A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a person's head and neck, a variable portion of the chest and shoulders. The piece is supported by a plinth; the bust is a portrait intended to record the appearance of an individual, but may sometimes represent a type. They may be of any medium used for sculpture, such as marble, terracotta, wax or wood. Sculptural portrait heads from classical antiquity, stopping at the neck, are sometimes displayed as busts. However, these are fragments from full-body statues, or were created to be inserted into an existing body, a common Roman practice. Sculpted heads stopping at the neck are sometimes mistakenly called busts; the portrait bust was a Hellenistic Greek invention, though few original Greek examples survive, as opposed to many Roman copies of them. There are four Roman copies as busts of Pericles with the Corinthian helmet, but the Greek original was a full-length bronze statue, they were popular in Roman portraiture.
The Roman tradition may have originated in the tradition of Roman patrician families keeping wax masks death masks, of dead members, in the atrium of the family house. When another family member died, these were worn by people chosen for the appropriate build in procession at the funeral, in front of the propped-up body of the deceased, as an "astonished" Polybius reported, from his long stay in Rome beginning in 167 BC; these seem to have been replaced or supplemented by sculptures. Possession of such imagines maiorum was a requirement for belonging to the Equestrian order. Herma Portrait Belting, Hans, An Anthropology of Images: Picture, Body, 2014, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691160961, 9780691160962, google books Stewart, Statues in Roman Society: Representation and Response, 2003, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199240949, 9780199240944, google books Livius.org: Bust gallery of famous ancient Greeks Oxford definition Dictionary.com definition
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
In architecture, an atrium is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building. Atria were a common feature in Ancient Roman dwellings, providing light and ventilation to the interior. Modern atria, as developed in the late 19th and 20th centuries, are several stories high and having a glazed roof or large windows, located beyond the main entrance doors. Atria are a popular design feature because they give their buildings a "feeling of space and light." The atrium has become a key feature of many buildings in recent years. Atria are popular with building designers and building developers. Users like atria because they create a dynamic and stimulating interior that provides shelter from the external environment while maintaining a visual link with that environment. Designers enjoy the opportunity to create new types of spaces in buildings, developers see atria as prestigious amenities that can increase commercial value and appeal. Fire control is an important aspect of contemporary atrium design due to criticism that poorly designed atria could allow fire to spread to a building's upper stories more quickly.
Another downside to incorporating an atrium is that it creates unused vertical space which could otherwise be occupied by additional floors. In a domus, a large house in Ancient Roman architecture, the atrium was the open central court with enclosed rooms on all sides. In the middle of the atrium was the impluvium, a shallow pool sunken into the floor to catch rainwater from the roof; some surviving examples are beautifully decorated. The opening in the ceiling above the pool called for some means of support for the roof, it is here where one differentiates between five different styles of atrium; as the centrepiece of the house, the atrium was the most lavishly-furnished room. It contained the little chapel to the ancestral spirits, the household safe and sometimes a bust of the master of the house; the term was used for a variety of spaces in public and religious buildings forms of arcaded courtyards, larger versions of the domestic spaces. Byzantine churches were entered through such a space.
The 19th century brought the industrial revolution with great advances in iron and glass manufacturing techniques. Courtyards could have horizontal glazing overhead, eliminating some of the weather elements from the space and giving birth to the modern atrium. One of the main public spaces at Federation Square, in Melbourne, Australia, is called The Atrium and is a street-like space, five stories high with glazed walls and roof; the structure and glazing pattern follow the system of fractals used to arrange the panels on the rest of the facades at Federation Square. In Nashville, Tennessee, U. S. the Opryland Hotel hosts 4 different large atria, spanning 9 acres of glass ceiling in total, in the hotel above the gardens of: Delta, Garden-Conservatories, Magnolia. As of 2016, the Burj Al Arab hotel in Dubai, has the world's tallest atrium at 180 metres; the Luxor Hotel, in Las Vegas, has the largest atrium in the world at 29 million cubic feet. Cavaedium Quadrangle Roth, Leland M.. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements History and Meaning.
Oxford, UK: Westview Press. P. 520. ISBN 0-06-430158-3
John Calvin was a French theologian and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism, aspects of which include the doctrines of predestination and of the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation, in which doctrines Calvin was influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. Calvin was a tireless apologetic writer who generated much controversy, he exchanged cordial and supportive letters with many reformers, including Philipp Melanchthon and Heinrich Bullinger. In addition to his seminal Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, confessional documents, various other theological treatises. Trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530.
After religious tensions erupted in widespread deadly violence against Protestant Christians in France, Calvin fled to Basel, where in 1536 he published the first edition of the Institutes. In that same year, Calvin was recruited by Frenchman William Farel to join the Reformation in Geneva, where he preached sermons throughout the week. At the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees, he continued to support the reform movement in Geneva, in 1541 he was invited back to lead the church of the city. Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of church government and liturgy, despite opposition from several powerful families in the city who tried to curb his authority. During this period, Michael Servetus, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a heretical view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva, he was burned at the stake for heresy by the city council. Following an influx of supportive refugees and new elections to the city council, Calvin's opponents were forced out.
Calvin spent his final years promoting the Reformation both throughout Europe. John Calvin was born as Jehan Cauvin on 10 July 1509, at Noyon, a town in Picardy, a province of the Kingdom of France, he was the first of four sons. His mother, Jeanne le Franc, was the daughter of an innkeeper from Cambrai, she died of an unknown cause after having borne four more children. Calvin's father, Gérard Cauvin, had a prosperous career as the cathedral notary and registrar to the ecclesiastical court. Gérard intended his three sons — Charles and Antoine — for the priesthood. Young Calvin was precocious. By age 12, he was employed by the bishop as a clerk and received the tonsure, cutting his hair to symbolise his dedication to the Church, he won the patronage of an influential family, the Montmors. Through their assistance, Calvin was able to attend the Collège de la Marche, where he learned Latin from one of its greatest teachers, Mathurin Cordier. Once he completed the course, he entered the Collège de Montaigu as a philosophy student.
In 1525 or 1526, Gérard withdrew his son from the Collège de Montaigu and enrolled him in the University of Orléans to study law. According to contemporary biographers Theodore Beza and Nicolas Colladon, Gérard believed that Calvin would earn more money as a lawyer than as a priest. After a few years of quiet study, Calvin entered the University of Bourges in 1529, he was intrigued by a humanist lawyer. Humanism was a European intellectual movement. During his 18-month stay in Bourges, Calvin learned Koine Greek, a necessity for studying the New Testament. Alternate theories have been suggested regarding the date of Calvin's religious conversion; some have placed the date of his conversion around 1533. In this view, his resignation is the direct evidence for his conversion to the evangelical faith. However, T. H. L. Parker argues that while this date is a terminus for his conversion, the more date is in late 1529 or early 1530; the main evidence for his conversion is contained in two different accounts of his conversion.
In the first, found in his Commentary on the Book of Psalms, Calvin portrayed his conversion as a sudden change of mind, brought about by God: God by a sudden conversion subdued and brought my mind to a teachable frame, more hardened in such matters than might have been expected from one at my early period of life. Having thus received some taste and knowledge of true godliness, I was inflamed with so intense a desire to make progress therein, that although I did not altogether leave off other studies, yet I pursued them with less ardour. In the second account, Calvin wrote of a long process of inner turmoil, followed by spiritual and psychological anguish: Being exceedingly alarmed at the misery into which I had fallen, much more at that which threatened me in view of eternal death, I, duty bound, made it my first business to betake myself to your way, condemning my past life, not without groans and tears, and now, O Lord, what remains to a wretch like me, but instead of defence, earnestly to supplicate you not to judge that fearful abandonment of your Word according to its deserts, from which in your wondrous goodnes
Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer and astrologer. He is a key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion, his books Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae; these works provided one of the foundations for Newton's theory of universal gravitation. Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, he became an assistant to the astronomer Tycho Brahe in Prague, the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He taught mathematics in Linz, was an adviser to General Wallenstein. Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope, was mentioned in the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei, he was a corresponding member of the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy and physics.
Kepler incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction and belief that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan, accessible through the natural light of reason. Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics", as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics", as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens", transforming the ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics. Kepler was born on December 27, the feast day of St John the Evangelist, 1571, in the Free Imperial City of Weil der Stadt, his grandfather, Sebald Kepler, had been Lord Mayor of the city. By the time Johannes was born, he had two brothers and one sister and the Kepler family fortune was in decline, his father, Heinrich Kepler, earned a precarious living as a mercenary, he left the family when Johannes was five years old. He was believed to have died in the Eighty Years' War in the Netherlands.
His mother, Katharina Guldenmann, an innkeeper's daughter, was a herbalist. Born prematurely, Johannes claimed to have been sickly as a child, he impressed travelers at his grandfather's inn with his phenomenal mathematical faculty. He was introduced to astronomy at an early age, developed a love for it that would span his entire life. At age six, he observed the Great Comet of 1577, writing that he "was taken by mother to a high place to look at it." In 1580, at age nine, he observed another astronomical event, a lunar eclipse, recording that he remembered being "called outdoors" to see it and that the moon "appeared quite red". However, childhood smallpox left him with weak vision and crippled hands, limiting his ability in the observational aspects of astronomy. In 1589, after moving through grammar school, Latin school, seminary at Maulbronn, Kepler attended Tübinger Stift at the University of Tübingen. There, he studied philosophy under Vitus Müller and theology under Jacob Heerbrand, who taught Michael Maestlin while he was a student, until he became Chancellor at Tübingen in 1590.
He proved himself to be a superb mathematician and earned a reputation as a skilful astrologer, casting horoscopes for fellow students. Under the instruction of Michael Maestlin, Tübingen's professor of mathematics from 1583 to 1631, he learned both the Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system of planetary motion, he became a Copernican at that time. In a student disputation, he defended heliocentrism from both a theoretical and theological perspective, maintaining that the Sun was the principal source of motive power in the universe. Despite his desire to become a minister, near the end of his studies, Kepler was recommended for a position as teacher of mathematics and astronomy at the Protestant school in Graz, he accepted the position in April 1594, at the age of 23. Kepler's first major astronomical work, Mysterium Cosmographicum, was the first published defense of the Copernican system. Kepler claimed to have had an epiphany on July 19, 1595, while teaching in Graz, demonstrating the periodic conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in the zodiac: he realized that regular polygons bound one inscribed and one circumscribed circle at definite ratios, which, he reasoned, might be the geometrical basis of the universe.
After failing to find a unique arrangement of polygons that fit known astronomical observations, Kepler began experimenting with 3-dimensional polyhedra. He found that each of the five Platonic solids could be inscribed and circumscribed by spherical orbs. By ordering the solids selectively—octahedron, dodecahedron, cube—Kepler found that the spheres could be placed at intervals corresponding to the relative sizes of each planet's path, assuming the planets circle the Sun. Kepler found a formula relating the size of each planet's orb to the length of its orbital period: from inner to outer planets, the ratio of increase in orbital period is twice the difference in orb radius. However, Kepler rejected this formula, because it was not precise enough. As
Jean Sturm Gymnasium
The Jean Sturm Gymnasium is a private Protestant school in Strasbourg, teaching children from the third year of secondary education through to the Baccalaureat. The school, the precursor of the University of Strasbourg, was founded in 1538 by the humanist Johannes Sturm, just a year after he had arrived in the city. In March 1538, the chief town councillor of Strasbourg, the unrelated Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck, asked Sturm to reorganize education in the city. In March 1538 Jean Sturm published his treatise'De literarum ludis recte aperiendis liber' to justify the creation of a unique school in Strasbourg; the Chapter of St Thomas Church in Strasbourg was involved in the creation of the school. Jean Sturm was the first rector of the school. One of the members of the Chapter of St Thomas, Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, is still responsible for ensuring that the religious instruction in the school is given according to the proper Protestant doctrine; the medium of instruction for many years was uniquely in Latin.
The school was set up in its present location, which at the time was part of the Dominican Convent where Meister Eckhart and Joannes Tauler once taught. The original name was Schola Argentoratensis, from Argentoratum, the former Latin name of Strasbourg. From the outset the school offered teaching in the new humanist tradition, it provided the model for the modern German gymnasium. In 2005 the school was merged with the Lucie-Berger school, under the name'Pôle éducatif Jan-Amos-Comenius', enabling the school to extend the age-range of its teaching to cover kindergarten through to the Baccalaureat and making it the largest private Protestant educational institution in France. Today the school, boasts a 100 % success rate in the Baccaleureat. School website
Palais du Rhin
The Palais du Rhin, the former Kaiserpalast, is a building situated in the German quarter of Strasbourg dominating the Place de la République with its massive dome. A huge building, it and the surrounding gardens, as well as the neighbouring stables, are an outstanding landmark of 19th-century Prussian architecture. After the Franco-Prussian War, Strasbourg German, was faced with the question of an official residence for the Kaiser; the decision was made to create a building symbolic of imperial power, after much debate, a square Neo-Renaissance design was chosen, remotely inspired by the Palazzo Pitti in Florence. The architect was Hermann Eggert, who had built, among other things, the Observatory of Strasbourg. Work began on March 22, 1884 in honour of William I's 87th birthday, construction took five years; the project received a good deal of criticism, with many questioning the need and use of the building, its appearance, its price of three million marks. Inaugurated by William II in August 1889, the palace housed the emperor for twelve visits down to 1914.
During the First World War, the building was converted into a military hospital and in 1920 it adopted its current name when the oldest of the European institutions, the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, moved in. In 1923, the palace passed hands to the French state and today houses the Direction régionale des affaires culturelles of Grand Est. Transformed into the'Kommandantur' by the Nazis between 1940 and 1945, the building was recaptured by the troops of General Leclerc, who transformed it into their general headquarters, it was there that he wrote his proclamation announcing the realization of his oath at Kufra, proclaiming that he would fight until the French flag flew again over the cathedrals of Strasbourg and Metz. Threatened with destruction in the 1970s, the palace, classified as monument historique since 1993 houses the Direction régionale des Affaires culturelles of Alsace. In 2008, the Palais was used as the setting of the Paris Gestapo headquarters for the shooting of the French TV mini-series "La Résistance".
Architectural description and photos Exterior and interior views