it has been suggested, for example, that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper or for bronze, from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island. Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus" shortened to Cuprum.
The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are used, though less frequently; the earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus; the grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilisation and pushing back the ear
The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai is a peninsula in Egypt, the only part of the country located in Asia. It is situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, is a land bridge between Asia and Africa. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 and a population of 1,400,000 people. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates: the South Sinai Governorate and the North Sinai Governorate. Three other governorates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez Governorate on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia Governorate in the center, Port Said Governorate in the north; the Sinai Peninsula has been a part of Egypt from the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt. This comes in stark contrast to the region north of it, the Levant, due to its strategic geopolitical location and cultural convergences, has been the center of conflict between Egypt and various states of Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. In periods of foreign occupation, the Sinai was, like the rest of Egypt occupied and controlled by foreign empires, in more recent history the Ottoman Empire and the United Kingdom.
Israel invaded and occupied Sinai during the Suez Crisis of 1956, during the Six-Day War of 1967. On 6 October 1973, Egypt launched the Yom Kippur War to retake the peninsula, unsuccessful. In 1982, as a result of the Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979, Israel withdrew from all of the Sinai Peninsula except the contentious territory of Taba, returned after a ruling by a commission of arbitration in 1989. Today, Sinai has become a tourist destination due to its natural setting, rich coral reefs, biblical history. Mount Sinai is one of the most religiously significant places in the Abrahamic faiths; the name Sinai may have been derived from the ancient moon-god Sin or from the Hebrew word Seneh The peninsula acquired the name due to the assumption that a mountain near Saint Catherine's Monastery is the Biblical Mount Sinai. However this assumption is contested, its modern Arabic name is سِينَاء Sīnāʼ. The modern Arabic is an adoption of the biblical name, the 19th-century Arabic designation of Sinai was Jebel el-Tûr.
In addition to its formal name, Egyptians refer to it as Arḍ ul-Fairūz. The ancient Egyptians called it Ta Mefkat, or'land of turquoise'. In English, the name is now pronounced; the traditional pronunciation is or. Sinai is triangular in shape, with northern shore lying on the southern Mediterranean Sea, southwest and southeast shores on Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba of the Red Sea, it is linked to the African continent by the Isthmus of Suez, 125 kilometres wide strip of land, containing the Suez Canal. The eastern isthmus, linking it to the Asian mainland, is around 200 kilometres wide; the peninsula's eastern shore separates the Arabian plate from the African plate. The southernmost tip is the Ras Muhammad National Park. Most of the Sinai Peninsula is divided among the two governorates of Egypt: South Sinai and North Sinai. Together, they comprise around 60,000 square kilometres and have a population of 597,000. Three more governates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez is on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia in the centre, Port Said in the north.
The largest city of Sinai is capital of the North Sinai, with around 160,000 residents. Other larger settlements include Sharm El-Tor, on the southern coast. Inland Sinai is arid and sparsely populated, the largest settlements being Saint Catherine and Nekhel. Sinai is one of the coldest provinces in Egypt because of its high altitudes and mountainous topographies. Winter temperatures in some of Sinai's cities and towns reach −16 °C. Sinai was called Mafkat by the ancient Egyptians From the time of the First Dynasty or before, the Egyptians mined turquoise in Sinai at two locations, now called by their Egyptian Arabic names Wadi Magharah and Serabit El Khadim; the mines were worked intermittently and on a seasonal basis for thousands of years. Modern attempts to exploit; these may be the first attested mines. The fortress Tjaru in western Sinai was a place of banishment for Egyptian criminals; the Way of Horus connected it across northern Sinai with ancient Canaan. At the end of the time of Darius I, the Great Sinai was part of the Persian province of Abar-Nahra, which means'beyond the river'.
Cambyses managed the crossing of the hostile Sinai Desert, traditionally Egypt's first and strongest line of defence, brought the Egyptians under Psamtik III, son and successor of Ahmose, to battle at Pelusium. The Egyptians retired to Memphis. Rhinocorura and the eponymous region around it were used by Ptolemaid Egypt as a place of banishment for criminals. After the death of the last Nabatean king, Rabbel II Soter, in 106, the Roman emperor Trajan faced no resistance and conquered the kingdom on 22 March 106. With this conquest, the Roman Empire went on to control all shores of the Mediterranean Sea
The Reuben and Edith Hecht Museum is a museum located on the grounds of the University of Haifa, Israel. The Hecht Museum was established in 1984 by Reuben Hecht, director of Dagon Silos and a founding member of the University of Haifa Board of Governors. For sixty years, Hecht collected archaeological artefacts representing the material culture of the Land of Israel in ancient times, he was interested in finds from the Canaanite period to the end of the Byzantine period. Hecht believed that archeology was an important expression of Zionism and these ancient artifacts were proof of the link between the Jewish people and Eretz Israel. Exhibits display the archaeology and history of the Land of Israel in chronological sequence, from the Chalcolithic period to the Byzantine period. Exhibits include coins, Semitic seals, artifacts from the Temple Mount excavations; the museum is home to the Ma'agan Michael Ship, the wreck of a fifth-century BCE merchantman. The museum art collection includes French painting of the Barbizon School, Post-impressionism, the School of Paris, Jewish art from mid-nineteenth to early twentieth century.
The museum owns paintings by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Camille Jacob Pissarro, Vincent van Gogh, Amedeo Modigliani, Max Liebermann. The museum has an acoustic auditorium that seats 380 and a pipe organ, built by Gideon Shamir from parts of organs used in churches throughout the country over a century ago, it serves as a study center for students and academic researchers, offering enrichment studies in archaeology, art and history for schoolchildren, soldiers and the public at large. The Museum holds an annual art competition open to high-school students and fine arts students. Winners of the competition are granted scholarships by the Hecht Foundation, which awards fellowships to M. A. and Ph. D. students in the Departments of Archeology and Maritime Civilizations. The Museum holds conferences, symposia and lectures and publishes catalogs of its exhibitions of archeology and art. Michmanim, the museum journal, publishes scholarly articles on archaeological research and artifacts in the museum collection.
List of Israeli museums Visual arts in Israel The Hecht Museum University of Haifa
Kindah was a tribal kingdom in Najd established by the Kindah tribe. The tribe's existence dates back to the 2nd century BCE; the Kindites established a kingdom in central Arabia, unlike those of Yemen that were more centralized. Their first capital was today known as Qaryat al-Fāw; the Kindites were polytheistic until the 6th century CE, with evidence of rituals dedicated to the idols Athtar and Kāhil found in their ancient capital in south-central Arabia. It is not clear whether they converted to Judaism or remained pagan, but there is a strong archaeological evidence that they were among the tribes in Dhū Nuwās' forces during the Jewish king's attempt to suppress Christianity in Yemen, they converted to Islam in mid 7th century CE and played a crucial role during the Arab conquest of their surroundings, although some sub-tribes were declared apostates during the ridda after the death of Muḥammad. Ancient South Arabian inscriptions mention a tribe settling in Najd called kdt, who had a king called rbˁt from ḏw ṯwr-m, who had sworn allegiance to the king of Saba’ and Dhū Raydān.
Since Arab genealogists trace Kindah back to a person called Thawr ibn ‘Uqayr, modern historians have concluded that this rbˁt ḏw ṯwrm must have been a king of Kindah. They played a major role in the Himyarite-Ḥaḑramite war. Following the Himyarite victory, a branch of Kindah established themselves in the Marib region, while the majority of Kindah remained in their lands in central Arabia; the first Classical author to mention Kindah was the Byzantine ambassador Nonnosos, sent by the Emperor Justinian I to the area in the middle of the 6th century. He refers to the people in Greek as Khindynoi and mentions that they and the tribe of Maadynoi were the two most important tribes in the area in terms of territory and number, he calls the king of the nephew of Arethas. When some of the Kindites returned to Yemen in the 4th century CE, the Ḥimyarites were at the height of their power, having annexed Ḥaḑramawt, the last rival South Arabian kingdom; the Kindites had historic feuds with the Ḥaḑramite tribes of the southern Wadi, so they were settled in Northern Ḥaḑramawt and were given authority over that region by the Ḥimyarites.
From this point on, some Arab historians consider Kindah to have been part of the Ḥimyarite tribal federation. In the 5th century CE, the tribes of North Arabia became a major threat to the trade line between Yemen and Syria; the Ḥimyarites decided to establish a vassal state that controlled North Arabia. The Kindites gained strength and numbers to play that role, in 425 CE the Ḥimyarite king Ḥasan ibn'Amr ibn Tubba’ made Ḥujr'Akīl al-Murār ibn'Amr the first King of Kindah. In that period the Ghassānids and Kindites were all Kahlānī and Qaḥṭānī vassal kingdoms appointed by the Byzantines, Persians and Ḥimyarites to protect their borders and imperial interests from the raids of the then-rising threat of the'Adnānī tribes. In the 5th and 6th centuries CE the Kindites made the first real concerted effort to unite all the tribes of Central Arabia through alliances, focused on wars with the Lakhmids. Al-Ḥārith ibn'Amr, the most famous of their kings succeeded in capturing the Lakhmid capital of al-Ḥirah in southern modern day Iraq.
However in about 529, al-Mundhir recaptured the city and put King Ḥārith and about fifty members of the royal family to death. In 525 CE, the Aksumites invaded Ḥimyar, this Kindites, had a knock-on effect with the Kindites who lost the support of the Ḥimyarites. Within three years the Kindite kingdom had split into four groups: Asad, Taghlib and Kinānah, each led by a prince of Kindah; these small'principalities' were overthrown in the 530s and 540s in a series of uprisings of the'Adnānī tribes of Najd and Ḥijāz. Among the most famous Kindites is Imru' al-Qays, not only a son of one of the last Kindite kings, but the most prominent pre-Islamic Arab poet, it was during Al-Qais' time, in 540 CE, that the Lakhmids destroyed all the Kindite settlements in Nejd, forcing the majority of them to move to the Yemen. The Kindites and most of the Arab tribes switched their alliances to the Lakhmids; the Kindites converted to Judaism following the conversion of the Ḥimyarite kings in the late 5th century CE most notably the Bnei Chorath of Najran.
However, Kindite Judaism was weakened by the rise of the Christian Aksumites in Yemen around 525 CE. Today, most people of Kindite ancestry live in Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates. Najd History of Saudi Arabia Pre-Islamic Arabia Kahlan Encyclopædia Britannica article on Kindah For a preview of: "Towards the earliest history of Kinda" by M. D. Bukharin. Arab. Arch. Epig. 2009: 20: 64–80 go to
Damascus is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic. It is colloquially known in Syria as aš-Šām and titled the "City of Jasmine". In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural center of the Levant and the Arab world; the city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009. Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the center of a large metropolitan area of 2.7 million people. Geographically embedded on the eastern foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range 80 kilometres inland from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean on a plateau 680 metres above sea level, Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate because of the rain shadow effect; the Barada River flows through Damascus. First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods.
Today, it is all of the government ministries. As of 2018, Damascus has witnessed repeated conflicts and has been considered by Mercer as one of the most unfavorable places to live; the name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III as / T-m-ś-q in the 15th century BC. The etymology of the ancient name "T-m-ś-q" is uncertain, it is attested as Imerišú in Akkadian, T-m-ś-q in Egyptian, Dammaśq in Old Aramaic and Dammeśeq in Biblical Hebrew. A number of Akkadian spellings are found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC: Dimasqa, Dimàsqì, Dimàsqa. Aramaic spellings of the name include an intrusive resh influenced by the root dr, meaning "dwelling". Thus, the English and Latin name of the city is "Damascus", imported from originated from "the Qumranic Darmeśeq, Darmsûq in Syriac", meaning "a well-watered land". In Arabic, the city is called Dimašqu š-Šāmi, although this is shortened to either Dimašq or aš-Šām by the citizens of Damascus, of Syria and other Arab neighbors and Turkey.
Aš-Šām is an Arabic term for "Levant" and for "Syria". Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem, was a Semitic sky-god in Canaan/Phoenicia and ancient Palmyra. Hence, Sham refers to. Damascus was built in a strategic site on a plateau 680 m above sea level and about 80 km inland from the Mediterranean, sheltered by the Anti-Lebanon mountains, supplied with water by the Barada River, at a crossroads between trade routes: the north-south route connecting Egypt with Asia Minor, the east-west cross-desert route connecting Lebanon with the Euphrates river valley; the Anti-Lebanon mountains mark the border between Lebanon. The range has peaks of over 10,000 ft. and blocks precipitation from the Mediterranean sea, so that the region of Damascus is sometimes subject to droughts. However, in ancient times this was mitigated by the Barada River, which originates from mountain streams fed by melting snow. Damascus is surrounded by the Ghouta, irrigated farmland where many vegetables and fruits have been farmed since ancient times.
Maps of Roman Syria indicate that the Barada river emptied into a lake of some size east of Damascus. Today it is called Bahira Atayba, the hesitant lake, because in years of severe drought it does not exist; the modern city has an area of 105 km2, out of which 77 km2 is urban, while Jabal Qasioun occupies the rest. The old city of Damascus, enclosed by the city walls, lies on the south bank of the river Barada, dry. To the south-east and north-east it is surrounded by suburban areas whose history stretches back to the Middle Ages: Midan in the south-west and Imara in the north and north-west; these neighborhoods arose on roads leading out of the city, near the tombs of religious figures. In the 19th century outlying villages developed on the slopes of Jabal Qasioun, overlooking the city the site of the al-Salihiyah neighborhood centered on the important shrine of medieval Andalusian Sheikh and philosopher Ibn Arabi; these new neighborhoods were settled by Kurdish soldiery and Muslim refugees from the European regions of the Ottoman Empire which had fallen under Christian rule.
Thus they were known as al-Muhajirin. They lay 2–3 km north of the old city. From the late 19th century on, a modern administrative and commercial center began to spring up to the west of the old city, around the Barada, centered on the area known as al-Marjeh or the meadow. Al-Marjeh soon became the name of what was the central square of modern Damascus, with the city hall in it; the courts of justice, post office and railway station stood on higher ground to the south. A Europeanized residential quarter soon began to be built on the road leading between al-Marjeh and al-Salihiyah; the commercial and administrative center of the new city shifted northwards towards this area. In the 20th century, newer suburbs developed north of the Barada, to some extent to the south, invading the Ghouta oasis. In 1956–1957 the new neighborhood of Yarmouk bec