Seat of local government
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, a guildhall, a Rathaus, or a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality. It usually houses the city or town council, its associated departments and it usually functions as the base of the mayor of a city, borough, or county / shire. By convention, until the mid 19th-century, a large open chamber formed an integral part of the building housing the council. The hall may be used for meetings and other significant events. This large chamber, the hall, has become synonymous with the whole building. The terms council chambers, municipal building or variants may be used locally in preference to town hall if no such large hall is present within the building, the local government may endeavor to use the town hall building to promote and enhance the quality of life of the community. In many cases, town halls serve not only as buildings for government functions and these may include art shows, stage performances and festivals.
Modern town halls or civic centres are designed with a great variety and flexibility of purpose in mind. As symbols of government and town halls have distinctive architecture. City hall buildings may serve as icons that symbolize their cities. The term town hall may be a one, often applied without regard to whether the building serves or served a town or a city. This is generally the case in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Hong Kong, english-speakers in some regions use the term city hall to designate the council offices of a municipality of city status. This is the case in North America, where a distinction is made between city halls and town halls, and is the case with Brisbane City Hall in Australia. The great hall of the town-house or municipal building, now commonly applied to the whole building city hall. Conversely, cities that have subdivisions with their own councils may have borough halls, in Scotland, local government in larger cities operates from the City Chambers, otherwise the Town House.
Elsewhere in English-speaking countries, other names are occasionally used, in London, the official headquarters of administration of the City of London retains its Anglo-Saxon name, the Guildhall, signifying a place where taxes were paid. In a small number of English cities the preferred term is Council House, this was the case in Bristol until 2012, when the building was renamed City Hall. In Birmingham, there is a distinction between the Council House, the seat of government, and the Town Hall, a concert
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
Basilica of Our Lady Help of Christians, Turin
The Basilica of Our Lady Help of Christians is a church in Turin, northern Italy. Originally part of the home for boys founded by John Bosco, it now contains the remains of Bosco. The basilica enshrines an image of the Blessed Virgin Mary under the title Our Lady Help of Christians, pope Leo XIII granted a Canonical coronation to the painted image on 17 May 1903 via his Papal legate, Cardnal Agostino Richelmy. In addition, the church housing Boscos relics was conceived by Antonio Spezia, the consecration took place in 1868. According to legend, a vision of the Virgin Mary appeared in a dream to John Bosco in 1844 or 1845 and revealed the site of the martyrdom of the Turinese saints Solutor, the Basilica dellAusiliatrice was built on the site of their death. The church houses the relics of these saints, Basilica of Our Lady Help of Christians, Belmont Abbey Roman Catholic Marian churches Short history of the sanctuary
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I, known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and he became King of Italy in 1155 and was crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155. Two years later, the term sacrum first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire and he was formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule, Barbarossa means red beard in Italian, in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbart, before his imperial election, Frederick was by inheritance Duke of Swabia. He was the son of Duke Frederick II of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and Judith, daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, Frederick therefore descended from the two leading families in Germany, making him an acceptable choice for the Empires prince-electors. Historians consider him among the Holy Roman Empires greatest medieval emperors, in 1147 he became Duke of the southern German region of Swabia, and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade.
The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself, when Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 the kingdoms princely electors designated him as the next German king and he was crowned King of the Romans at Aachen several days later, on 9 March 1152. Fredericks father was from the Hohenstaufen family, and his mother was from the Welf family, the Hohenstaufens were often called Ghibellines, which derives from the Italianized name for Waiblingen castle, the family seat in Swabia, the Welfs, in a similar Italianization, were called Guelfs. The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V left the status of the German empire in disarray, for a quarter of a century following the death of Henry V in 1125, the German monarchy was largely a nominal title with no real power. The king was chosen by the princes, was given no resources outside those of his own duchy, the royal title was furthermore passed from one family to another to preclude the development of any dynastic interest in the German crown.
When Frederick I of Hohenstaufen was chosen as king in 1152, royal power had been in abeyance for over twenty-five years. The only real claim to lay in the rich cities of northern Italy. The Salian line had died out with the death of Henry V in 1125, one of the Hohenstaufens gained the throne as Conrad III of Germany. When Frederick Barbarossa succeeded his uncle in 1152, there seemed to be excellent prospects for ending the feud, the Welf duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, would not be appeased, remaining an implacable enemy of the Hohenstaufen monarchy. Barbarossa had the duchies of Swabia and Franconia, the force of his own personality, the Germany that Frederick tried to unite was a patchwork of more than 1600 individual states, each with its own prince. A few of these, such as Bavaria and Saxony, were large, many were too small to pinpoint on a map. The titles afforded to the German king were Caesar, Augustus, by the time Frederick would assume these, they were little more than propaganda slogans with little other meaning
Basilica of Superga
The Basilica of Superga is a church in the vicinity of Turin. It was built from 1717 to 1731 for Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, designed by Filippo Juvarra and this fulfilled a vow the duke had made during the Battle of Turin, after defeating the besieging French army within the War of the Spanish Succession. The architect alluded to earlier styles while adding a baroque touch, the church contains the tombs of many princes and kings of the House of Savoy, including the Monument to Carlo Emanuele III by Ignazio Collino and his brother Filippo. Under the church are the tombs of the Savoy family, including most of its members and this church by Juvarra is considered late Baroque-Classicism. The dome was completed in 1726 and resembles some elements of Michelangelos dome at St. Peters Basilica and this is no coincidence as Juvarra studied and worked in Rome for ten years prior to working in Turin. The temple front protrudes from a dome structure citing the Pantheon, the temple front is larger than typical proportions because the Superga is set upon this hill.
It is believed that Victor Amadeus wanted the basilica to rest on this hill as reminder of the power of the Savoy family as well as continue a line of sight to the castle in Rivolli. Later, the Stupinigi completed the triangle between the three residences of Savoy, the Royal Crypt of Superga is the burial place of the Savoy family. Victor Amadeus, having knelt down in front of an old prop, swore that, in case of victory, from dawn until the early hours of the afternoon of September 7 the armies clashed in the fields at Jaya and Madonna di Campagna. Piedmontese armies achieved victory over the French, the entrance of the basilica with its portico supported by eight columns. Vittorio Amedeo was crowned King of Sicily and he entrusted the design of this building to Filippo Juvarra. The mountain at which the Basilica is found was the site of the Superga air disaster of Grande Torino football team in 1949. The Royal crypt is the burial place of members of the House of Savoy, successively Dukes of Savoy, Kings of Sardinia.
Two kings of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II and Umberto I have been interred in the Pantheon, Rome. The earlier generations of the House of Savoy as well as the last king of Italy, Umberto II, are buried in Hautecombe Abbey, padre Benedetto Marengo, La Basilica di Superga. Cenni storici del più grande monumento juvarriano, Tipografia Scarafaglio, Torino,1997 Reina Gabriele, Guadalupi Gianni, il Mausoleo dei Savoia, Omega,2008, ISBN 88-7241-528-4 official site
In the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp. Castrum was the used for different sizes of camps including a large legionary fortress, smaller auxiliary forts, temporary encampments. The diminutive form castellum was used for fortlets, typically occupied by a detachment of a cohort or a century, in English, the terms Roman fortress, Roman fort and Roman camp are commonly used for castrum. However, scholastic convention tends toward the use of the camp, marching camp. For a list of known castra see List of castra, the term castrum appears in three Italic languages, Oscan and Latin. g. Castrum Album, Castrum Inui, Castrum Novum, Castrum Truentinum, Castrum Vergium. The plural was used as a place name, as Castra Cornelia. Castrorum Filius was one of names used by the emperor Caligula, the terms stratopedon and phrourion were used by Greek language authors to translate castrum and castellum, respectively. A castrum was designed to house and protect the soldiers, their equipment and this most detailed description that survives about Roman military camps is De Munitionibus Castrorum, a manuscript of 11 pages that dates most probably from the late 1st to early 2nd century AD.
Regulations required a major unit in the field to retire to a properly constructed camp every day, to this end a marching column ported the equipment needed to build and stock the camp in a baggage train of wagons and on the backs of the soldiers. They could throw up a camp under enemy attack in as little as a few hours. Judging from the names, they used a repertory of camp plans, selecting the one appropriate to the length of time a legion would spend in it, tertia castra, quarta castra. A camp of three days, four days, more permanent camps were castra stativa, standing camps. The least permanent of these were castra aestiva or aestivalia, summer camps, in which the soldiers were housed sub pellibus or sub tentoriis, under tents. For the winter the soldiers retired to castra hiberna containing barracks and other buildings of solid materials. The camp allowed the Romans to keep a rested and supplied army in the field, neither the Celtic nor Germanic armies had this capability, they found it necessary to disperse after only a few days.
The largest castra were legionary fortresses built as bases for one or more whole legions, legions were raised for specific military campaigns and subsequently disbanded, requiring only temporary castra. From on many castra of various sizes were established many of which became permanent settlements, from the most ancient times Roman camps were constructed according to a certain ideal pattern, formally described in two main sources, the De Munitionibus Castrorum and the works of Polybius
Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia
Victor Amadeus II was Duke of Savoy from 1675 to 1730. He held the titles of marquis of Saluzzo, duke of Montferrat, prince of Piedmont, count of Aosta, Louis XIV organised his marriage in order to maintain French influence in the Duchy but Victor Amadeus soon broke away from the influence of France. Having fought in the War of the Spanish Succession, he became king of Sicily in 1713 but he was forced to exchange this title, Victor Amadeus was born in Turin to Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and his second wife Marie Jeanne of Savoy. Named after his paternal grandfather Victor Amadeus I he was their only child, as an infant he was styled as the Prince of Piedmont, traditional title of the heir apparent to the duchy of Savoy. A weak child, his health was greatly monitored, as an infant he had a passion for soldiers and was noted as being very intelligent. His father died in June 1675 Turin at the age of forty after a series of convulsive fevers and his mother was declared Regent of Savoy and Marie Jeanne, known as Madame Royale at court, took power.
The duchy would revert to the Kingdom of Portugal at her death. Victor Amadeus refused and a party was formed which refused to recognise his leaving Savoy. Despite a marriage contract being signed between Portugal and Savoy on 15 May 1679, the marriage between Victor Amadeus and the Infanta came to nothing and was thus cancelled, other candidates included Maria Antonia of Austria, a Countess Palatine of Neuburg and Anna Maria Luisa de Medici. Victor Amadeus was keen on the match with Tuscany and negotiations were kept secret from France even though the match never happened, under the influence of Louis XIV and Marie Jeanne, Victor Amadeus was forced to marry a French princess Anne Marie dOrléans. His mother was keen on the match and had always promoted French interests having been born in Paris a member of a branch of the House of Savoy. A significant event of his mothers regency was the Salt Wars of 1680 and these rebellions were caused by the unpopular taxes on salt in all cities in Savoy.
The system had been put in place by Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy in order to raise money for the crown, the unrest caused an army to be sent to stop the unrest in the town, which was pacified quickly. However, in the town of Montaldo, the unrest began again and was more serious than before,200 soldiers were killed in warfare which lasted for several days. The news of these rebellions soon reached a wider scope and it clear that soon the whole of Piedmont was on the verge of revolt. The event had allowed Victor Amadeus a chance to some power. Having succeeded in ending his mothers power in Savoy, Victor Amadeus looked to his marriage with the youngest child of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans. The contract of marriage between Anne Marie and the Duke of Savoy was signed at Versailles on 9 April, On 10 April 1684, Anne Marie was married at Versailles, by proxy, the couple were married in person on 6 May 1684
Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region and was the first capital city of Italy. The city is located mainly on the bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 892,649 while the population of the area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million, in 1997 a part of the historical center of Torino was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, many of Turins public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. This was after the capital of the Duchy of Savoy was moved to Turin from Chambery as part of the urban expansion, the city used to be a major European political center.
Turin was Italys first capital city in 1861 and home to the House of Savoy, from 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of the unified Italy. Turin is sometimes called the cradle of Italian liberty for having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour. The city currently hosts some of Italys best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, in addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana. Turins attractions make it one of the worlds top 250 tourist destinations, Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the worlds 78th richest city by purchasing power, as of 2010, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry, the Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont.
In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibals forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of Castra Taurinorum, both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurinis country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times. In the 1st century BC, the Romans created a military camp, the typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the path of the Roman citys decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani. The Porta Palatina, on the side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral
Charlemagne or Charles the Great, numbered Charles I, was the King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774 and Emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages and he was the first recognised emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state which Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire, Charlemagne was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon. He became king in 768 following his fathers death, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I, carlomans sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. He continued his fathers policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and he campaigned against the Saxons to his east, Christianising them upon penalty of death and leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Old St.
Peters Basilica. Charlemagne has been called the Father of Europe, as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire and his rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church. All Holy Roman Emperors considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagnes empire, up to the last Emperor Francis II and these and other machinations led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. Charlemagne died in 814, having ruled as emperor for thirteen years and he was laid to rest in his imperial capital of Aachen in what is today Germany. He married at least four times and had three sons, but only his son Louis the Pious survived to succeed him. By the 6th century, the western Germanic Franks had been Christianised, ruled by the Merovingians, was the most powerful of the kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire. Following the Battle of Tertry the Merovingians declined into powerlessness, for which they have dubbed the rois fainéants.
Almost all government powers were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace, in 687, Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry. He became the governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Pepin was the grandson of two important figures of the Austrasian Kingdom, Saint Arnulf of Metz and Pepin of Landen, Pepin of Herstal was eventually succeeded by his illegitimate son Charles, known as Charles Martel. After 737, Charles governed the Franks in lieu of a king, Charles was succeeded in 741 by his sons Carloman and Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. In 743, the brothers placed Childeric III on the throne to curb separatism in the periphery and he was the last Merovingian king. Carloman resigned office in 746, preferring to enter the church as a monk, Pepin brought the question of the kingship before Pope Zachary, asking whether it was logical for a king to have no royal power
The Roman circus was a large open-air venue used for public events in the ancient Roman Empire. The circuses were similar to the ancient Greek hippodromes, although circuses served varying purposes and differed in design, along with theatres and amphitheatres, Circuses were one of the main entertainment sites of the time. Circuses were venues for chariot races, horse races, and performances that commemorated important events of the empire were performed there, for events that involved re-enactments of naval battles, the circus was flooded with water. The Circus of Maxentius epitomises the design, the median strip was called the spina and usually featured ornate columns and commemorative obelisks. The turning points on either end of the spina were usually marked by conical poles, one circus, that at Antinopolis, displays a distinct gap of some 50m between the carceres and the start of the ascending seating where there is apparently no structure. This appears to be an exception, the great majority of circuses fit the description above.
These latter circuses are normally small, and should probably be considered stadiums, there are similar buildings, called stadia, which were used for Greek style athletics. These buildings were similar in design but typically smaller than circuses, however, an example of this type is the Stadium of Domitian. Although circuses such as the Circus Maximus may have existed in form from as early as around 500BC. The comparative dimensions of a circus may be measured in 2 basic ways, by the length of the track, other dimensions, such as the external dimensions of the structure may vary considerably depending on the location, the site, and on specific architectural characteristics. The simplest comparative measurement of a circus is its track length and this is the most easily measured dimension, as it only requires small excavations at either end of the centreline. It is very probable that this can be even when the circus is buried under subsequent constructions. Track lengths may vary from the 245m of the circus at Gerasa, the alternative comparative dimension is that of seating capacity.
This is much more complex to measure as it requires that the dimensions of the vertical and horizontal extent of the inclined seating be re-established. Seating capacity may vary from around 15,000 people at Gerasa, Circuses do not appear to have been constructed with any special compass orientation. Those that are well identified can be found with their round ends oriented around the compass. Circuses can be found at 3 distinct locations relative to the towns to which belong, outside the city walls at anything up to 1.5 km distant, as at, Gerasa. Simply within the walls, as at, Thessalonica
A cardo was the Latin name given to a north-south street in Ancient Roman cities and military camps as an integral component of city planning. The cardo maximus was the main or central north–south-oriented street, the cardo maximus was the hinge or axis of the city, derived from the same root as cardinal and as such was generally lined with shops and vendors, and served as a hub of economic life. Most Roman cities had a Decumanus Maximus, an east-west street that served as a main street. Due to varying geography, in cities the Decumanus is the main street and the Cardo is secondary. The Forum was normally located at, or close to, the intersection of the Decumanus, the thoroughfare was about 1.85 kilometres long and 37 metres wide, as it was used for wheeled transport. The great colonnade was erected in the 2nd century and it was standing until the 12th. The earthquakes of 1157 and 1170 demolished the colonnade, the cardo was lined on both sides with civic and religious buildings. The excavations at Jerash in Jordan have unearthed the remains of an ancient Roman city on the site, hohe Strasse and Schildergasse in Cologne, Germany may be taken as examples of streets that have kept their course and function of Cardo and Decumanus Maximus until this day.
After the Jewish rebellion led by Simon Bar Kokhba was crushed by Hadrian in the 130s AD, Hadrian built a Roman colony in its place, naming it Colonia Aelia Capitolina, after the Roman deities Jupiter and Minerva, worshiped at the Capitoline Hill temple in Rome. Like many Roman colonies, Aelia Capitolina was laid out with a Hippodamian grid plan of narrower streets and wider avenues. The southern addition to the Cardo, constructed under Justinian in the 6th century AD, along its length, the roadway was divided into three parts, two colonnaded covered walks flanking a 12 meter wide road. The central open pavement provided commercial access as well as ritual space, the Cardo’s most striking visual feature was its colonnade, clearly depicted on the Madaba Map. Simple bases supported monolithic shafts, spaced 5.77 meters apart, the shafts supported Byzantine-style Corinthian capitals – intricately carved, but more stylized versions of their Classical counterparts. Although this combination of elements was uniform the preserved examples display some variation in the profile and size of the bases, and in the pattern of the capitals.
Despite aesthetic differences, the height of the base and capital units of the colonnade was five meters. The wall of the Cardo’s eastern portico featured an arcade that housed various stalls and workshops leased by craftsmen, the line of the Cardo Maximus is still visible on the Jewish Quarter Street, though the original pavement lies several meters below the modern street level. In the 7th century, when Jerusalem fell under Muslim rule, remains of the Byzantine Cardo were found in the Jewish Quarter excavations beginning in 1969. In 1971, a plan for preserving the ancient street was submitted by architects Peter Bogod, Esther Krendel and their proposal relied heavily on the sixth century Madaba map, a mosaic map of Jerusalem found in 1897 in Madaba, Jordan
Palazzo Madama, Turin
Palazzo Madama e Casaforte degli Acaja is a palace in Turin, northern Italy. It was the first Senate of the Italian Kingdom, and takes its name from the embellishments it received under two queens of the House of Savoy. At the beginning of the first century BC, the site of the palace was occupied by a gate in the Roman walls from which the decumanus maximus of Augusta Taurinorum departed, two of the towers, although restored, still testify to this original nucleus. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the gate was used as a stronghold in the defences of the city. Later the building became a possession of the Savoia-Acaja, a branch of the House of Savoy, in the early 14th century. A century Ludovico of Acaja rebuilt it in shape, with an inner court and a portico. The form of this edifice is still recognizable from the back section of the palace. After the extinction of the Acajas, the became a residence for guests of the house of Savoy. In 1637 the regent for Duke Charles Emmanuel II, Christine Marie of France and she commissioned the covering of the court and a revamping of the inner apartments.
Sixty years another regent, Marie Jeanne of Savoy, who was known as Madama Reale and she conferred upon it definitively the nickname of Madama. She invited many artists to renovate the building which the duchess wanted to turn into a royal palace. The duchess asked architect Filippo Juvarra to design a new Baroque palace in white stone, the palace had various uses, and housed the headquarters of the provisional French government during the Napoleonic Wars. In the 19th century King Charles Albert selected it as seat of the Pinacoteca Regia, the art gallery. Since 1934 it has housed to the City Museum of Ancient Art, overlooking Piazza Castello, the section built by Juvarra constitutes today a scenographic façade a single bay deep, screening the rear part of the edifice, which has remained unchanged. Each pilaster stands on a sturdy and formal fielded channel-rusticated base against the masonry of the ground floor. Their prominence is emphasised by the tall socles on which they stand, on either side the bays windows are set together within a slightly recessed panel, thus there are three layered planes to the façade.
The dentiled cornice supported on consoles in the frieze breaks forward over the central columns. A conforming balustrade decorated with vases and statues in white marble surmounts the façade, the Palazzo Madama houses Turins Turin City Museum of Ancient Art