The Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale is a logarithmic scale used by astronomers to rate the potential hazard of impact of a near-earth object. It combines two types of data—probability of impact and estimated kinetic yield—into a single "hazard" value. A rating of 0 means. A rating of +2 would indicate. Scale values less than −2 reflect events for which there are no consequences, while Palermo Scale values between −2 and 0 indicate situations that merit careful monitoring. A similar but less complex scale is the Torino Scale, used for simpler descriptions in the non-scientific media; as of March 2020, three asteroids have a cumulative Palermo Scale value of above -2: 1950 DA, 2020 DR2, 101955 Bennu. A further three have cumulative Palermo Scale values of above -3: 1979 XB, 99942 Apophis, 2000 SG344. 24 more have a cumulative Palermo Scale value of above -4, one of them having been discovered in 2019, one in 2020. The scale compares the likelihood of the detected potential impact with the average risk posed by objects of the same size or larger over the years until the date of the potential impact.
This average risk from random impacts is known as the background risk. The Palermo Scale value, P, is defined by the equation: P ≡ log 10 p i f B T where pi is the impact probability T is the time interval over which pi is considered fB is the background impact frequencyThe background impact frequency is defined for this purpose as: f B = 3 100 E − 4 5 yr − 1 where the energy threshold E is measured in megatons, yr is the unit of T divided by one year; the near-Earth object 2002 NT7 was the first near-Earth object detected by NASA's latest NEO program to be given a positive rating on the scale of 0.06, indicating a higher-than-background threat. The value was subsequently lowered. 2002 NT7 is no longer considered to pose any risk and was removed from the Sentry Risk Table on 1 August 2002. In September 2002, the highest Palermo rating was that of asteroid 1950 DA, with a value of 0.17 for a possible collision in the year 2880. By December 2015, the rating had been reduced all the way to −1.42.
For a brief period in late December 2004, with an observation arc of 190 days, asteroid Apophis held the record for the highest Palermo scale values, with a value of 1.10 for a possible collision in the year 2029. The 1.10 value indicated that a collision with this object was considered to be 12.6 times as as a random background event: 1 in 37 instead of 1 in 472. With further observation through 2016 there is no significant risk from Apophis at any of the dates in question. Asteroid deflection strategies Impact event Torino scale The primary reference for the Palermo Technical Scale is "Quantifying the risk posed by potential Earth impacts" by Chesley et al. Icarus 159, 423-432. Description of the scale NASA list of potential impactors
MALAT 1 known as NEAT2 is a large, infrequently spliced non-coding RNA, conserved amongst mammals and expressed in the nucleus. MALAT1 was identified in multiple types of physiological processes, such as alternative splicing, nuclear organization, epigenetic modulating of gene expression, a number of evidences indicate that MALAT1 closely relate to various pathological processes, ranging from diabetes complications to cancers, it regulates the expression of metastasis-associated genes. It positively regulates cell motility via the transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional regulation of motility-related genes. MALAT1 may play a role in temperature-dependent sex determination in the Red-eared slider turtle. Transcripts of MALAT1 are increased in the cerebellum of human alcoholics, as well as in similar regions of rat brains after the withdrawal of ethanol vapours; this alcohol-induced upregulation of MALAT1 may be responsible for differential expression of a number of proteins which contribute to ethanol tolerance and dependency in humans.
The implication of MALAT1 RNA in the pathology of various cancers has been documented. Elevated MALAT1 expression is correlated with poor overall survival in various types of cancer, suggesting that this gene is a prognostic factor for different types of cancer. Genetic loss or systemic knockdown of Malat1 using antisense oligonucleotides in the mouse mammary carcinoma model results in slower tumor growth accompanied by significant differentiation into cystic tumors and a reduction in metastasis. At the molecular level, the ASO-Malat1 hybrid stimulates a occurring cellular enzyme that degrades the Malat1 lncRNA. Malat1 knockdown results in alterations in gene expression and changes in splicing patterns of genes involved in differentiation and protumorigenic signaling pathways. Metastatic tumors have a dependency on Malat1—they can't thrive without it, and importantly, only the cancer cells seem to require it. In so far as MALAT1 has been identified to be involved in tumorigenesis of various types of cancer such as lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, cervical cancer Malat1 ASOs represent a potential therapy for inhibiting such cancers progression.
Sir Walter Minto Townsend-Farquhar, 2nd Baronet spelt Townshend-Farquhar, was a British Conservative Party politician. He was the son of Robert Townsend Farquhar and Maria Frances Geslip de Latour. In 1835, he married Erica Catherine Mackay, daughter of Eric Mackay, 7th Lord Reay, together they had five children: Eric Townsend-Farquhar Minto Townsend-Farquhar John Townsend-Farquhar Robert Townsend-Farquhar Horace Farquhar He became Baronet of Mauritius upon his father's death in 1830; when he died, the title passed to Eric. Townsend-Farquhar was elected MP for Hertford in 1857 and held the seat until his death in 1866. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Walter Townsend-Farquhar