SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate. Consonants pronounced this way are said to be palatalized and are transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet by affixing the letter ⟨ʲ⟩ to the base consonant. Palatalization cannot minimally distinguish words in English, but it may do so in languages such as Russian and Irish. In the linguistics of Slavic languages, palatalised consonants are referred to as soft, in contrast to non-palatalised consonants, which are hard; the corresponding traditional terms in Goidelic linguistics are broad. In technical terms, palatalization refers to the secondary articulation of consonants by which the body of the tongue is raised toward the hard palate and the alveolar ridge during the articulation of the consonant; such consonants are phonetically palatalized. "Pure" palatalization is a modification to the articulation of a consonant, where the middle of the tongue is raised, nothing else.

It may produce a laminal articulation of otherwise apical consonants such as /t/ and /s/. Phonetically palatalized consonants may vary in their exact realization; some languages add semivowels after the palatalized consonant. In Russian, both plain and palatalized consonant phonemes are found in words like большой, царь and Катя; the vowel following a palatalized consonant has a palatal onglide. In Hupa, on the other hand, the palatalization is heard as an offglide. In some cases, the realization of palatalization may change without any corresponding phonemic change. For example, according to Thurneysen, palatalized consonants at the end of a syllable in Old Irish had a corresponding onglide, no longer present in Middle Irish. In a few languages, including Skolt Sami and many of the Central Chadic languages, palatalization is a suprasegmental feature that affects the pronunciation of an entire syllable, it may cause certain vowels to be pronounced more front and consonants to be palatalized. In Skolt Sami and its relatives, suprasegmental palatalization contrasts with segmental palatal articulation.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, palatalized consonants are marked by the modifier letter ⟨ʲ⟩, a superscript version of the symbol for the palatal approximant ⟨j⟩. For instance, ⟨tʲ⟩ represents the palatalized form of the voiceless alveolar stop. Prior to 1989, a subscript diacritic and several palatalized consonants were represented by curly-tailed variants in the IPA, e.g. ⟨ʆ⟩ for and ⟨ʓ⟩ for: see palatal hook. The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet marks palatalized consonants by an acute accent, as do some Finnic languages using the Latin alphabet, as in Võro ⟨ś⟩. Others use an apostrophe, as in Karelian ⟨s’⟩. Palatalization has varying phonological significance in different languages, it is phonemic in others. In English, consonants are palatalized when they occur before front vowels or the palatal approximant, no words are distinguished by palatalization, but in other languages palatalized consonants appear in the same environments as plain consonants and distinguish words. In some languages, palatalization is allophonic.

Some phonemes have palatalized allophones in certain contexts before front vowels and unpalatalized allophones elsewhere. Because it is allophonic, palatalization of this type does not distinguish words and goes unnoticed by native speakers. Phonetic palatalization occurs in American English. Stops are palatalized before the front vowel /i/ and not palatalized in other cases. In some languages, palatalization is a distinctive feature that distinguishes two consonant phonemes; this feature occurs in Russian and Scottish Gaelic. Phonemic palatalization may be contrasted with either velarized articulation. In many of the Slavic languages, some of the Baltic and Finnic languages, palatalized consonants contrast with plain consonants, but in Irish they contrast with velarized consonants. Russian нос /nos/ "nose" нёс /nʲos/ " carried" Irish bó /bˠoː/ "cow" beo /bʲoː/ "alive" Some palatalized phonemes undergo change beyond phonetic palatalization. For instance, the unpalatalized sibilant has a palatalized counterpart, postalveolar /ʃ/, not phonetically palatalized, the velar fricative /x/ in both languages has a palatalized counterpart, palatal /ç/ rather than palatalized velar.

These shifts in primary place of articulation are examples of the sound change of palatalization. In some languages, palatalization is used as a part of a morpheme. In some cases, a vowel caused a consonant to become palatalized, this vowel was lost by elision. Here there appears to be a phonemic contrast when analysis of the deep structure shows it to be allophonic. In Romanian, consonants are palatalized before /i/. Palatalized consonants appear at the end of the word, mark the plural in nouns and adjectives, the second person singular in verbs. On the surface, it would appear that ban "coin" forms a minimal pair with bani; the interpretation taken, however, is that an underlying morpheme |-i| palatalizes the consonant and is subsequently deleted. Palatali

M29 Weasel

The M29 Weasel was a World War II tracked vehicle, built by Studebaker, designed for operation in snow. The idea for the Weasel came from the work of British inventor Geoffrey Pyke in support of his proposals to attack Axis forces and industrial installations in Norway. Pyke's plan to hamper the German atomic weapons development became Project Plough for which he proposed a fast light mechanised device that would transport small groups of commando troops of the 1st Special Service Force across snow. In active service in Europe, Weasels were used to supply frontline troops over difficult ground when wheeled vehicles were immobilised; the first 2,103 vehicles designated as T15 and categorized as the M28 Cargo Carrier had 15 in Kégresse-style "rubber-band" style tracks, the version designated as M29 had 20 in tracks of the same format. The T15/M28 version had a different hull and a reverse drive line to the M29 versions; some of the most noticeable differences were that this early version had a rear engine front wheel drive system.

The hull itself was designed different with only a two-passenger capacity. The M29 was a front engine, rear wheel drive system with the changed tracks and different bogie wheel arrangement; the hull was changed to accommodate a larger passenger/load capacity. The M29 was somewhat amphibious, but with a low freeboard; the M29C could not operate in other than inland waterway conditions, so its use in surf or rough water was limited but did see action in the Pacific theatre. An easy way to distinguish the difference from an M28 and M29 is to look at the side track arrangement of bogie wheels; the Weasel idea was introduced in 1942, when the First Special Services Force needed transportation into Norway to knock out strategic power plants. The vehicle needed to move and through the winter snows of Norway, it needed to be air transportable and be able to withstand the effects of being dropped by parachute and would be able to carry arms and minimal resupply stocks. The Norwegian mission was cancelled and therefore the Weasel was never used for its original intention.

However, as it was amphibious and could cross terrain too soft for most other vehicles, it was used in both Italy and on the Western Front. It went ashore on Normandy, it was with the U. S. Army during the breakthrough at St. Lo. the Battle of the Bulge and in the mud of the Roer and the Rhine. M29 was a Cargo Carrier but was used as a command center, radio and signal line layer. US soldiers soon realized the Weasel could be used as an ambulance, as it could get to places not Jeeps could. Another use was for crossing minefields, as its ground pressure was too low to set off anti-tank mines. After the war, many surplus M29s were sold to allied countries; some M29C and M29 survived to serve in Korea, supplementing 1/4 ton 4x4 cargo vehicles in rough conditions. They served in Arctic and cold weather operations until retired in 1958. Large numbers of retired Weasels were sold off in the 1950s to civilians and municipal organizations. For example, 25 Weasels were loaned for the VIII Olympic Winter Games in 1960.

In November 1944, USMC distributed M29s to the 3d, 4th, 5th Marine Divisions. They proved invaluable with its first appearance in combat on Iwo Jima, it saw use on Okinawa. The USMC used only the non-amphibious version, but it was capable of hauling a half-ton load through sand and mud. Besides this they pulled trailers and artillery pieces over the terrain that wheeled vehicles could not negotiate. During the First Indochina War, the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment was in charge of fighting Viet Minh guerrillas in the Mekong Delta area, its units, 1st and 2nd Escadrons, received M29C Weasels from the 13th Demi-Brigade of Foreign Legion in 1947. They were unsuccessful as they were crewed by inexperienced men, used wrong tactics and were deployed without infantry support, their losses were heavy. The 1er régiment de chasseurs à cheval deployed 1 Escadron of M29s from 1949 to 1953. French soldiers learned fast after several months of fighting, but the real deployment of full forces was possible only when they received LVT-4s and LVT-4s in 1950.

Now they could move stronger infantry units around. In September 1951 1er Groupement Autonome was established, consisting of two escadrons of Weasels, three escadrons of LVT-4 and one fire support platoon of 6 LVT-4. French Weasels, known as Crabes were armed with Chaterrault M1924/29, Bren or Browning M1919 machine guns, 57mm M18A1 recoilless guns and 60mm mortars. French mountain troops and French Gendarmerie used M29s until 1970. After the Indochina war, the remaining weasels were given to the French Polar Expeditions and used at the Antarctic station of Dumont d'Urville until 1993. Amphibious M29 Weasels of the 79th Armoured Division were used by British commando troops in the Walcheren operation, supplementing LVT Buffalos; this Division used non-amphibious variant of the Weasel, modified for clearing anti-personnel devices. Non-amphibious Weasels were used by British Infantry Divisions fighting in the Saar-Moselle Triangle, as they were the only means of getting supplies forward. After the war they were kept in service for a few years.

M29 Weasel was used extensively by Canadian forces from the fall of 1944 during battles to clear the marshy Scheldt estuary, the flooded approaches to Antwerp. M29s supported Canadian advance through flooded areas in Netherlands and Germany. After the war

Johnny Clifford

Johnny Clifford was an Irish hurling manager and player. He played hurling with his local club Glen Rovers and was a member of the Cork senior inter-county team in the 1950s. Clifford served as manager of the Cork senior team on three separate occasions in the 1980s and 1990s. Clifford first started playing hurling with his local Fair Hill club in the North Parish Leagues in the 1940s. After much success at under-age levels here he subsequently joined the famous Glen Rovers club. Clifford won his first two senior county titles in 1953 and 1954 before winning several more in the late 1950s. Clifford first came to prominence on the inter-county scene as a member of the Cork minor hurling team in the early 1950s, he was captain of the team in 1951 as Cork trounced Limerick by 5-11 to 1-3 in the provincial decider, giving Clifford a Munster winners' medal. He led his county out in Croke Park for the All-Ireland final against Galway. An entertaining hour of hurling took place, however, in the end Cork were victorious by 4-5 to 1-8.

Not only did Clifford pick up an All-Ireland minor winners' medal but he had the honour of collecting the cup on behalf of his team. Clifford joined the Cork senior team where he enjoyed further success, he was a key member of the team in 1954. Tipperary fell to Cork by 2-8 to 1-8 in the provincial final, giving Clifford a Munster winners' medal at senior level. A senior All-Ireland final appearance beckoned for the Glen Rovers man, with Wexford providing the opposition. A record attendance of nearly 85,000 people packed into Croke Park to witness a great battle between star forwards Christy Ring and Nicky Rackard. Instead, it was Clifford who proved to be the hero as he scored the vital goal for Cork with four minutes to go. At the full-time whistle Cork led by 1-9 to 1-6. While Christy Ring captured a record-breaking eighth All-Ireland medal, Clifford picked up his first, only, All-Ireland winners' medal. Clifford played for Cork again in 1955, however, an injury brought his inter-county career to a premature end shortly afterwards.

In retirement from playing Clifford continued to have a keen interest in hurling as a selector and coach. He coached a number of clubs in Cork before being appointed manager of the Cork senior hurling team for the 1982-83 season; that year he guided Cork and helped them to retain their Munster title following a facile 3-22 to 0-12 victory over Waterford. Cork subsequently qualified for the All-Ireland final with Kilkenny providing the opposition. In a close final dominated by a gale force wind, Kilkenny ran up a big half-time lead, Cork clawed it back but ran out of time, losing by a score of 2-14 to 2-12. Clifford resigned as manager shortly afterwards. Clifford did not stay away from inter-county management for long as he subsequently took charge of the Cork minor hurling team. In 1985 Clifford's minors captured the Munster title following a 1-13 to 1-8 victory over arch-rivals Tipperary; the subsequent All-Ireland final pitted Cork against Wexford, Cork found the net three times to give Clifford's team a 3-10 to 0-12 win and the All-Ireland title.

At the end of 1985 Clifford was reappointed manager of the Cork senior team. In 1986 he guided Cork to a fifth consecutive Munster title following a 2-18 to 3-12 victory over Clare. Clifford's Cork faced Galway in the subsequent All-Ireland final. In a thrilling game the Munstermen hung on to win by four points, thanks to goals by John Fenton, Tomás Mulcahy and Kevin Hennessy; this victory gave Clifford the unique distinction of winning senior All-Ireland titles as a player and as a manager while winning minor All-Ireland titles as a player and as a manager. Cork lost their provincial crown in 1987 and Clifford resigned as manager in early 1988. Clifford returned as manager of the Cork senior hurling team in late 1993. After two years in charge he resigned after securing no silverware. Johnny Clifford died on October 19, 2007 after a brief illness