Kebabs are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine. Many variants are popular throughout Asia, around the world. In most English-speaking countries, a kebab is the internationally-known shish kebab or shashlik, though outside of North America a kebab may be the ubiquitous fast-food doner kebab or its variants. In contrast, in Indian English and in the languages of the Middle East, other parts of Asia, the Muslim world, a kebab is any of a wide variety of grilled meat dishes; some dishes derived from Middle Eastern kebab may have different names in their local languages, such as the Chinese chuanr. Although kebabs are cooked on a skewer, many types of kebab are not. Kebab dishes can consist of ground meat or seafood, sometimes with fruits and vegetables; the traditional meat for kebabs is most mutton or lamb, but regional recipes may include beef, chicken, fish, or more due to religious prohibitions, pork. Evidence of hominin use of fire and cooking in the Middle East dates back as far as 790,000 years, prehistoric hearths, earth ovens, burnt animal bones were spread across Europe and the Middle East by at least 250,000 years ago.
Excavations of the Minoan settlement of Akrotiri unearthed stone supports for skewers used before the 17th century BC. In ancient times, Homer in the Iliad mentions pieces of meat roasted on spits, the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian text mentions large pieces of meat roasted on spits. In Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq's 10th-century Baghdadi cookbook Kitab al-Tabikh, a compendium of much of the legacy of Mesopotamian and Arab cuisine, there are descriptions of kabāb as cut-up meat, either fried in a pan or grilled over a fire; the method of cooking smaller chunks or slices of meat on skewers has a long history in the region, where it would be practical in cities where small cuts of meat were available in butchers' shops, where fuel for cooking was scarce, compared to Europe, where extensive forests enabled farmers to roast large cuts of meat whole. Indeed, many cultures have dishes consisting of chunks of meat cooked over a fire on skewers, such as the anticucho, prepared in South America since long before contact with Europe and Asia.
However, while the word kebab or shish kebab may sometimes be used in English as a culinary term that refers to any type of small chunks of meat cooked on a skewer, kebab is associated with a diversity of meat dishes that originated in the medieval kitchens of Persia and Turkey. Though the word has ancient origins, it was popularized by Turks to refer to this range of grilled and broiled meat, which may be cooked on skewers, but as stews and other forms; this cuisine has spread in parallel with Muslim influence. According to Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan traveller, kebab was served in the royal houses during the Delhi Sultanate, commoners would enjoy it for breakfast with naan. Kebab dishes have been adopted and integrated with local cooking styles and innovations, from the now-ubiquitous doner kebab fast food, to the many variations of shish kebab, such as the satays of Southeast Asia; the word kebab came to English in the late 17th century from the Arabic kabāb through Urdu and Turkish. According to linguist Sevan Nişanyan, the Turkish word kebap is derived from the Arabic word kabāb, meaning roasted meat.
It appears in Turkish texts as early as the 14th century, in Kyssa-i Yusuf, though still in the Arabic form. Nişanyan states that the word has the equivalent meaning of "frying/burning" with "kabābu" in the old Akkadian language, "kbabā/כבבא" in Aramaic. In contrast, food historian Gil Marks says that the medieval Arabic and Turkish terms were adopted from the Persian kabab, which derived from the Aramaic; the American Heritage Dictionary gives a probable East Semitic root origin with the meaning of "burn", "char", or "roast", from the Aramaic and Akkadian. The Babylonian Talmud instructs; these words point to an origin in the prehistoric Proto-Afroasiatic language: *kab-, to burn or roast. Suya is a spicy kebab, a popular food item in West Africa, it is traditionally prepared by the Hausa people of northern Nigeria, Niger and some parts of Sudan. Kyinkyinga is popular in West Africa, it is a Ghanian dish similar to or synonymous with the Hausa suya kebab known as sooya, chichinga, tsire agashi, chachanga or tankora.
Sosatie is a traditional South African dish of meat cooked on skewers. The term derives from sate and saus, it is of Cape Malay origin. Sosatie recipes vary, but the ingredients can include cubes of lamb, chicken, dried apricots, red onions and mixed peppers. Afghan kebab is most found in restaurants and outdoor vendor stalls; the most used meat is lamb. Recipes differ with every restaurant. Afghan kebab is served with naan rice, customers have the option to sprinkle sumac or ghora, dried ground sour grapes, on their kebab; the quality of kebab is dependent on the quality of the meat. Pieces of fat from the sheep's tail are added with the lamb skewers to add extra flavor. Other popular kebabs include the lamb chop, beef and chicken, all of which are found in better restaurants. Chapli kebab, a specialty of Eastern Afghanistan, is a patty made from beef mince, it is a popula
Cooked rice refers to rice, cooked either by steaming or boiling. The terms steamed rice or boiled rice are commonly used. Any variant of Asian rice, African rice or wild rice, glutinous or non-glutinous, long-, medium-, or short-grain, of any colour, can be used. Rice for cooking can be whole milled. Cooked rice is used as a base for various fried rice dishes, rice bowls/plates, rice porridges, rice balls/rolls, as well as rice cakes and desserts. Rice is a staple food in not only Asia and Latin America, but across the globe, is considered the most consumed food in the world; the U. S. Department of Agriculture classifies rice as part of the grains food group. Nutritionally, 200 g of cooked steamed white rice contributes 60 g toward the daily recommended 170 and 200 g of grains for women and men and is considered a good source of micronutrients such as zinc and manganese. Rice is rinsed and soaked before being cooked. Unpolished brown rice requires longer soaking time; the amount of water added.
Newly harvested rice requires less water, softer varieties need more water than firmer varieties. Rice can be steamed in a food steamer; some boiling methods do not require precise water measurements, as the rice is strained after boiling. This draining method is suitable for the less glutinous varieties such as basmati rice, but not-suitable for varieties like japonica rice which become sticky to some degree when cooked. Optionally, a small amount of salt can be added before cooking. If not drained, boiled rice is cooked on high heat until a rolling boil simmered with the lid on, steamed over the residual heat after turning off the heat. Nowadays, electric rice cookers are commonly used to cook rice. During cooking, rice absorbs increase in volume and mass. In East Asia, cooked rice is most served in individual bowls, with each diner receiving one. Food from communal dishes is placed upon the rice, is eaten. Cooked or boiled rice is used as an ingredient in many dishes. Leftover steamed; some common dishes using cooked rice as the main ingredient include: Fried rice dishes Arroz chaufa Bokkeum-bap Kimchi fried rice Chāhan Omurice Chinese fried rice Hokkien fried rice Yangzhou fried rice Yin yang fried rice Nasi goreng Nasi goreng pattaya Omelette rice Thai fried rice American fried rice Rice bowls and plates Bibimbap Hoe-deopbap Chazuke Dal bhat Donburi Chūkadon Gyūdon Katsudon Oyakodon Unadon Tekkadon Loco moco Panta bhat Red beans and rice Rice and beans Rice and curry Rice and gravy Tumpeng Rice porridges Congee JukRice balls and rolls Gimbap Jumeok-bap Lemper Onigiri Rice ball salads Nam khao Yam naem Sushi B.
C. roll California roll Dynamite roll Philadelphia roll Seattle roll Spider roll Zongzi Rice cakes and desserts Mochi Tteok Yaksik Yeot Alcoholic Cheongju Beopju Choujiu Gamju Hariya Huangjiu Mijiu Shaoxing wine Lao-Lao Makgeolli Rượu cần Sake a Japanese alcoholic beverage. Sato Sonti Non-alcoholic Sikhye Most common is steamed white rice; some varieties include: Japonica rice Thai steamed rice Sticky rice Sushi rice Basmati rice Bap Food steamer List of rice dishes List of steamed foods Steamed rice at dmoz.org
A purée is cooked food vegetables, fruits or legumes, ground, blended or sieved to the consistency of a creamy paste or liquid. Purées of specific foods are known by specific names, e.g. applesauce or hummus. The term is of French origin, where it meant in Old French refined. Purées overlap with other dishes with similar consistency, such as thick soups and gravies—although these terms imply more complex recipes and cooking processes. Coulis is a similar but broader term, more used for fruit purées; the term is not used for paste-like foods prepared from cereal flours, such as gruel or muesli. The term "paste" is used for purées intended to be used as an ingredient, rather than eaten. Purées can be made in a blender, or with special implements such as a potato masher, or by forcing the food through a strainer, or by crushing the food in a pot. Purées must be cooked, either before or after grinding, in order to improve flavour and texture, remove toxic substances, and/or reduce their water content.
It is common to purée entire meals to be served to toddlers and those unable to chew as sufficient, nutritious meals. Common purées include apples and other fruits smashed or mashed for their juice content. Baba ghanoush Bisque Champ Ful medames Hummus Legume soups such as pea soup, bean soup, lentil soup Purée Mongole Pimento These fruits and vegetables are served as purées: Apple Arracacha Carrot Cassava Cauliflower Pea Potato Pumpkin Rutabaga Squash, etc. Sweet corn Taro purée, called 芋泥 in Teochew cuisine Tomato Pickled cucumber Mango Pineapple Avocado Gruel Guacamole Mashing Muesli Peanut butter Pesto Polenta Potato masher Red bean paste Saag
Vegetarian cuisine is based on food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products. For lacto-ovo vegetarianism and dairy products, such as milk and cheese, are permitted. For lacto vegetarianism, the earliest known type of vegetarianism, dairy products, such as milk and cheese, are permitted; the strictest forms of vegetarianism are veganism and fruitarianism, which exclude all animal products, including dairy and some refined sugars if filtered and whitened with bone char. There are partial vegetarians who do not eat meat but may eat fish. Vegetarian foods can be classified into several different types: Traditional foods that have always been vegetarian include cereals, fruits, vegetables and nuts. Soy products, including tofu and tempeh, which are common protein sources. Textured vegetable protein, made from defatted soy flour included in chili and burger recipes in place of ground meat. Meat analogues, which mimic the taste and appearance of meat and are used in recipes that traditionally contained meat.
Eggs and dairy product analogues in vegan cuisine. Food regarded as suitable for all vegetarians includes: Cereals/grains: barley, corn, hempseed, millet, quinoa, rye, triticale, wheat. Vegetables. Edible fungi. Fruit. Legumes: beans, lentils, peanuts. Tree nuts and seeds. Herbs and wild greens such as dandelion, sorrel or nettle. Other foods such as seaweed. Beverages such as beer, hot chocolate, tea or wine. Foods not suitable for vegans, but acceptable for some other types of vegetarians: Dairy products – not eaten by vegans and pure ovo-vegetarians Eggs – not eaten by pure vegetarians and lacto-vegetarians Honey – not eaten by most vegans These are some of the most common dishes that vegetarians eat without substitution of ingredients; such dishes include, from breakfasts to dinnertime desserts: Traditionally, Brahmin cuisines in most part of India, except West Bengal, are vegetarian. Gujarati cuisine from the state of Gujarat in western India is predominantly vegetarian. Many bean, potato and bulgur/couscous dishes, stews and stir-fries.
Cereals and oatmeals, granola bars, etc. Fresh fruit and most salads Potato salad, baba ganoush, pita-wraps or burrito -wraps, vegetable pilafs, baked potatoes or fried potato-skins with various toppings, corn on the cob, smoothies Many sandwiches, such as cheese on toast, cold sandwiches including roasted eggplant, bell peppers, cheeses and other sandwich ingredients Numerous side dishes, such as mashed potatoes, scalloped potatoes, some bread stuffings, seasoned rice, macaroni and cheese. Classical Buddhist cuisine in Asia served at temples and restaurants with a green sign indicating vegetarian food only near temples Chinese dishes based on the main ingredients being mushroom, eggplant, string beans, rice, most Tong Sui or mixed vegetables. Indian cuisine in Asia is replete with vegetarian dishes, many of which can be traced to religious traditions. Gujarati cuisine of India is predominantly vegetarian among other Indian cuisines: Gujarati thali is famous among Indians. There are many vegetarian Indian foods such as pakora, khichris, raitas, bengain bharta, chana masala, some kormas, jalfrezis, saag aloo, subjis such as bindi subji, gobi subji, Punjabi chole, aloo matar and much South Indian food such as dosas and vadas.
Chapati and other wheat/maida based breads like naan, roti parathas are stuffed with vegetarian items to make it a satisfying meal. Many Indian dishes qualify as vegan, though many others use honey or dairy. South Indian foods like sambar, koottu, upma, palya/taalimpu, kozhambu/koora, olan, Kadala curry, Pulihora/puliyogare, Chutney and breads like Appam, pathiri, dosa and vada. In Indonesia, vegetarianism is well served and represented, as there are plenty selection of vegetarian dishes and meat substitutes. Dishes such as gado-gado, ketoprak, urap and asinan are vegetarian. However, for dishes that use peanut sauce, such as gado-gado, karedok or ketoprak, might contains small amount of shrimp paste for flavor. Served gudeg can be considered a vegetarian food, since it consists of unripe jackfruit and coconut milk. Fermented soy products, such as tempeh and oncom are prevalent as meat substitutes, as the source of protein. Most of Indonesians do not practice stri
Naan is a leavened, oven-baked flatbread found in the cuisines of West Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent and the Caribbean. The earliest appearance of "naan" in English is from 1803 in a travelogue of William Tooke; the Persian word nān'bread' is attested in Middle Persian as n'n'bread, food', of Iranian origin, is a cognate with Parthian ngn, Kurdish nan, Balochi nagan, Sogdian nγn-, Pashto nəγan'bread'. The form naan has a widespread distribution, having been borrowed in a range of languages spoken in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, where it refers to a kind of flatbread; the spelling naan is first attested in 1979, has since become the normal English spelling. Naan as known today originates from Asian Steppe; the most familiar and available varieties of naan in Western countries are those from the Indian subcontinent. In Iran, from which the word originated, nân does not carry any special significance, as it is the generic word for any kind of bread, as well as in other West Asian nations or ethnic groups in the region.
Naan in parts of the Indian subcontinent refers to a specific kind of thick flatbread. It resembles pita and, like pita bread, is leavened with yeast or with bread starter. Naan is cooked in a tandoor; this distinguishes it from roti, cooked on a flat or concave iron griddle called a tava. Modern recipes sometimes substitute baking powder for the yeast. Milk or yogurt may be used to impart distinct tastes to the naan. Milk used instead of water will, yield a softer dough; when bread starter is used, the milk may undergo modest lactic fermentation. It is served hot and brushed with some water but in some other cultures such as those in the Indian Subcontinent, they brush ghee or butter, it can be served stuffed with a filling. A typical naan recipe involves mixing white or whole wheat flour with active dry yeast and water; the dough is kneaded for a few minutes set aside to rise for a few hours. Once risen, the dough is divided into balls, which are cooked. In Pakistani cuisine, naans are flavored with fragrant essences, such as rose, khus, or with butter or ghee melted on them.
Nigella seeds are added to naan as cooked in Indian and Bangladeshi restaurants throughout the UK. Raisins and spices can be added. Naan can be covered with, or serve as a wrap for, various toppings of meat, vegetables, or cheeses; this version is sometimes prepared as fast food. It can be dipped into such soups as dal and goes well with sabzis. Naan bya in Burma is sometimes served at breakfast with coffee, it is round and blistered buttered, or with pè byouk on top, or dipped in hseiksoup. Luri fiçá in Rohingya is similar to naan, but made of rice and served at festivals with beef, mutton and soups, it is a national cake of Rohingya in Arakan. Naan pizza is a type of pizza where naan is used as the crust instead of the traditional pizza dough. Chefs and companies such as Nigella Lawson, Wegmans offer recipes for people to make their own naan pizza at home
Brassica juncea brown mustard, Chinese mustard, Indian mustard, leaf mustard, Oriental mustard and vegetable mustard, is a species of mustard plant. One subvariety is southern giant curled mustard, which resembles a headless cabbage such as kale, but with a distinct horseradish or mustard flavor, it is known as green mustard cabbage. Brassica juncea cultivars can be divided into four major subgroups: integrifolia, juncea and tsatsai. In 100 grams, cooked mustard greens provide 26 calories and are a rich source of vitamins A, C, K, high as a multiple of its Daily Value. Mustard greens are a moderate source of vitamin calcium. Greens are 4.5 % carbohydrates, 2.6 % protein and 0.5 % fat. The leaves and stems of this mustard variety are edible; the plant appears in some form in African, Chinese, Indian, Nepali, Pakistani and African-American cuisines. Cultivars of B. juncea are grown for their greens, for the production of oilseed. The mustard condiment made from the seeds of the B. juncea is called brown mustard and is considered to be spicier than yellow mustard.
Because it may contain erucic acid, a potential toxin, mustard oil is restricted from import as a vegetable oil into the United States. Essential oil of mustard, however, is accepted as GRAS, but in Russia, this is the main species grown for the production of mustard oil. It is used in canning and margarine production in Russia, the majority of Russian table mustard is made from B. juncea. The leaves are used in African cooking, all plant parts are used in Nepali cuisine in the mountain regions of Nepal, as well as in the Punjabi cuisine in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, where a dish called sarson da saag is prepared. B. juncea subsp. Tatsai, which has a thick stem, is used to make the Nepali pickle called achar, the Chinese pickle zha cai; the Gorkhas of the Indian states of Darjeeling, West Bengal and Sikkim as well as Nepal prepare pork with mustard greens. It is eaten with relish and steamed rice, but can be eaten with roti. In Nepal it is a common practice to cook these greens with meat of all sorts specially goat meat.
Brassica juncea is more pungent than greens from the related Brassica oleracea, is mixed with these milder greens in a dish of "mixed greens". Chinese and Japanese cuisines make use of mustard greens. In Japanese cuisine, it is known as takana and pickled for use as filling in onigiri or as a condiment. Many varieties of B. juncea cultivars are used, including zha cai, takana, juk gai choy, xuelihong. Asian mustard greens are most stir-fried or pickled. A Southeast Asian dish called asam gai choy or kiam chai boey is made with leftovers from a large meal, it involves stewing mustard greens with dried chillies and leftover meat on the bone. Brassica juncea is known as gai choi, siu gai choi, xaio jie cai, baby mustard, Chinese leaf mustard or mostaza. Vegetable growers sometimes grow mustard as a green manure, its main purpose is to act as a mulch. If grown as a green manure, the mustard plants are cut down at the base when sufficiently grown, left to wither on the surface, continuing to act as a mulch until the next crop is due for sowing, when the mustard is dug in.
In the UK, mustard sown in summer and autumn is cut down starting in October. April sowings can be cut down in June. One of the disadvantages of using mustard as a green manure is its propensity to harbor club root; this mustard plant is used in phytoremediation to remove heavy metals, such as lead, from the soil in hazardous waste sites because it has a higher tolerance for these substances and stores the heavy metals in its cells. In particular, Brassica juncea was effective at removing cadmium from soil; the process of removing heavy metals ends when the plant is properly discarded. Phytoremediation has been shown to be cheaper and easier than traditional methods for heavy metal reduction in soils. In addition, it has the effect of reducing cross-site contamination. Sinapis alba – yellow or white mustard, another mustard variety Brassica oleracea – wild cabbage Brassica nigra – black mustard, another mustard variety Brassica rapa – related family of edible greens used in Asian cooking Brassica carinata – Ethiopian mustard For other edible plants in the family Brassicaceae, see cruciferous vegetables.
Everitt, J. H.. L.. R.. Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2. PROTAbase on Brassica juncea Brassica juncea " Multilingual taxonomic information". University of Melbourne. Mustard Green Manures: Washington State University Extension paper on cover crops
Makki di roti
Makki di roti is a flat, unleavened Punjabi bread made from corn meal eaten in Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. Like most rotis in the Indian subcontinent, it is baked on a tava. Makki di roti means "bread of maize" in the Punjabi language. Makki di roti is yellow in color when ready, has much less adhesive strength — which makes it difficult to handle. Makki di roti is made during winter in Punjab and is accompanied with saag and buttermilk. In Himachal and Punjab, it is eaten with saag and Maah daal. List of breads Corn tortilla Talo "Makki di roti' and'sarson da saag' losing its sheen in Punjabi platter". Hindustan Times. January 14, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015. "This winter, Makki ki Roti is out of reach". NDTV. November 21, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2015. "Winter recipe: Sarson da saag, makki di roti". The Times of India. January 17, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015. Marwaha, P. Shakahaari. Xlibris Corporation. P. 149. ISBN 978-1-4771-7170-7