Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Prime Minister of Italy
The office of Prime Minister is established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election, prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy. King Victor Emmanuel III removed Mussolini from office in 1943 and the position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio becoming Prime Minister in 1943, Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers—which holds executive power, the position is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems. The formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office, as the President of the Council of Ministers the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition the Prime Minister leads a political party and generally commands the majority in the Parliament.
Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister directs, the Prime Ministers activity has often consisted of mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers. The office was first established in 1848 in Italys predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia—although it was not mentioned in its constitution, from 1848 to 1861 ten Prime Ministers governed the Kingdom, most of them being right-wing politicians. After the Unification of Italy and the establishment of the kingdom, in fact the candidate for office was appointed by the king, and presided over a very unstable political system. The first Prime Minister was Camillo Benso di Cavour, who was appointed on 23 March 1861, from 1861 to 1911 Historical Right and Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country. One of the most famous and influential Prime Ministers of this period was Francesco Crispi, a patriot and statesman. He led the country for six years, from 1887 until 1891, Crispi was internationally famous and often mentioned along with world statesmen such as Bismarck and Salisbury.
Originally an enlightened Italian patriot and democrat liberal, he went on to become a bellicose authoritarian prime minister and admirer of Bismarck. His career ended amid controversy and failure due to becoming involved in a banking scandal. He is often seen as a precursor of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, in 1892 Giovanni Giolitti, a young leftist politician, was elected Prime Minister by king Umberto I, but after less than a year he was forced to resign and Crispi returned to power. In 1903 after a period of instability he was appointed head of the government. Giolitti was the Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921 and the second-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history, after Mussolini, under his influence, the Italian Liberals did not develop as a structured party. They were instead a series of informal personal groupings with no links to political constituencies
Palazzo della Consulta
The Palazzo della Consulta is a late Baroque palace in central Rome, that since 1955 houses the Constitutional Court of the Italian Republic. It sits across the Piazza del Quirinale from the residence of the President of the Italian Republic. Prior to the 17th century, a palace had been erected for the Cardinal Ferrero during the realm of Pope Sixtus V, from 1798 to 1814, the palace was used as the Prefecture of Rome. In 1849, during the Roman Republic, it was the home of the ruling Triumvirate, after the annexation of the Papal States to the Kingdom of Italy, from 1871 to 1874, Prince Umberto I and his wife Margherita of Savoy lived here. From 1874 to 1922, it housed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in 1955, it became the home of the Constitutional Court of Italy. Fuga ordered the two-storey facade with a piano nobile whose windows have low arched heads set in fielded panels, on the lower story the panels have channeled rustication and rusticated quoins at the corners. Pilasters are applied only to the central block, which barely projects.
The roof-line of the facade is topped by a coat of arms of the Corsini pope. Lower down, at the entrance, a King of Italy installed his coat of arms, the interiors have undergone a series of fresco decorations over the centuries. The initial 18th-century frescoes by Antonio Bicchierai and Giovanni Domenico Piastrini, are nearly vanished except for a few figures in the apartments of the Cardinals. The Savoy monarchy had frescoed completed by Domenico Bruschi, Cecrope Barilli, romeartlover entry Valerio Onida, et al. A Brief History of the Palazzo della Consulta, What is the Constitutional Court, corte costituzionale della Repubblica italiana, retrieved 2008-10-30
President of Italy
The President of the Italian Republic is the head of state of Italy and, in that role, represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution. The presidents term of office lasts for seven years, the 11th President of the Republic, Giorgio Napolitano, was elected on 10 May 2006, and elected to a second term for the first time in Italian Republic history, on 20 April 2013. On 31 January 2015, the incumbent President, former Constitutional judge Sergio Mattarella, was elected at the ballot with 665 votes out of 1,009. The framers of the Constitution of Italy intended for the President to be a statesman of some stature. Article 84 states that any citizen who is fifty or older on election day and enjoys civil and those citizens who already hold any other office are prohibited from becoming President unless they resign their previous office once they are elected. The 1948 Italian Constitution does not have term limits although until 2013 no Italian President of the Republic had run for a term of office.
He made it clear, that he would not serve his full term, three representatives come from each region, save for the Aosta Valley, which appoints one, so as to guarantee representation for all localities and minorities. According to the Constitution, the election must be held by a ballot, with the 315 Senators, the 630 Deputies. A two-thirds vote is required to elect on any of the first three rounds of balloting, after that, a majority suffices. The election is presided over by the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, the vote is held in the Palazzo Montecitorio, home of the Chamber of Deputies, which is expanded and re-configured for the event. The President assumes office after having taken an oath before Parliament, the Presidents term may end by, voluntary resignation, permanent disability, due to serious illness, dismissal, as for crimes of high treason or an attack on the Constitution. Former Presidents of the Republic are called Presidents Emeritus of the Republic and are appointed Senator for life, in the absence of the President of the Republic, including travel abroad, presidential functions are performed by the President of the Senate.
In judicial matters, Presiding over the Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura, Naming one-third of the Constitutional Court, in practice, the Presidents office is mostly, though not entirely, ceremonial. Many of the others are duties that he is required to perform, however and commutations have been recognized as autonomous powers of the President. The President resides in Rome at the Quirinal Palace, and has at his disposal the presidential holdings of Castelporziano, near Rome, and Villa Rosebery, in Naples. There is one living former Italian President, Italian presidential election,2015 List of Presidents of Italy Wife of the President of the Italian Republic Official site
Via del Corso
The Via del Corso, is a main street in the historical centre of Rome. It is remarkable for being absolutely straight in an area characterized by narrow meandering alleys, considered a wide street in ancient times, today the Corso is approximately 10 metres wide, and it only has room for two lanes of traffic and two narrow sidewalks. The northern portion of the street is a pedestrian area, the length of the street is roughly 1.5 kilometres. The Corso runs in a generally north-south direction, the Corso is a popular place for the passeggiata, the evening stroll for the populace to be seen and to see others. It is an important shopping street for tourists and locals alike, the history of Via del Corso began in 220 BC when Gaius Flaminius censor built a new road to link Rome with the Adriatic Sea in the north. The starting point of the road was Porta Fontinalis, a gate in the Servian city walls near present-day Piazza Venezia, in its first miles Via Flaminia cut through the plain between the Tiber and the eastern hills in a straight line.
The Field of Mars, as it was called, was at the used as a training ground. Numerous tombs must have lined the road similarly to the Appian Way, the open area outside the city walls went through a process of urbanization during the late Republican and early imperial age. The city gradually spread north and monumental public buildings were built along the road. A set of dynastic monuments around the Mausoleum of Augustus was the most important development in the unpopulated northern section of the district. The first was the Arcus Novus erected by Diocletian in 303-304, the Arch of Claudius stood further ahead and the third was known as the Arco di Portogallo. The most important ancient monuments along Via Lata were Aurelians Temple of the Sun, the Ara Pacis, the Ustrinum Domus Augustae, the Ara Providentiae and the Column of Marcus Aurelius. A densely populated residential quarter from the Hadrianic era was discovered on the side of the road between Via delle Muratte and Via delle Convertite.
From around the year 600 AD, the Corso accommodated a welfare centre linked to feeding the populace at Santa Maria in Via Lata and granaries at its southern end. During the Middle Ages the Via Lata, the present day Corso, effectively denoted a boundary, to the city mainly developed to the south. From the fifteenth century, the Via del Corso became a street for new or renovated churches. The lack of regularity and decorum of this street of the city meant that it became a main urban priority of Pope Alexander VII. Where he met with success was over imposing order on the street by empowering the maestri di strade
Pope Benedict XV
Pope Benedict XV, born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, was Pope from 3 September 1914 until his death in 1922. His pontificate was overshadowed by World War I and its political, social. Between 1846 and 1903, the Catholic Church had experienced two of its longest pontificates in history up to that point, together Pius IX and Leo XIII ruled for a total of 57 years. ”The war and its consequences were the main focus of Benedict XV. He immediately declared the neutrality of the Holy See and attempted from that perspective to mediate peace in 1916 and 1917, German Protestants rejected any “Papal Peace” as insulting. The French politician Georges Clemenceau regarded the Vatican initiative as being anti-French, after the war, he repaired the difficult relations with France, which re-established relations with the Vatican in 1921. During his pontificate, relations with Italy improved as well, as Benedict XV now permitted Catholic politicians led by Don Luigi Sturzo to participate in national Italian politics, the new Code of Canon Law is considered to have stimulated religious life and activities throughout the Church.
He named Pietro Gasparri to be his Cardinal Secretary of State, World War I caused great damage to Catholic missions throughout the world. Benedict XV revitalized these activities, asking in Maximum Illud for Catholics throughout the world to participate, for that, he has been referred to as the Pope of Missions. His last concern was the persecution of the Catholic Church in Soviet Russia. Benedict XV was devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary and authorized the Feast of Mary, after seven years in office, Pope Benedict XV died on 22 January 1922 after battling pneumonia since the start of that month. He was buried in the grottos of Saint Peters Basilica, with his diplomatic skills and his openness towards modern society, he gained respect for himself and the papacy. Giacomo della Chiesa was born at Pegli, a suburb of Genoa, third son of Marchese Giuseppe della Chiesa and his wife Marchesa Giovanna Migliorati. Genealogy findings report that his fathers side produced Pope Callixtus II and claimed descent from Berengar II of Italy and he is a descendant of Blessed Antonio della Chiesa.
His wish to become a priest was rejected early on by his father who insisted on a career for his son. At age 21 he acquired a doctorate in Law on 2 August 1875 and he had attended the University of Genoa, which after the unification of Italy, was largely dominated by anti-Catholic and anti-clerical politics. With his doctorate in Law and at legal age, he asked his father for permission to study for the priesthood. He insisted however, that his son conduct his studies in Rome not in Genoa. Della Chiesa entered the Collegio Capranica and was there in Rome when, in 1878, the new pope received the students of the Capranica in private audience only a few days after his coronation
Giuseppe Vasi was an Italian engraver and architect, best known for his vedute. He was born in Corleone and later, around 1736 and his views for the Calcografia include panoramas of the Trevi Fountain and of the Spanish Steps. Later on Vasi started to work on his own and selling series of his views to a public made principally of grand tourists. The first series of akin consists in the Vedute di Roma sul Tevere, i. e. Views of the Tiber, circa 1743 and adapted to become part of the Magnificenze di Roma antica e moderna. In these years Vasi hosted in his workshop for a period of time the young Giovanni Battista Piranesi, his major pupil. From 1747 to 1761 Vasi published a series of ten volumes including circa 240 engravings of vedute of Rome and he created 15 tablet engravings of opera scenes designed by Vincenzo Re, some of which are part of the collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Vasi played a role as a cartographer and as writer as well. Vasi was a man and artist up to the 1760s.
For over 200 years Vasi was artistically forgotten and his views taken into account only for their topographical and documentary qualities. Things changed in 1981, thanks to the monograph by Luisa Scalabroni and even more in the nineties, mainly thanks to the contributions by Paolo Coen on his catalogue, today Giuseppe Vasi is no longer considered Piranesis defeated rival, but an artist with his own personality and technique. Though far from being a revolutionary, he gave a significant contribution to the Roman school of engraving applied to the veduta, with a role quite similar to Giovanni Paninis in painting. 115,2001 Imago Urbis, Giuseppe Vasis Grand Tour of Rome, University of Oregon,2008 James G. Harper & James T. Tice, Giuseppe Vasis Rome, Lasting Impressions from the Age of the Grand Tour, exh. cat
The Palazzo Montecitorio is a palace in Rome and the seat of the Italian Chamber of Deputies. The palaces name derives from the hill on which it is built, which was claimed to be the Mons Citatorius. The building was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini for the young Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi. The building was designated for public and social functions only, due to Innocent XIIs firm antinepotism policies which were in contrast to his predecessors, in 1696 the Curia apostolica was installed there. Later it was home to the Governatorato di Roma and the police headquarters, the excavated obelisk of the Solarium Augusti, now known as the Obelisk of Montecitorio, was installed in front of the palace by Pius VI in 1789. The former internal courtyard was roofed over and converted into an assembly room by Paolo Comotto. The Chamber was inaugurated on 21 November 1871, but the building proved wholly inadequate, the acoustics were terrible, it was very cold in winter and very hot in summer. As a result of damage from water seepage, the palace was condemned in 1900.
An attempt to build a new palace for the Chamber of Deputies on the Via Nazionale failed, only in 1918 was the Chamber definitively returned to the Palazzo Montecitorio. The return of the Chamber of Deputies to the palace followed extensive renovations, the architect, Ernesto Basile, was an exponent of Art nouveau, known in Italy as the Liberty style. He reduced the courtyard, demolished the wings and rear of the palace, constructing a new structure dominated by four red-brick, Basile added the so-called Transatlantico, the long and impressive salon which surrounds the debating chamber and now acts as the informal centre of Italian politics
Palazzo Madama in Rome is the seat of the Senate of the Italian Republic. It was built atop the ruins of the ancient baths of Nero, the terrain had been acquired in the Middle Ages by the monks of the Abbey of Farfa, who ceded it to France. The new building was begun at the end of the 15th century and completed in 1505 and it housed two Medici cardinals and cousins and Giulio, who both became popes as Leo X and Clement VII, respectively. Catherine de Medici, Clement VIIs niece, lived here before she was married to Henry, cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte, patron of the artist Caravaggio, lived there until his death in 1627. Thus part of the art collection of the Florentine Medici family was inherited by the Farnese family, the current façade was built in the mid-1650s by both Cigoli and Paolo Maruccelli. The latter added the ornate cornice and whimsical decorative urns on the roof, after the extinction of the Medici in 1743, the palace was handed over to the House of Lorraine and, later, to Pope Benedict XIV, who made it the seat of the Papal Government.
In 1849, Pius IX moved here the Ministries of Finances and of the Public Debt, in 1871, after the conquest of Rome by the newly formed Kingdom of Italy, the palazzo became the seat of the Senato del Regno
Pope Alexander VII
Pope Alexander VII, born Fabio Chigi, was pope from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667. He began his career as a legate, and he held various diplomatic positions in the Holy See. He was ordained as a priest in 1634, and he became Bishop of Nardo in 1635 and he was transferred in 1652, and he became Bishop of Imola. Pope Innocent X made him Secretary of State in 1651, and in 1652, he was appointed as a Cardinal. Early in his papacy, who was seen as anti-Nepotist at the time of his election, lived simply, however, he gave jobs to his relatives and his administration worked to support the Jesuits. However, his administrations relations with France were strained due to his frictions with French diplomats, Alexander was interested in architecture and supported various urban projects in Rome. He wrote poetry and patronized artists who expanded the decoration of churches and his theological writings included discussions of heliocentrism and the Immaculate Conception. Fabios elder brother, married Berenice, the daughter of Tiberio della Ciala, producing four children, Flavio was created cardinal by his uncle on April 9,1657.
His brother, Augusto Chigi, married Olimpia della Ciaia and continued the line as the parents of Agostino Chigi. Fabios sister Onorata Mignanelli married Firmano Bichi, their son Antonio was named Bishop of Montalcino and Osimo, in 1627 he began his apprenticeship as vice-papal legate at Ferrara, and on recommendations from two cardinals he was appointed Inquisitor of Malta. Chigi was ordained a priest in December 1634 and he was appointed Referendarius utriusque signaturae, which made him a prelate and gave him the right to practice before the Roman courts. On 8 January 1635, Chigi was named Bishop of Nardò in southern Italy and consecrated on 1 July 1635 by Miguel Juan Balaguer Camarasa, on 13 May 1652 he was transferred to the Bishopric of Imola. Bishop Chigi was named nuncio in Cologne on 11 June 1639, there, he supported Urban VIIIs condemnation of the heretical book Augustinus by Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres, in the papal Bull In eminenti of 1642. Though expected to take part in the negotiations which led in 1648 to the Peace of Westphalia, negotiations therefore took place in two cities, Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia, with intermediaries travelling back and forth between the Protestant and the Catholic delegates.
Chigi, of course, protested on behalf of the Papacy, Pope Innocent himself stated that the Peace is null, invalid, damnable, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all time. The Peace ended the Thirty Years War and established the balance of European power that lasted until the wars of the French Revolution, Pope Innocent X recalled Chigi to Rome. In December 1651 Pope Innocent named Cardinal Chigi Secretary of State and he was created cardinal by Innocent X in the Consistory of 19 February 1652, and on 12 March was granted the title of Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria del Popolo. In December 1651 Pope Innocent named Cardinal Chigi Cardinal Secretary of State
The Aldobrandini are an Italian noble family from Florence, with close ties to the Vatican. Its Roman fortunes were made when Ippolito Aldobrandini became pope under the name Pope Clement VIII and he arranged the marriage that linked the Aldobrandini with the Roman family of Pamphili. Additionally, they were linked to marriage alliances with the Farnese and Borghese. The family lends its name to the Palazzo Aldobrandini on the Quirinal Hill, the Aldobrandini family, having reached the height of its powers when Ippolito Aldobrandini became Pope Clement VIII, began the building of the villa. In 1600 Clement VIII acquired the Orti Vitelli on the Quirinal hill, the old buildings of the Vitelli Family were demolished and construction began on the new villa and adjacent garden. The villa was never the seat as the Aldobrandini family owned even more splendid residences elsewhere in Rome. The villa on the Quirinal hill served essentially for ceremonial functions, more famous was the Villa Aldobrandini in Frascati.
Inside there are paintings of Mannerist and Baroque artists such as the Zuccari brothers, outside there is a monumental gate by Carlo Francesco Bizzaccheri. The Doria, Pamphilj and Aldobrandini families have become united through marriage, the Aldobrandini family palazzo and its collections of works of art and furnishings is now the Doria Pamphilj Gallery in Rome. The family name lives on, via a branch of the Borghese family, princess Olimpia Anna Aldobrandini, a non-lineal descendent of Napoleon on her mothers side, married into the Rothschild family. The princely family is represented by Prince Camillo Aldobrandini, whose heir is Don Clemente Aldobrandini. Other notable members of the Aldobrandini family are, Alessandro Cardinal Aldobrandini, Pietro Cardinal Aldobrandini, raised to the cardinalate 1593 by Clement VIII