United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio
Cameroon–United States relations
Cameroon–United States relations are international relations between Cameroon and the United States. The relations are close, although they have sometimes been affected by concerns over human rights abuses and the pace of political and economic liberalization; the bilateral United States Agency for International Development program in Cameroon closed for budgetary reasons in 1994. However 140 Peace Corps volunteers continue to work in agroforestry, community development and health; the Public Affairs section of the U. S. Embassy in Yaoundé organizes and funds diverse cultural and information exchanges, it maintains a library and helps foster the development of Cameroon's independent press by providing information in a number of areas, including U. S. human rights and democratization policies. The Embassy's Self-help and Democracy and Human Rights Funds are some of the largest in Africa. Through several State Department and USAID regional funds, the Embassy provides funds for refugees, HIV/AIDS, democratization and girl's scholarships.
The United States Department of Agriculture provided a commodity grant valued at $6 million in 2003 to fund agricultural development projects in the North and Far North provinces. A similar program for $4 million was approved in 2004; the program will fund an agricultural development and nutrition enhancement project in the East and Adamawa provinces. The United States and Cameroon work together in the United Nations and other multilateral organizations. While in the United Nations Security Council in 2002, Cameroon worked with the United States on initiatives; the U. S. Government continues to provide substantial funding for international financial institutions, such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, African Development Bank, that provide financial and other assistance to Cameroon; the U. S. Embassy in Cameroon is in Yaoundé. In October 2015 the US began committing troops to the American military intervention in Cameroon. Foreign relations of Cameroon Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm.
History of Cameroon - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of Cameroon and the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Egypt–United States relations
Egypt–United States relations refers to the current and historical relationship between Egypt and the United States. The U. S. had minimal dealings with Egypt when it was controlled by Britain. President Gamal Abdel Nasser antagonized the U. S. by his pro-Soviet policies and anti-Israeli rhetoric, but the U. S. helped keep him in power by forcing Britain and France to end their invasion in 1956. American policy has been to provide strong support to governments that supported U. S. and Israeli interests in the region presidents Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak. Relations between Egypt and the United States date back to the late 19th century. Modern relations were established in 1922 when the United States recognized Egypt's independence from a protectorate status of the United Kingdom. In 1956, the U. S. was alarmed at the closer ties between Egypt and the Soviet Union, prepared the OMEGA Memorandum as a stick to reduce the regional power of President Gamal Abdel Nasser. When Egypt recognized Communist China, the U.
S. ended talks about funding the Aswan Dam, a high prestige project much desired by Egypt. The dam was built by the Soviet Union; when Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, the Suez Crisis erupted with Britain and France threatening war to retake control of the canal and depose Nasser. Israel did invade the Suez in October 1956, Britain and France sent in troops to seize the canal. Using heavy diplomatic and economic pressure, the Eisenhower administration forced Britain and France to withdraw soon, leading to a warming of relations between the U. S. and Egypt. After the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from the fiery Nasser to the much more moderate Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat]realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab–Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance U. S.–Egyptian relations to foster a peace process with Israel.
After a seven-year hiatus, both countries reestablished normal diplomatic relations on February 28, 1974. Sadat asked Moscow for help, Washington responded by offering more favorable of armys financial aid and technology; the advantages included Egypt's expulsion of 20,000 Soviet advisors and the reopening of the Suez Canal, were seen by Nixon as "an investment in peace." Encouraged by Washington, Sadat opened negotiations with Israel, resulting most notably in the Camp David Accords brokered by President Jimmy Carter and made peace with Israel in a historic peace treaty in 1979. Sadat's domestic policy, called'Infitah,' was aimed at modernizing the economy and removing Nasser's heavy-handed controls. Sadat realized American aid was essential to that goal, it allowed him to disengage from the Israeli conflict, to pursue a regional peace policy. Following the peace treaty with Israel, between 1979 and 2003, Egypt acquired about $19 billion in military aid, making Egypt the second largest non-NATO recipient of U.
S. military aid after Israel. Egypt received about $30 billion in economic aid within the same time frame. In 2009, the U. S. provided a military assistance of US$1.3 billion, an economic assistance of US$250 million. In 1989 both Egypt and Israel became a Major non-NATO ally of the United States. Military cooperation between the U. S. and Egypt is the strongest aspect of their strategic partnership. General Anthony Zinni, the former Commandant of the U. S. Central Command, once said, "Egypt is the most important country in my area of responsibility because of the access it gives me to the region." Egypt was described during the Clinton Administration as the most prominent player in the Arab world and a key U. S. ally in the Middle East. U. S. military assistance to Egypt was considered part of the administration's strategy to maintaining continued availability of Persian Gulf energy resources and to secure the Suez Canal, which serves both as an important international oil route and a critical route for U.
S. warships transiting between the Mediterranean and either the the Persian Gulf. Egypt is the strongest military power on the African continent, according to Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies' annual Middle East Strategic Balance, the second largest in the Middle East, after Israel. Despite differences and periods of friction in relations between the two countries, the U. S.–Egyptian relations under Mubarak had evolved, moving beyond the Middle East peace process towards an independent bilateral friendship. It was in the U. S. interest that Egypt was able to present moderate voice in Arab councils and persuade other Arab states to join the peace process and to normalize their relations with the U. S; however Egyptian–American relations have become a little tense. This is due to a great extent to the Egyptian unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistan and Iraq in peace stabilization missions. Egypt backed the U. S. in its war against international terrorism after the September 11th attacks of 2001 but refused to send troops to Afghanistan during the war and after it.
Egypt opposed U. S. military intervention of March 2003 in Iraq through their membership in the African Union and the Arab League, continued to oppose U. S. occupation of the country after the war and further refused to comply with U. S. requests to send troops to the country under a UN umbrella. The issue of participation in the post-war construction efforts in Iraq has been controversial in Egypt and in the Arab world as a whole. Opponents say that the war was illegal and it is
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Foreign relations of the United States
The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. This includes all U. N. member states except for Bhutan, North Korea, Syria. Additionally, the U. S. has diplomatic relations with the Holy See and Kosovo. The United States federal statutes relating to foreign relations can be found in Title 22 of the United States Code. American relations with Eastern Europe are influenced by the legacy of the Cold War. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, former Communist-bloc states in Europe have transitioned to democracy and capitalism. Many have joined the European Union and NATO, strengthening economic ties with the broader Western world and gaining the military protection of the United States via the North Atlantic Treaty; the United States has many important allies in the Greater Middle East region. These allies are Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Kuwait and Qatar. Israel and Egypt are leading recipients of United States foreign aid, receiving $2.775 billion and 1.75 billion in 2010.
Turkey is an ally of the United States through its membership in NATO, while all of the other countries except Saudi Arabia and Qatar are major non-NATO allies. The United States toppled the government of Saddam Hussein during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Turkey is host to 90 B61 nuclear bombs at Incirlik Air Base. Other allies include Qatar, where 3,500 U. S. troops are based, Bahrain, where the United States Navy maintains NSA Bahrain, home of NAVCENT and the Fifth Fleet. Many countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations are important partners for United States in both economic and geostrategic aspects. ASEAN's geostrategic importance stems from many factors, including: the strategic location of member countries, the large shares of global trade that pass through regional waters, the alliances and partnerships which the United States shares with ASEAN member states. In July 2009, the United States signed ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, which establishes guiding principles intended to build confidence among its signatories with the aim of maintaining regional peace and stability.
Trade flows are robust and increasing between the ASEAN region. Belarus Libya Sudan Syria Yemen Andorra Antigua and Barbuda Bhutan Comoros Dominica Grenada Guinea-Bissau Iran Kiribati Liechtenstein Maldives Monaco Nauru North Korea Palestine Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino São Tomé and Príncipe Seychelles Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland South Ossetia Transnistria Arctic policy of the United States Criticism of United States foreign policy Foreign policy of the United States List of diplomatic missions in the United States List of diplomatic missions of the United States Major non-NATO ally United States involvement in regime change United States foreign aid Watching America Guide to Countries, Office of the Historian, U. S. Department of State This article i