The philtrum, or medial cleft, is a vertical indentation in the middle area of the upper lip, common to many mammals, extending in humans from the nasal septum to the tubercle of the upper lip. Together with a glandular rhinarium and slit-like nostrils, it is believed to constitute the primitive condition for at least therian mammals. Monotremes lack a philtrum, though this could be due to the specialised, beak-like jaws in living species. In most mammals, the philtrum is a narrow groove that may carry dissolved odorants from the rhinarium or nose pad to the vomeronasal organ via ducts inside the mouth. For humans and most primates, the philtrum survives only as a vestigial medial depression between the nose and upper lip; the human philtrum, bordered by ridges is known as the infranasal depression, but has no apparent function. That may be. Strepsirrhine primates, such as lemurs, still retain the philtrum and the rhinarium, unlike monkeys and apes. In humans, the philtrum is formed where the nasomedial and maxillary processes meet during embryonic development.
When these processes fail to fuse a cleft lip may result. A flattened or smooth philtrum may be a symptom of Prader -- Willi syndrome. A study of boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders found that a broader than average philtrum is one of a cluster of physical abnormalities associated with autism. In Jewish mythology, each embryo has an angel teaching them all of the wisdom in the world while they are in utero; the Angel taps an infant's upper lip before birth, to silence the infant from telling all the secrets in the universe to the humans who reside in it. Some believers of the myth speculate that this is the cause of the philtrum, but it does not have a basis in traditional Jewish texts. In Philippine mythology the enchanted creature diwata has smooth skin, with no wrinkles at the joints, no philtrum. In Key Largo, Frank McCloud tells a fairy tale to a child, saying that, before birth, the soul knows all the secrets of heaven, but at birth an angel presses a fingertip just above one's lip, which seals us to silence.
In the movie Mr. Nobody, unborn infants are said to have knowledge of all future events; as an unborn infant is about to be sent to its mother, the "Angels of Oblivion" tap its upper lip, whereupon the unborn infant forgets everything it knows. The movie follows the life story of one infant. In the movie The Prophecy, Archangel Gabriel asks Thomas Dagget, "Do you know how you got that dent in your top lip? Way back, before you were born, I told you a secret I put my finger there and I said'Shhhhh!'" In Action Comics # 719 the Joker says. This leads him to a Dr. Philip Drum. In the book Prince Ombra by Roderick MacLeish, the "cleft on our upper lips" is attributed to being hushed by a "cavern angel" just before we are born. Cupid's bow Intermaxillary segment Toothbrush moustache Philtrum piercing
Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of the Roman dictator; the change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called "Year of the Four Emperors". For political and personal reasons, Octavian chose to emphasize his relationship with Julius Caesar by styling himself "Imperator Caesar", without any of the other elements of his full name, his successor as emperor, his stepson Tiberius bore the name as a matter of course. The precedent was set: the Emperor designated his successor by adopting him and giving him the name "Caesar"; the fourth Emperor, was the first to assume the name "Caesar" upon accession, without having been adopted by the previous emperor. Claudius in turn adopted his stepson and grand-nephew Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, giving him the name "Caesar" in the traditional way; the first emperor to assume the position and the name without any real claim to either was the usurper Servius Sulpicius Galba, who took the imperial throne under the name "Servius Galba Imperator Caesar" following the death of the last of the Julio-Claudians, Nero, in 68.
Galba helped solidify "Caesar" as the title of the designated heir by giving it to his own adopted heir, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus. Galba's reign did not last long and he was soon deposed by Marcus Otho. Otho did not at first use the title "Caesar" and used the title "Nero" as emperor, but adopted the title "Caesar" as well. Otho was defeated by Aulus Vitellius, who acceded with the name "Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus". Vitellius did not adopt the cognomen "Caesar" as part of his name and may have intended to replace it with "Germanicus". Caesar had become such an integral part of the imperial dignity that its place was restored by Titus Flavius Vespasianus, whose defeat of Vitellius in 69 put an end to the period of instability and began the Flavian dynasty. Vespasian's son, Titus Flavius Vespasianus became "Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus". By this point the status of "Caesar" had been regularised into that of a title given to the Emperor-designate and retained by him upon accession to the throne.
After some variation among the earliest emperors, the style of the Emperor-designate on coins was Nobilissimus Caesar "Most Noble Caesar", though Caesar on its own was used. The popularity of using the title Caesar to designate heirs-apparent increased throughout the third century. Many of the soldier emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century attempted to strengthen their legitimacy by naming heirs, including Maximinus Thrax, Philip the Arab, Trebonianus Gallus and Gallienus; some of these were promoted to the rank of Augustus within their father's lifetime, for example Philippus II. The same title would be used in the Gallic Empire, which operated autonomously from the rest of the Roman Empire from 260 to 274, with the final Gallic emperor Tetricus I appointing his heir Tetricus II Caesar and his consular colleague for 274. Despite the best efforts of these emperors, the granting of this title does not seem to have made succession in this chaotic period any more stable. All Caesars would be killed before or alongside their fathers, or at best outlive them for a matter of months, as in the case of Hostilian.
The sole Caesar to obtain the rank of Augustus and rule for some time in his own right was Gordian III, he was controlled by his court. On 1 March 293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors; the two coequal senior emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors, as Imperator Caesar NN. Pius Felix Invictus Augustus and were called the Augusti, while the two junior sub-Emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors-designate, as Nobilissimus Caesar; the junior sub-Emperors retained the title "Caesar" upon accession to the senior position. The Tetrarchy was abandoned as a system in favour of two equal, territorial emperors, the previous system of Emperors and Emperors-designate was restored, both in the Latin-speaking West and the Greek-speaking East; the title of Caesar remained in use throughout the Constantinian period, with both Constantine I and his co-emperor and rival Licinius utilising it to mark their heirs.
In the case of Constantine, this meant that by the time he died, he had four Caesars: Constantius II, Constantine II, Constans and his nephew Dalmatius, with his eldest son Crispus having been executed in mysterious circumstances earlier in his reign. In the event, Constantine would be su
A pallet is a flat transport structure, which supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift, a pallet jack, a front loader, a jacking device, or an erect crane. A pallet is the structural foundation of a unit load which allows storage efficiencies. Goods or shipping containers are placed on a pallet secured with strapping, stretch wrap or shrink wrap and shipped. Since its invention in the twentieth century, its use has supplanted older forms of crating like the wooden box and the wooden barrel, as it works well with modern packaging like corrugated boxes and intermodal containers used for bulk shipping. While most pallets are wooden, pallets can be made of plastic, metal and recycled materials; each material has disadvantages. Containerization for transport has spurred the use of pallets because shipping containers have the smooth, level surfaces needed for easy pallet movement. Many pallets can handle a load of 1,000 kg. Today, about half a billion pallets are made each year and about two billion pallets are in use across the United States alone.
Pallets make it easier to move heavy stacks. Loads with pallets under them can be hauled by forklift trucks of different sizes, or by hand-pumped and hand-drawn pallet jacks. Movement is easy on a wide, flat floor: concrete is excellent; the greatest investment needed for economical pallet use is in the construction of commercial or industrial buildings. Passage through doors and buildings must be possible. To help this issue, some pallet standards are designed to pass through standard doorways. Organizations using standard pallets for loading and unloading can have much lower costs for handling and storage, with faster material movement than businesses that do not; the exceptions are establishments. But they can be improved. For instance, the distributors of costume jewelry use pallets in their warehouses and car manufacturers use pallets to move components and spare parts; the lack of a single international standard for pallets causes substantial continuing expense in international trade. A single standard is difficult because of the wide variety of needs a standard pallet would have to satisfy: passing doorways, fitting in standard containers, bringing low labor costs.
For example, organizations handling large pallets see no reason to pay the higher handling cost of using smaller pallets that can fit through doors. Due to cost and a need to focus on core business, pallet pooling becomes more common; some pallet suppliers supply users with reusable pallets, sometimes with integral tracking devices. A pallet management company can help supply, clean and reuse pallets. Heavy duty pallets are designed to be used multiple times. Light weight pallets are designed for a single use. In the UK, government legislation relating to the Waste Framework Directive requires the reuse of packaging items above recycling and disposal. Wooden pallets consist of three or four stringers that support several deckboards, on top of which goods are placed. In a pallet measurement, the first number is the stringer length and the second is the deckboard length. Square or nearly square pallets help a load resist tipping. Two-way pallets are designed to be lifted by the deckboards; the standard 48x40 North American pallet, or GMA pallet, has stringers of 48 inches and deckboards of 40 inches, was standardized by the Grocery Manufacturers Association.
A standard wooden pallet with a static load bearing capacity of 3 short tons and a 1-short-ton dynamic capacity, will weigh 33 to 48 lb Lightweight plastic pallets can weigh as little as 3 to 15 pounds, while heavier models may weight up to 30 pounds. Standard GMA pallets can hold up to 460 pounds. GMA pallets weighs 37 pounds, are 6 1⁄2 inches tall, their deck boards measure 3 1⁄4 inches wide and are 5⁄16 inch thick each. Other dimensions of pallets have different weight capacities. Heavy duty IPPC two-way entry wooden pallets from Germany are 44 inches wide by 48 inches long, have three wood stringers that are a nominal 4 inches high by 3 inches wide timber, weigh about 80 pounds, their deck is covered by 30 mm plywood, has a heavy metal "Z" clip at the middle edge of each side. Four-way pallets, or pallets for heavy loads are best lifted by their more rigid stringers; these pallets are heavier and more durable than two-way pallets. Pallet users want pallets to pass through buildings, to stack and fit in racks, to be accessible to forklifts and pallet jacks and to function in automated warehouses.
To avoid shipping air, pallets should pack inside intermodal containers and vans. No universally accepted. Companies and organizations utilize hundreds of different pallet sizes around the globe. While no single dimensional standard governs pallet production, a few different sizes are used; the International Organization for Standardization sanctions six pallet dimensions, detailed in ISO Standard 6780: Flat pallets for intercontinental materials handling—Principal dimensions and tolerances: Of the top pallets used in North America, the most commo
Frenulum of lower lip
The frenulum labii inferioris is the frenulum of the lower lip
Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals; the largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, the Carnivora. In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes, they are the only living Synapsida. The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period around 300 million years ago, this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today's reptiles and birds; the line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split off several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids—sometimes referred to as mammal-like reptiles—before giving rise to the proto-mammals in the early Mesozoic era.
The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. The basic body type is quadruped, most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale—the largest animal on the planet. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to 211 years for the bowhead whale. All modern mammals give birth to live young, except the five species of monotremes, which are egg-laying mammals; the most species-rich group of mammals, the cohort called placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Most mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, tool use. Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation.
Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies—but can be solitary and territorial. Most mammals are polygynous. Domestication of many types of mammals by humans played a major role in the Neolithic revolution, resulted in farming replacing hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for humans; this led to a major restructuring of human societies from nomadic to sedentary, with more co-operation among larger and larger groups, the development of the first civilizations. Domesticated mammals provided, continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as food and leather. Mammals are hunted and raced for sport, are used as model organisms in science. Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, appear in literature, film and religion. Decline in numbers and extinction of many mammals is driven by human poaching and habitat destruction deforestation. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus defined the class.
No classification system is universally accepted. George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" provides systematics of mammal origins and relationships that were universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work made Simpson's classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group; the three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia: mice, porcupines, beavers and other gnawing mammals. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes and lemurs. According to Mammal Species of the World, 5,416 species were identified in 2006.
These were grouped into 153 families and 29 orders. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature completed a five-year Global Mammal Assessment for its IUCN Red List, which counted 5,488 species. According to a research published in the Journal of Mammalogy in 2018, the number of recognized mammal species is 6,495 species included 96 extinct; the word "mammal" is modern, from the scientific name Mammalia coined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, derived from the Latin mamma. In an influential 1988 paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes and therian m
History of English
English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon settlers. With the end of Roman rule in 410 AD, Latin ceased to be a major influence on the Celtic languages spoken by the majority of the population. People from what is now northwest Germany, west Denmark and the Netherlands settled in the British Isles from the mid-5th century and came to culturally dominate the bulk of southern Great Britain until the 7th century; the Anglo-Saxon language, now called Old English, originated as a group of Anglo-Frisian dialects which were spoken, at least by the settlers, in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It displaced to some extent the Celtic languages. Old English reflected the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms established in different parts of Britain; the Late West Saxon dialect became dominant. A significant subsequent influence on the shaping of Old English came from contact with the North Germanic languages spoken by the Scandinavian Vikings who conquered and colonized parts of Britain during the 8th and 9th centuries, which led to much lexical borrowing and grammatical simplification.
The Anglian dialects had a greater influence on Middle English. After the Norman conquest in 1066, Old English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English or Anglo-Saxon era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. The conquering Normans spoke a Romance langue d'oïl called Old Norman, which in Britain developed into Anglo-Norman. Many Norman and French loanwords entered the local language in this period in vocabulary related to the church, the court system and the government. Middle English was spoken to the late 15th century; the system of orthography, established during the Middle English period is still in use today. Changes in pronunciation, combined with the adoption of various foreign spellings, mean that the spelling of modern English words appears irregular. Early Modern English – the language used by Shakespeare – is dated from around 1500.
It incorporated many Renaissance-era loans from Latin and Ancient Greek, as well as borrowings from other European languages, including French and Dutch. Significant pronunciation changes in this period included the ongoing Great Vowel Shift, which affected the qualities of most long vowels. Modern English proper, similar in most respects to that spoken today, was in place by the late 17th century; the English language came to be exported to other parts of the world through British colonisation, is now the dominant language in Britain and Ireland, the United States and Canada, New Zealand and many smaller former colonies, as well as being spoken in India, parts of Africa, elsewhere. Due to United States influence, English took on the status of a global lingua franca in the second half of the 20th century; this is true in Europe, where English has taken over the former roles of French and Latin as a common language used to conduct business and diplomacy, share scientific and technological information, otherwise communicate across national boundaries.
The efforts of English-speaking Christian missionaries has resulted in English becoming a second language for many other groups. Global variation among different English dialects and accents remains significant today. Scots, a form of English traditionally spoken in parts of Scotland and the north of Ireland, is sometimes treated as a separate language. English has its roots in the languages of the Germanic peoples of northern Europe. During the Roman Empire, most of the Germanic-inhabited area remained independent from Rome, although some southwestern parts were within the empire; some Germanics served in the Roman military, troops from Germanic tribes such as the Tungri, Batavi and Frisii served in Britain under Roman command. Germanic settlement and power expanded during the Migration Period, which saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire. A Germanic settlement of Britain took place from the 5th to the 7th century, following the end of Roman rule on the island; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates that around the year 449 Vortigern, king of the Britons, invited the "Angle kin" to help repel invading Picts, in return for lands in the southeast of Britain.
This led to waves of settlers who established seven kingdoms, known as the heptarchy. Bede, who wrote his Ecclesiastical History in AD 731, writes of invasion by Angles and Jutes, although the precise nature of the invasion and settlement and the contributions made by these particular groups are the subject of much dispute among historians; the languages spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in Britain were part of the West Germanic branch of the Germanic language family. They consisted of dialects from the Ingvaeonic grouping, spoken around the North Sea coast, in regions that lie within modern Denmark, north-west Germany and the Netherlands. Due to specific similarities between early English and Old Frisian, an Anglo-Frisian grouping is identified; these dialects had most of the typical West Germanic features, including a significant amount of grammatical inflection. Vocabulary came from the core Germanic stock, although due to the Germanic peoples' extensive contacts
Tetrapods are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda. It includes existing and extinct amphibians and mammals. Tetrapods evolved from a group of animals known as the Tetrapodomorpha which, in turn, evolved from ancient Sarcopterygii around 390 million years ago in the middle Devonian period; the first tetrapods appeared by the late Devonian, 367.5 million years ago. The change from a body plan for breathing and navigating in water to a body plan enabling the animal to move on land is one of the most profound evolutionary changes known; the first tetrapods were aquatic. Modern amphibians, which evolved from earlier groups, are semiaquatic. However, most tetrapod species today are amniotes, most of those are terrestrial tetrapods whose branch evolved from earlier tetrapods about 340 million years ago; the key innovation in amniotes over amphibians is laying of eggs on land or having further evolved to retain the fertilized egg within the mother. Amniote tetrapods drove most amphibian tetrapods to extinction.
One group of amniotes diverged into the reptiles, which includes lepidosaurs, crocodilians and extinct relatives. Amniotes include the tetrapods that further evolved for flight—such as birds from among the dinosaurs, bats from among the mammals; some tetrapods, such as the snakes, have lost some or all of their limbs through further speciation and evolution. Others, such as amphibians, returned to or aquatic lives, the first during the Carboniferous period. Tetrapods have numerous anatomical and physiological features that are distinct from their aquatic ancestors; these include the structure of the jaw and teeth for feeding on land, limb girdles and extremities for land locomotion, lungs for respiration in air, a heart for circulation, eyes and ears for seeing and hearing in air. Tetrapods can be defined in cladistics as the nearest common ancestor of all living amphibians and all living amniotes, along with all of the descendants of that ancestor; this is a node-based definition. The group so defined is crown tetrapods.
The term tetrapodomorph is used for the stem-based definition: any animal, more related to living amphibians, reptiles and mammals than to living dipnoi. The group so defined is known as the tetrapod total group. Stegocephalia is a larger group equivalent to some broader uses of the word tetrapod, used by scientists who prefer to reserve tetrapod for the crown group; such scientists use the term "stem-tetrapod" to refer to those tetrapod-like vertebrates that are not members of the crown group, including the tetrapodomorph fishes. The two subclades of crown tetrapods are Reptiliomorpha. Batrachomorphs are all animals sharing a more recent common ancestry with living amphibians than with living amniotes. Reptiliomorphs are all animals sharing a more recent common ancestry with living amniotes than with living amphibians. Tetrapoda includes four living classes: amphibians, reptiles and birds. Overall, the biodiversity of lissamphibians, as well as of tetrapods has grown exponentially over time. However, that diversification process was interrupted at least a few times by major biological crises, such as the Permian–Triassic extinction event, which at least affected amniotes.
The overall composition of biodiversity was driven by amphibians in the Palaeozoic, dominated by reptiles in the Mesozoic and expanded by the explosive growth of birds and mammals in the Cenozoic. As biodiversity has grown, so has the number of niches that tetrapods have occupied; the first tetrapods were aquatic and fed on fish. Today, the Earth supports a great diversity of tetrapods that live in many habitats and subsist on a variety of diets; the following table shows summary estimates for each tetrapod class from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3, for the number of extant species that have been described in the literature, as well as the number of threatened species. The classification of tetrapods has a long history. Traditionally, tetrapods are divided into four classes based on gross anatomical and physiological traits. Snakes and other legless reptiles are considered tetrapods because they are sufficiently like other reptiles that have a full complement of limbs. Similar considerations apply to aquatic mammals.
Newer taxonomy is based on cladistics instead, giving a variable number of major "branches" of the tetrapod family tree. As is the case throughout evolutionary biology today, there is debate over how to properly classify the groups within Tetrapoda. Traditional biological classification sometimes fa