Fidelio, Op. 72, is Ludwig van Beethoven's only opera. The German libretto was prepared by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly, with the work premiering at Vienna's Theater an der Wien on 20 November 1805; the following year, Stephan von Breuning helped shorten the work from three acts to two. After further work on the libretto by Georg Friedrich Treitschke, a final version was performed at the Kärntnertortheater on 23 May 1814. By convention, both of the first two versions are referred to as Leonore; the libretto, with some spoken dialogue, tells how Leonore, disguised as a prison guard named "Fidelio", rescues her husband Florestan from death in a political prison. Bouilly's scenario fits Beethoven's aesthetic and political outlook: a story of personal sacrifice and eventual triumph. With its underlying struggle for liberty and justice mirroring contemporary political movements in Europe, such topics are typical of Beethoven's "middle period". Notable moments in the opera include the "Prisoners' Chorus", an ode to freedom sung by a chorus of political prisoners, Florestan's vision of Leonore come as an angel to rescue him, the scene in which the rescue takes place.
The finale celebrates Leonore's bravery with alternating contributions of soloists and chorus. The work has a long and complicated history of composition: it went through three versions during Beethoven's career, some of the music was first written as part of an earlier, never-completed opera; the distant origin of Fidelio dates from 1803, when the librettist and impresario Emanuel Schikaneder worked out a contract with Beethoven to write an opera. The contract included free housing for Beethoven in the apartment complex, part of Schikaneder's large suburban theater, the Theater an der Wien. Beethoven was to set a new libretto by Schikaneder, entitled Vestas Feuer, he spent about a month composing music for it abandoned it when the libretto for Fidelio came to his attention. The time Beethoven spent on Vestas Feuer was not wasted, as two important numbers from Fidelio, Pizarro's "'Ha! Welch’ ein Augenblick!" and the duet "O namenlose Freude" for Leonora and Florestan, both originated as music for Vestas Feuer.
Beethoven remained as a resident of the Theater an der Wien for some time after he had abandoned Vestas Feuer for Fidelio, was freed from his obligations to Schikaneder when the latter was fired from his post as theater director in 1804. Fidelio itself, which Beethoven began in 1804 after giving up on Vestas Feuer, was first performed in 1805 and was extensively revised by the composer for subsequent performances in 1806 and 1814. Although Beethoven used the title Leonore, oder Der Triumph der ehelichen Liebe, the 1805 performances were billed as Fidelio at the theatre's insistence, to avoid confusion with the 1798 opera Léonore, ou L’amour conjugal by Pierre Gaveaux, the 1804 opera Leonora by Ferdinando Paer. Beethoven published the 1806 libretto and, in 1810, a vocal score under the title Leonore, the current convention is to use the name Leonore for both the 1805 and 1806 versions and Fidelio only for the final 1814 revision; the first version with a three-act German libretto adapted by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly premiered at the Theater an der Wien on 20 November 1805, with additional performances the following two nights.
The success of these performances was hindered by the fact that Vienna was under French military occupation, most of the audience were French military officers. After this premiere, Beethoven was pressured by friends to revise and shorten the opera into just two acts, he did so with the help of Stephan von Breuning; the composer wrote a new overture. In this form the opera was first performed on 10 April 1806, with greater success. Further performances were prevented by a dispute between the theatre management. In 1814 Beethoven revised his opera yet again, with additional work on the libretto by Georg Friedrich Treitschke; this version was first performed at the Kärntnertortheater on 23 May 1814, again under the title Fidelio. The 17-year-old Franz Schubert was in the audience; the deaf Beethoven led the performance, "assisted" by Michael Umlauf, who performed the same task for Beethoven at the premiere of the Ninth Symphony. The role of Pizarro was taken by Johann Michael Vogl, who became known for his collaborations with Schubert.
This version of the opera was a great success, Fidelio has been part of the operatic repertory since. Although critics have noted the similarity in plot with Gluck's opera Orfeo ed Euridice—the underground rescue mission in which the protagonist must control, or conceal, his emotions in order to retrieve his or her spouse, we do not know whether or not Beethoven or any of the librettists had this in mind while constructing the opera. Beethoven can not be said to have enjoyed the difficulties posed by producing an opera. In a letter to Treitschke he said, "I assure you, dear Treitschke, that this opera will win me a martyr's crown. You have by your co-operation saved. For all this I shall be eternally grateful to you."The full score was not published until 1826, all three versions are known as Beethoven's Opus 72. The first performance outside Vienna took place in Prague on 21 November 1814, with a revival in
Der Ring des Nibelungen
Der Ring des Nibelungen, WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner. The works are based loosely on characters from the Nibelungenlied; the composer termed the cycle a "Bühnenfestspiel", structured in three days preceded by a Vorabend. It is referred to as the Ring Cycle, Wagner's Ring, or The Ring. Wagner wrote the libretto and music over the course of about twenty-six years, from 1848 to 1874; the four parts that constitute the Ring cycle are, in sequence: Das Rheingold Die Walküre Siegfried Götterdämmerung Individual works of the sequence have been performed separately, indeed the operas contain dialogues that mention events in the previous operas, so that a viewer could watch any of them without having watched the previous parts and still understand the plot. However, Wagner intended them to be performed in series; the first performance as a cycle opened the first Bayreuth Festival in 1876, beginning with Das Rheingold on 13 August and ending with Götterdämmerung on 17 August.
Opera stage director Anthony Freud stated that Der Ring des Nibelungen "marks the high-water mark of our art form, the most massive challenge any opera company can undertake." Wagner's title is most rendered in English as The Ring of the Nibelung. The Nibelung of the title is the dwarf Alberich, the ring in question is the one he fashions from the Rhine Gold; the title therefore denotes "Alberich's Ring". The "-en" suffix in "Nibelungen" can occur in a genitive singular, accusative singular, dative singular, or a plural in any case, but the article "des" preceding makes it clear that the genitive singular is intended here. "Nibelungen" is mistaken as a plural, but the Ring of the Nibelungs is incorrect. The cycle is a work of extraordinary scale; the most outstanding facet of the monumental work is its sheer length: a full performance of the cycle takes place over four nights at the opera, with a total playing time of about 15 hours, depending on the conductor's pacing. The first and shortest work, Das Rheingold, has no interval and is one continuous piece of music lasting around two and a half hours, while the final and longest, Götterdämmerung, takes up to five hours, excluding intervals.
The cycle is modelled after ancient Greek dramas that were presented as three tragedies and one satyr play. The Ring proper ends with Götterdämmerung, with Rheingold as a prelude. Wagner called Das Rheingold a Vorabend or "Preliminary Evening", Die Walküre, Siegfried and Götterdämmerung were subtitled First Day, Second Day and Third Day of the trilogy proper; the scale and scope of the story is epic. It follows the struggles of gods and several mythical creatures over the eponymous magic ring that grants domination over the entire world; the drama and intrigue continue through three generations of protagonists, until the final cataclysm at the end of Götterdämmerung. The music of the cycle is thick and richly textured, grows in complexity as the cycle proceeds. Wagner wrote for an orchestra of gargantuan proportions, including a enlarged brass section with new instruments such as the Wagner tuba, bass trumpet and contrabass trombone. Remarkably, he uses a chorus only briefly, in acts 2 and 3 of Götterdämmerung, mostly of men with just a few women.
He had a purpose-built theatre constructed, the Bayreuth Festspielhaus, in which to perform this work. The theatre has a special stage that blends the huge orchestra with the singers' voices, allowing them to sing at a natural volume; the result was that the singers did not have to strain themselves vocally during the long performances. The plot revolves around a magic ring that grants the power to rule the world, forged by the Nibelung dwarf Alberich from gold he stole from the Rhine maidens in the river Rhine; the Ring itself as described by Wagner is a Rune-magic taufr intended to rule the feminine multiplicative power by a fearful magical act termed as'denial of love'. With the assistance of the god Loge, Wotan – the chief of the gods – steals the ring from Alberich, but is forced to hand it over to the giants and Fasolt in payment for building the home of the gods, Valhalla, or they will take Freia, who provides the gods with the golden apples that keep them young. Wotan's schemes to regain the ring, spanning generations, drive much of the action in the story.
His grandson, the mortal Siegfried, wins the ring by slaying Fafner – as Wotan intended – but is betrayed and slain as a result of the intrigues of Alberich's son Hagen, who wants the ring for himself. The Valkyrie Brünnhilde – Siegfried's lover and Wotan's daughter who lost her immortality for defying her father in an attempt to save Siegfried's father Sigmund – returns the ring to the Rhine maidens as she commits suicide on Siegfried's funeral pyre. Hagen is drowned. In the process, the gods and Valhalla are destroyed. Details of the storylines can be found in the articles on each music drama. Wagner created the story of the Ring by fusing elements from many German and Scandinavian myths and folk tales; the Old Norse Edda supplied much of the material for Das Rheingold, while Die Walküre was based on the Völsunga saga. Siegfried contains elements from the Völsunga saga and Thidrekssaga; the final Götterdämmerung, draws from the 12th-century German poem, the Nibelungenlied, which appears to have been the original inspiration for
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in classical music, he remains one of the most recognised and influential of all composers, his best-known compositions include 9 symphonies. His career as a composer is conventionally divided into early and late periods. Beethoven was born in Bonn the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire, he displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe. At the age of 21 he moved to Vienna, where he began studying composition with Joseph Haydn and gained a reputation as a virtuoso pianist, he lived in Vienna until his death. By his late 20s his hearing began to deteriorate and by the last decade of his life he was completely deaf. In 1811 he continued to compose. Beethoven was the grandson of Ludwig van Beethoven, a musician from the town of Mechelen in the Austrian Duchy of Brabant who had moved to Bonn at the age of 21.
Ludwig was employed as a bass singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne rising to become, in 1761, Kapellmeister and thereafter the pre-eminent musician in Bonn. The portrait he commissioned of himself towards the end of his life remained displayed in his grandson's rooms as a talisman of his musical heritage. Ludwig had one son, who worked as a tenor in the same musical establishment and gave keyboard and violin lessons to supplement his income. Johann married Maria Magdalena Keverich in 1767. Beethoven was born of this marriage in Bonn. There is no authentic record of the date of his birth; as children of that era were traditionally baptised the day after birth in the Catholic Rhine country, it is known that Beethoven's family and his teacher Johann Albrechtsberger celebrated his birthday on 16 December, most scholars accept 16 December 1770 as his date of birth. Of the seven children born to Johann van Beethoven, only Ludwig, the second-born, two younger brothers survived infancy. Kaspar Anton Karl was born on 8 April 1774, Nikolaus Johann, the youngest, was born on 2 October 1776.
Beethoven's first music teacher was his father. He had other local teachers: the court organist Gilles van den Eeden, Tobias Friedrich Pfeiffer, Franz Rovantini. From the outset his tuition regime, which began in his fifth year, was harsh and intensive reducing him to tears, his musical talent was obvious at a young age. Johann, aware of Leopold Mozart's successes in this area, attempted to promote his son as a child prodigy, claiming that Beethoven was six on the posters for his first public performance in March 1778; some time after 1779, Beethoven began his studies with his most important teacher in Bonn, Christian Gottlob Neefe, appointed the Court's Organist in that year. Neefe taught him composition, by March 1783 had helped him write his first published composition: a set of keyboard variations. Beethoven soon began working with Neefe as assistant organist, at first unpaid, as a paid employee of the court chapel conducted by the Kapellmeister Andrea Luchesi, his first three piano sonatas, named "Kurfürst" for their dedication to the Elector Maximilian Friedrich, were published in 1783.
Maximilian Frederick noticed his talent early, subsidised and encouraged the young man's musical studies. Maximilian Frederick's successor as the Elector of Bonn was Maximilian Francis, the youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, he brought notable changes to Bonn. Echoing changes made in Vienna by his brother Joseph, he introduced reforms based on Enlightenment philosophy, with increased support for education and the arts; the teenage Beethoven was certainly influenced by these changes. He may have been influenced at this time by ideas prominent in freemasonry, as Neefe and others around Beethoven were members of the local chapter of the Order of the Illuminati. In December 1786, Beethoven travelled to Vienna, at his employer's expense, for the first time in the hope of studying with Mozart; the details of their relationship are uncertain, including whether they met. Having learned that his mother was ill, Beethoven returned to Bonn in May 1787, his mother died shortly thereafter, his father lapsed deeper into alcoholism.
As a result, he became responsible for the care of his two younger brothers, spent the next five years in Bonn. He was introduced in these years to several people. Franz Wegeler, a young medical student, intro
Queen Sofía of Spain
Sofía of Greece and Denmark is a member of the Spanish royal family who served as Queen of Spain during the reign of her husband, King Juan Carlos I, from 1975 to 2014. Queen Sofía is the first child of King Paul of Frederica of Hanover; as her family was forced into exile during the Second World War, she spent part of her childhood in South Africa, returning to Greece in 1946. She completed her secondary education in a boarding school in Germany before returning to Greece where she specialised in childcare and archaeology, she married Juan Carlos, son of the Spanish pretender Infante Juan, on 14 May 1962 with whom she has had three children: Elena and Felipe. She became queen upon her husband's accession in 1975. On 19 June 2014, Juan Carlos abdicated in favour of their son Felipe VI. Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark was born on 2 November 1938, in Psychiko, Greece, the eldest child of King Paul and his wife, Queen Frederica. Sofia is a member of the Greek branch of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg dynasty.
Her brother is the deposed King Constantine II and her sister is Princess Irene. Princess Sophia spent some of her childhood in Egypt where she took her early education in El Nasr Girls' College in Alexandria, she lived in South Africa during her family's exile from Greece during World War II, where her sister Irene was born. They returned to Greece in 1946, she finished her education at the prestigious Schloss Salem boarding school in Southern Germany, studied childcare and archeology in Athens. She studied at Fitzwilliam College, now, though not a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, she was a reserve member, alongside her brother Constantine, of Greece's gold medal-winning sailing team in the 1960 Summer Olympics. Sofía met her paternal third cousin the Infante Juan Carlos of Spain on a cruise in the Greek Islands in 1954; the couple married on 14 May 1962, at the Catholic Cathedral of Saint Dionysius in Athens. The bride's gown was made by Jean Dessès and she was attended by her sister Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark, the groom's sister Infanta Pilar of Spain, Sofía's future sister-in-law Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark, along with Princess Irene of the Netherlands, Princess Alexandra of Kent, Princess Benedikte of Denmark, Princess Anne of Orléans and Princess Tatiana Radziwill.
Sofia converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Roman Catholicism to become more palatable to Catholic Spain, thus relinquished her rights to the Greek throne. Along with this, the usual Latinisation of her Greek name was changed from Sophia to the Spanish variant, Sofía. In 1969, Infante Juan Carlos, never Prince of Asturias, was given the official title of "Prince of Spain" by the Spanish state. Juan Carlos acceded upon the death of Francisco Franco; the couple have three children: Elena. Their four grandsons and four granddaughters are Felipe and Victoria de Marichalar y de Borbón, Pablo and Irene Urdangarín y de Borbón, Leonor, Princess of Asturias and Sofía, all of whom are in the line of succession to the Spanish throne. Besides accompanying her husband on official visits and occasions, Queen Sofía has solo engagements, she is executive president of the Queen Sofía Foundation, which in 1993, sent funds for relief in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is honorary president of the Royal Board on Education and Care of Handicapped Persons of Spain, as well as the Spanish Foundation for Aid for Drug Addicts.
She takes special interest in programs against drug addiction, travelling to conferences in both Spain and abroad. The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía is named after her, as is Reina Sofía Airport in Tenerife; the Queen is an Honorary Member of the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts and of the Spanish Royal Academy of History. She has received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Rosario, Cambridge, Georgetown, Evora, St. Mary's University, New York. A keen supporter of sport, the Queen attended the final match of the 2010 Wimbledon Championships – Men's Singles where she watched Spanish tennis champion Rafael Nadal win for a second time, as well as the 2010 FIFA World Cup where the Spanish team was crowned as world champion. Queen Sofía has been honorary president of the Spanish Unicef Committee since 1971, she has been working with Dr. Muhammed Yunus on his Grameen Bank, which offers microcredits to women across the world. Queen Sofía has travelled to Bangladesh, Colombia, El Salvador and Mexico to support the activities of the organization led by Yunus.
Queen Sofía has been a strong supporter of Somaly Mam's efforts and of the NGO she founded—Agir pour les Femmes en Situation Précaire —in combatting child prostitution and slavery in Cambodia. In 1998, Mam was awarded the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation in her presence. In July 2012, the Queen visited the Philippines for a fourth time, she inspected several development projects around the former Spanish colony that her country's government is funding via the Agencia Española de Cooperacion Internacional para el Desarollo. She visited the National Library, National Museum and the University of Santo Tomas, which had the oldest extant university charter in Asia and housed the world's largest collection of
Vittorio Grigolo is an Italian operatic tenor. Grigolo was raised in Rome, he began singing by the age of four. When he was nine years old he accompanied his mother to have her eyes tested and, hearing someone singing from another room, he spontaneously began his own rendition of "Ave Maria"; the singer, the optician's father, was so impressed that he insisted Grigolo have an audition for the Sistine Chapel Choir as soon as possible. Young Vittorio was chosen to become part of Sistine Chapel Choir as a soloist, he studied for five years at the Schola Puerorum at the Sistine Chapel. At age 13 he played the Pastorello in a performance of Tosca at Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, where he shared the stage with Luciano Pavarotti and was given the nickname'Il Pavarottino'; when 18, Vittorio joined the Vienna Opera Company. He became the youngest man to perform in Milan's La Scala at age 23, he raced Pre-3000 Formula cars for a while until an accident limited his opportunities in this field. Giuseppe Verdi: Don Carlo, I Due Foscari, Un Ballo in Maschera, Luisa Miller, Messa da Requiem, Rigoletto, La Traviata, Il Corsaro.
The Capri Hollywood International Film Festival granted Grigolo a Capri Exploit Music Award. The award ceremony took place on January 1, 2008, on the island of Capri, where Grigolo performed a tribute to Leonard Bernstein. Grammy Award 2008 for Best Musical Show Album - West Side Story In the Hands of Love, West Side Story Incognito The Italian Tenor Arrivederci Ave Maria The Romantic Hero "You Are My Miracle" In April 2006 Grigolo made his debut with a concert held at the Royal Albert Hall in London, he returned to the RAH to appear alongside such singers as Plácido Domingo and Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, at the'Classical Brit Awards' evening, performing arias taken from his repertoire. In July 2006 Grigolo performed "Bedshaped" at the Miss Universe 2006 evening gown competition in the Los Angeles, USA. In September 2006 Grigolo appeared alongside Lionel Richie at ` Proms in England. In September 2006 Grigolo performed at the Macy's Passport fashion and charity events in the US, where he was the only musical entertainment, performing in front of a combined audience of 10,000.
In September 2006 Grigolo appeared on the US television series Dancing with the Stars. Promotional tour of Australia in October 2006. On October 16, 2006, Grigolo appeared in ABC's reality TV series The Bachelor. On November 14, 2006, Grigolo appeared on Dancing with the Stars in Australia. October 2007 Grigolo performed "Nessun Dorma" at the NIAF 32nd Gala Dinner, Washington, D. C. in tribute to Luciano Pavarotti. Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, London. Grigolo is appeared as Dr. Faust in Gounod's Faust. September 18, 2011. Recorded at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli, Italy. A live performance of tracks from his album, as well as a few additional pieces; the DVD was recorded for the Great Performances series on PBS TV USA. Grigolo plays Cassio in Giuseppe Verdi Otello recorded at Gran Teatre del Liceu Barcelona 2006'Camillo de Rossillon' in La vedova allegra at Roma Opera House, Rome December 2007'Rodolfo' in La bohème at the Kennedy Center Opera House, Washington, D. C. September 2007 and at Zurich Opera House, Oct/Nov 2009.
Stabat Mater by Rossini at Sydney Opera House Australia, May 2007'Alfredo' in La traviata at Roma Opera Theatre April 2007, at Théâtre Antique d'Orange, Les Chorégies d'Orange, 11 & 15 July 2009, at La Fenice Sept 2009, Deutsche Oper Berlin Sept 2009/March 2010'Cassio' in Otello at the Liceu, Barcelona Feb 2006.'Il Duca de Mantova' in Rigoletto at Hamburg State Opera, Sept/Oct 2005.'Don Carlos' in Don Carlos at Geneva Opera House, June 2008.'Edgardo' in Lucia di Lammermoor at Zurich Opera House, Sept 2008. Rigoletto, live from Mantua, 2010 RAI film version of Rigoletto, performed live on location in Mantua and broadcast in 148 countries.'Rodolfo' in La bohème at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, October 2010. It was his debut with the company.'Corrado' in Il corsaro at Zurich Opera House, Nov 2009/Jan 2010.'Hoffmann' in Les contes d'Hoffmann at Zurich Opera House, March/April 2010.'Duke of Mantua in Rigoletto at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, 2013'Rodolfo' in La bohème at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, 2014'Hoffmann' in "Les Contes d'Hoffmann" at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, January/February 2015'Romeo' in "Romeo et Juliette" at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, 2017'Nemorino' in "L'Elisir d'Amore" at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, 2017 Verdi: Messa da Requiem/Falstaff/Rigoletto/La traviata/Il corsaro/Il trovatore Donizetti: L'elisir d'amore/Don Sebastiano/Don Pasquale/Favorita/La fille du régiment/Lucia di Lammermoor Bellini: I Puritani/I Capuleti e i Montecchi Zandonai: Francesca da Rimini Puccini: La Rondine/La bohème/Gianni Schicchi Gounod: Faust Rossini: Petite Messe Solemnelle/Stabat Mater Mozart: Requiem/Don Giovanni/Idomeneo/Così fan tutte Cilea: L’Arlesiana Richard Strauss: Der R
Zubin Mehta is an Indian conductor of Western and Eastern classical music. He is music director of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and Conductor Emeritus of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Mehta's father was the founder of the Bombay Symphony Orchestra, from him, Mehta received his early musical education; when he was 18, he enrolled in the Vienna state music academy from which he graduated after three years with a diploma as a conductor. He began winning international competitions and conducted the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic at age 21. Beginning in the 1960s, Mehta gained experience by substituting for celebrated maestros throughout the world. Mehta was Music Director of the Montreal Symphony Orchestra from 1961 to 1967. In 1969, he was appointed Music Adviser to the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and in 1981, Mehta became its permanent Music Director for Life. From 1978 to 1991, he was Music Director of the New York Philharmonic. Since 1985, he has been chief conductor of the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence, Italy.
He is an honorary citizen of both Florence and Tel Aviv and was made an honorary member of the Vienna State Opera in 1997 and of the Bavarian State Opera in 2006. The title of "Honorary Conductor" was bestowed on him by numerous orchestras throughout the world. More Mehta made several tours with the Bavarian State Opera and kept up a busy schedule of guest conducting appearances until present times. In December 2006, he received the "Kennedy Center Honor" and in October 2008 was honored by the Japanese Imperial Family with the "Praemium Imperiale". In 2016, Zubin Mehta was appointed Honorary Conductor of Naples. Mehta was born into a Parsi family in Bombay, during the British Raj, the older son of Mehli and Tehmina Mehta, his native language is Gujarati. His father was a self-taught violinist and who founded and conducted the Bombay Symphony Orchestra and the American Youth Symphony, which he conducted for 33 years after moving to Los Angeles, his father had lived in New York in order to study under violinist Ivan Galamian, a noted teacher who taught Itzhak Perlman and Pinchas Zukerman.
His father returned to Bombay as an accomplished violinist of the Russian school. Mehta notes that on many occasions when he conducts throughout the U. S. someone approaches him to say, "You don't know how much I loved your father!". Mehta has described his childhood as being surrounded by music at home all the time, having learnt to speak Gujarati and sing around the same time, he recounts his father having had a strong influence on him, listening to his quartet daily after his father returned from USA after the Second World War. Mehta at age seven was first taught to play piano by his father; when he reached his early teens, his father allowed him to lead sectional rehearsals of the Bombay Symphony, at sixteen, he was conducting the full orchestra during rehearsals. Mehta graduated secondary school from St. Mary's School and went on to study medicine at St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, at the urging of his mother, who wanted him to take up a more "respectable" profession than music. At age eighteen, he dropped out after two years to move to Vienna, one of Europe's music centers, in order to study music under Hans Swarowsky at the state music academy.
He lived on $75 per month, was a contemporary of conductor Claudio Abbado and future conductor-pianist Daniel Barenboim. He remained at the academy for three years, during which time he studied the double bass, which he played in the Vienna Chamber Orchestra. Swarowsky recognized Mehta's abilities early on, describing him as a "demoniac conductor" who "had it all". While still a student, after the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, he organized a student orchestra in seven days and conducted it in a concert at a refugee camp outside Vienna, he graduated in 1957. In 1958 he entered the Liverpool International Conductor's Competition with a hundred contestants and took first prize; the prize included a year's contract as associate conductor of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, which he conducted in fourteen concerts, all of which received rave reviews. He was a 2nd-place prize-winner at the summer academy at the Tanglewood Music Center in Massachusetts. At that competition he attracted the notice of Charles Munch the conductor of the Boston Symphony, who would help his career.
In 1958, he boldly programmed an all-Schoenberg concert, which did so well that he accepted further bookings. That same year he married a Canadian voice student, Carmen Lasky, whom he met in Vienna. During the years of 1960 and 1961, Mehta was asked to substitute for celebrated maestros throughout the world, receiving high critical acclaim for most of those concerts. In 1960, he conducted a series for the Vienna Symphony Orchestra and that summer made his New York conducting debut leading the New York Philharmonic. In 1960, with the help of Charles Munch, Mehta became the chief conductor and Music Director of the Montreal Symphony Orchestra, a post he held until 1967. By 1961, he had conducted the Vienna and Israel Philharmonic Orchestras. In 1962, he took the Montreal Symphony on a concert tour to Russia and Vienna. Mehta was most apprehensive about his concert in Vienna, which he said was considered the "capital of Western music". However, his single concert there received a twenty-minute ovation, fourteen curtain calls, two encores.
In 1961, he was named assistant conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, although