A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations. Refugee camps accommodate displaced persons who have fled their home country, but there are camps for internally displaced persons. Refugees seek asylum after they've escaped war in their home countries, but some camps house environmental- and economic migrants. Camps with over a hundred thousand people are common, but as of 2012, the average-sized camp housed around 11,400, they are built and run by a government, the United Nations, international organizations, or NGOs. There are unofficial refugee camps, like Idomeni in Greece or the Calais jungle in France, where refugees are left without support of governments or international organizations. Refugee camps develop in an impromptu fashion with the aim of meeting basic human needs for only a short time. Facilities that make a camp look or feel more permanent are prohibited by host country governments. If the return of refugees is prevented, a humanitarian crisis can continue.
According to UNHCR, the majority of refugees worldwide do not live in refugee camps. At the end of 2015, some 67 percent of refugees around the world lived in individual, private accommodations; this can be explained by the high number of Syrian refugees renting apartments in urban agglomerations across the Middle East. Worldwide over a quarter of refugees were reported to be living in managed camps. At the end of 2015, about 56 percent of the total refugee population in rural locations resided in a managed camp, compared to the 2 percent who resided in individual accommodation. In urban locations, the overwhelming majority of refugees lived in individual accommodations, compared with less than 1 percent who lived in a managed camp. A small percentage of refugees live in collective centers, transit camps and in self-settled camps. In spite of the fact that 74 percent of refugees are in urban areas, the service delivery model of international humanitarian aid agencies remains focused on the establishment and operation of refugee camps.
The average camp size is recommended by UNHCR to be 45 square metres per person of accessible camp area. Within this area the following facilities can be found: An administrative headquarters to coordinate services. Sleeping accommodations are tents, prefabricated huts, or dwellings constructed of locally available materials. UNHCR recommends a minimum of 3.5 sqm of covered living area per person. There should be at least 2m between shelters. Gardens attached to the family plot. UNHCR recommends a plot size of 15 sqm per person. Hygiene facilities, such as washing areas, toilets. UNHCR recommends one communal latrine per 20 persons. Distance for the latter should be no not closer than 6m. Hygiene facilities should be separated by gender. Places for water collection: either water tanks where water is off-loaded from trucks, or water tap stands that are connected to boreholes. UNHCR recommends 20 litres of water per person and one tap stand per 80 persons that should be no farther than 200m away from households.
Clinics and immunization centres: UNHCR recommends one health centre per 20,000 persons and one referral hospital per 200,000 persons. Food distribution and therapeutic feeding centres: UNHCR recommends one food distribution centre per 5,000 persons and one feeding centre per 20,000 persons. Communication equipment; some long-standing camps have their own radio stations. Security, including protection from banditry and peacekeeping troops to prevent armed violence. Police stations may be outside the actual camp. Schools and training centers: UNHCR recommends one school per 5,000 persons. Markets and shops: UNHCR recommends one market place per 20,000 persons. Schools and markets may be prohibited by the host country government in order to discourage refugees from settling permanently in camps. Many refugee camps have: Cemeteries or crematoria Locations for solid waste disposal. One 100 litre rubbish container should be provided per 50 persons and one refuse pit per 500 persons. Reception or transit centre where refugees arrive and register before they are allowed into the camp.
Reception centres may be outside the camps and closer to the border of the country where refugees enter. Churches or other religious centers or places of worshipIn order to understand and monitor an emergency over a period of time, the development and organisation of the camps can be tracked by satellite and analyzed via GIS. Most new arrivals travel distances of up to 500 km by foot; the journey can be dangerous, e.g. wild animals, armed bandits or militias, or landmines. Some refugees are supported by IOM, some use smugglers. Many new arrivals suffer from acute dehydration. There can be long queues outside the reception centres and waiting times of up to two months are possible. People outside the camp are not entitled to official support; some locals make large profits with it. It is not uncommon, they stay in the reception centre until their refugee status is approved and the degree of vulnerability assessed. This takes two weeks, they are taken by bus, to the camp. New arrivals are registered and interviewed by the host country government and the UNHCR.
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
The West Bank is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan to the east and by the Green Line separating it and Israel on the south and north. The West Bank contains a significant section of the western Dead Sea shore; the West Bank was the name given to the territory, captured by Jordan in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, subsequently annexed in 1950 until 1967 when it was occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War. The Oslo Accords, signed between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel, created administrative districts with varying levels of Palestinian autonomy within each area. Area C, in which Israel maintained complete civil and security control, accounts for over 60% of the territory of the West Bank; the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. As of July 2017 it has an estimated population of 2,747,943 Palestinians, 391,000 Israeli settlers, another 201,200 Israeli settlers in East Jerusalem.
The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. The International Court of Justice advisory ruling concluded that events that came after the 1967 occupation of the West Bank by Israel, including the Jerusalem Law, Israel's peace treaty with Jordan and the Oslo Accords, did not change the status of the West Bank as occupied territory with Israel as the occupying power; the name West Bank is a translation of the Arabic term ad-Diffah I-Garbiyyah, given to the territory west of the Jordan River that fell, in 1948, under occupation and administration by Jordan, which subsequently annexed it in 1950. This annexation was considered illegal and was recognized only by Britain and Pakistan; the term was chosen to differentiate the west bank of the River Jordan from the "east bank" of this river. The neo-Latin name Cisjordan or Cis-Jordan is the usual name for the territory in the Romance languages and Hungarian.
The name West Bank, has become the standard usage for this geopolitical entity in English and some of the other Germanic languages since its creation following the Jordanian army's conquest. In English, the name Cisjordan is used to designate the entire region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean in the historical context of the British Mandate and earlier times; the analogous Transjordan has been used to designate the region now comprising the state of Jordan, which lies to the east of the Jordan River. From 1517 through 1917, the area now known as the West Bank was under Ottoman rule as part of the provinces of Syria. At the 1920 San Remo conference, the victorious Allied powers allocated the area to the British Mandate of Palestine; the San Remo Resolution adopted on 25 April 1920 incorporated the Balfour Declaration of 1917. It and Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations were the basic documents upon which the British Mandate for Palestine was constructed. Faced with the determination of Emir Abdullah to unify Arab lands under the Hashemite banner, the British proclaimed Abdullah ruler of the three districts, known collectively as Transjordan.
Confident that his plans for the unity of the Arab nation would come to fruition, the emir established the first centralized governmental system in what is now modern Jordan on 11 April 1921. The West Bank area was conquered by Jordan during the 1948 war with the new state of Israel. In 1947, it was subsequently designated as part of a proposed Arab state by the United Nations partition plan for Palestine; the resolution recommended partition of the British Mandate into a Jewish State, an Arab State, an internationally administered enclave of Jerusalem. The resolution designated the territory described as "the hill country of Samaria and Judea" as part of the proposed Arab state, but following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War this area was captured by Transjordan. 1949 Armistice Agreements defined the interim boundary between Jordan. Following the December 1948 Jericho Conference, Transjordan annexed the area west of the Jordan River in 1950, naming it "West Bank" or "Cisjordan", designated the area east of the river as "East Bank" or "Transjordan".
Jordan ruled over the West Bank from 1948 until 1967. Jordan's annexation was never formally recognized by the international community, with the exception of the United Kingdom. A two-state option, dividing Palestine, as opposed to a binary solution arose during the period of the British mandate in the area; the United Nations Partition Plan had envisaged two states, one Jewish and the other Arab/Palestinian, but in the wake of the war only one emerged at the time. King Abdullah of Jordan had been crowned King of Jerusalem by the Coptic Bishop on 15 November 1948. Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank and East Jerusalem were granted Jordanian citizenship and half of the Jordanian Parliament seats. In June 1967, the West Bank and East Jerusalem were captured by Israel as a result of the Six-Day War. With the exception of East Jerusalem and the former Israeli-Jordanian no man's land, the West Bank was not annexed by Israel but came under Israeli military control until 1982. Although th
Palestine Liberation Organization
The Palestine Liberation Organization is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians. It is recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" by over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations, has enjoyed observer status at the United Nations since 1974; the PLO was considered by the United States and Israel to be a terrorist organization until the Madrid Conference in 1991. In 1993, the PLO recognized Israel's right to exist in peace, accepted UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, rejected "violence and terrorism". In response, Israel recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people. However, the PLO has employed violence in the years since 1993 during the 2000–2005 Second Intifada. On 29 October 2018, the Palestinian Central Council suspended the recognition of Israel and halted security and economic coordination in all its forms with it.
At its first summit meeting in Cairo in 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organization representing the Palestinian people. The Palestinian National Council convened in Jerusalem on 28 May 1964. Concluding this meeting the PLO was founded on 2 June 1964, its stated goal was the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle. The ideology of the PLO was formulated in the founding year 1964 in the Palestinian National Covenant; the document is a combative anti-Zionist statement dedicated to the "restoration of the Palestinian homeland". It has no reference to religion. In 1968, the Charter was replaced by a comprehensively revised version; until 1993, the only promoted option was armed struggle. From the signing of the Oslo Accords and diplomacy became the only official policy. In April 1996, a large number of articles, which were inconsistent with the Oslo Accords, were wholly or nullified. At the core of the PLO's ideology is the belief that Zionists had unjustly expelled the Palestinians from Palestine and established a Jewish state in place under the pretext of having historic and Jewish ties with Palestine.
The PLO demanded. This is expressed in the National Covenant: Article 2 of the Charter states that ″Palestine, with the boundaries it had during the British mandate, is an indivisible territorial unit″, meaning that there is no place for a Jewish state; this article was adapted in 1996 to meet the Oslo Accords. Article 20 states: ″The Balfour Declaration, the Mandate for Palestine, everything, based upon them, are deemed null and void. Claims of historical or religious ties of Jews with Palestine are incompatible with the facts of history and the true conception of what constitutes statehood. Judaism, being a religion, is not an independent nationality. Nor do Jews constitute a single nation with an identity of its own; this article was nullified in 1996. Article 3 reads: ″The Palestinian Arab people possess the legal right to their homeland and have the right to determine their destiny after achieving the liberation of their country in accordance with their wishes and of their own accord and will″.
The PLO has always labelled the Palestinian people as Arabs. This was a natural consequence of the fact, it has a tactical element, as to keep the backing of Arab states. Over the years, the Arab identity remained the stated nature of the Palestinian State, it is a reference to the ″Arab State″ envisioned in the UN Partition Plan. The PLO and its dominating faction Fatah are contrasted to more religious orientated factions like Hamas and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad. All, represent a predominant Muslim population; the whole population of the Territories is Muslim, most of them Sunni. Only some 50,000 of the 4.6 million Palestinians in the occupied Palestinian territories are Palestinian Christian. The National Charter has no reference to religion. Under President Arafat, the Fatah-dominated Palestinian Authority adopted the 2003 Amended Basic Law, which stipulates Islam as the sole official religion in Palestine and the principles of Islamic sharia as a principal source of legislation; the draft Constitution, which never materialized, contains the same provisions.
At the time, the Palestine Legislative Council, the unicameral legislature of the Palestinian Authority, elected by the Palestinian residents of the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, did not include a single Hamas member. The draft Constitution was formulated by the ″Constitutional Committee″, appointed with the approval of the PLO; the PLO incorporates a range of secular ideologies of different Palestinian movements "committed to the struggle for Palestinian independence and liberation," hence the name of the organization. It formally is an umbrella organization that includes "numerous organizations of the resistance movement, political parties, popular organizations." From the beginning, the PLO was designed as a government in exile, with a parliament, the Palestine National Council, chosen by the Palestinian people, as the highest authority in the PLO, an executive government, elected by the PNC. In practice, the organization was rather a hierarchic one with a military-like character, needed for its function as liberation organization, the "liberation of Palestine".
Beside a Palestinian National Charter, which describes the ideology of the PLO, a constitution, named "Fundamental Law", was adopted, which dictates the inner structure of the organization and the r
Achille Lauro hijacking
The Achille Lauro hijacking happened on October 7, 1985, when the Italian MS Achille Lauro was hijacked by four men representing the Palestine Liberation Front off the coast of Egypt, as she was sailing from Alexandria to Ashdod, Israel. A 69-year-old Jewish American man in a wheelchair, Leon Klinghoffer, was murdered by the hijackers and thrown overboard; the hijacking sparked the "Sigonella Crisis". Several events before the October 7, 1985 hijacking provide a context for. Since being driven out of Southern Lebanon by Israel in 1978 and out of Beirut in 1982, Palestine Liberation Organization guerrillas had dispersed to Tunisia, Southern Yemen, Jordan, Syria and the Sudan. While in Lebanon PLO chairman Yasser Arafat had run into problems with Syrian President Hafez al-Assad who in 1983 sought to wrest effective control of the group from him by backing a mutiny within the PLO. Arafat was backed by the Soviet Union and was helped to escape Lebanon by the Syrian President's brother Rifaat Assad and his "Red Knights" of Alawite notables near the Lebanese border with Syria.
When the attempt to wrest control failed, the Syrian military backed the mutineers in an attack on Arafat loyalists within Tripoli, Lebanon. Arafat moved the PLO headquarters from Tripoli to Tunisia. Throughout the 1980s, the Palestine Liberation Front and other members of PLO launched attacks on both civilian and military targets in the north of Israel, across the Lebanese border. One such attack by the PLO's Force 17 on September 25, 1985 on an Israeli yacht in Larnaca, Cyprus where three Israelis were killed, triggered the Israeli Air Force to bomb the PLO headquarters in Tunis in on October 1, 1985; the headquarters were destroyed in this attack, 60 PLO members were killed. Speculation arose that the hijacking of Achille Lauro was an act of retaliation for the Israeli bombing of the PLO headquarters in Tunis; this was disputed by Abbas' widow, Reem al-Nimer in 2013. According to al-Nimer, the hijacking had been planned 11 months in advance, the hijackers had been on two'dummy' training runs on Achille Lauro.
The plan was to open fire on Israeli soldiers. The hijacking of the Achille Lauro was planned and executed by one of the three factions of the Palestine Liberation Front; the PLF as a whole was one of the eight constituent groups that had formed the Palestinian Liberation Organization, under the chairmanship of Yasser Arafat. The first faction of the PLF was headed by Taalat Yacoub, a Palestinian who opposed Arafat and was supported by Syria; the second PLF faction was headed by Abd al-Fatah Ghanim, who opposed Arafat. The last faction was headed by Abbas, loyal to Arafat and sat on the PLO Executive Committee, his faction of the PLF had carried out a series of armed raids in Israel and the West Bank since the late 1970s. The hijackers of the Achille Lauro in their demands to be met before they freed their hostages specified only one by name Samir Kuntar; the Lebanese Kuntar was a friend of the mastermind behind the hijacking. Kuntar and an accomplice had been jailed by Israel five years before for attempting on April 22, 1979 to kidnap a Jewish family in Nahariya, Northern Israel, close to the Lebanese border.
The botched kidnapping had resulted in the death of an Israeli policeman Eliyahu Shahar, 31-year-old father Danny Kaiser and his two daughters four-year-old Einat, two year-old Yael – leaving only wife and mother Smadar Haran Kaiser alive. Events on the Achille Lauro cruise in the days; the Achille Lauro embarked from Genoa, Italy on Thursday, October 3, 1985 with an itinerary for an eleven-day cruise with ports of call in Naples and Syracuse in Italy. The fares for a double-berthed cabin were between $955 and $1,550; the ship had become the physical property of the Italian government when its previous owner Costa Lines went bankrupt and the vessel was seized by the companies creditors who sold it the state in 1983, who in turn leased it to Chandris cruise line under an agreement that would last until 1987. The ship set out with 748 passengers. Among the passengers was a group of close friends from New York and New Jersey who had a usual practice of vacationing on the Jersey shore, they had all decided to take a cruise to celebrate the 58th birthday of Marilyn Klinghoffer and to observe her 36th wedding anniversary with Leon.
The pair had two adult daughters Lisa, married and 34 years-old, Ilsa, 28 years-old and engaged. As a result of two strokes Leon was paralyzed on his right side, while he could walk with a cane, he relied on a wheelchair. Travelling with the Kilinghoffers were their friends Frank and Mildred Hodes and June Kantor and Viola Meskin, Sylvia Sherman, Charlotte Spiegel. Due to ship hijackings being unheard of at the t
Arab nationalism is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world. Its central premise is that the peoples of the Arab world, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian Ocean, constitute one nation bound together by common ethnicity, culture, identity and politics. One of the primary goals of Arab nationalism is the end of Western influence in the Arab world, seen as a "nemesis" of Arab strength, the removal of those Arab governments considered to be dependent upon Western power, it rose to prominence with the weakening and defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century and declined after the defeat of the Arab armies in the Six-Day War. Personalities and groups associated with Arab nationalism include King Faisal I of Iraq, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, the Arab Nationalist Movement, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, the Palestine Liberation Organization, the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party which came to power in Iraq for some years and is still the ruling party in Syria, its founder Michel Aflaq.
Pan-Arabism is a related concept, in as much as it calls for supranational communalism among the Arab states. Arab nationalists believe that the Arab nation existed as a historical entity prior to the rise of nationalism in the 19th–20th century; the Arab nation was formed through the gradual establishment of Arabic as the language of communication and with the advent of Islam as a religion and culture in the region. Both Arabic and Islam served as the pillars of the nation. According to writer Youssef Choueiri, Arab nationalism represents the "Arabs' consciousness of their specific characteristics as well as their endeavor to build a modern state capable of representing the common will of the nation and all its constituent parts."Within the Arab nationalist movement are three main ideas: that of the Arab nation. The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine led to the foundation of the Arab nationalist Ba'ath Party, which asserts that the Arab nation is the group of people who speak Arabic, inhabit the Arab world, who feel they belong to the same nation.
Arab nationalism is the "sum total" of the characteristics and qualities exclusive to the Arab nation, whereas pan-Arab unity is the modern idea that stipulates that the separate Arab countries must unify to form a single state under one political system. Local patriotism centered on individual Arab countries was incorporated into the framework of Arab nationalism starting in the 1920s; this was done by positioning the Arabian Peninsula as the homeland of the Semitic peoples who migrated throughout the Near East in ancient times or by associating the other pre-Islamic cultures, such as those of Egypt and North Africa and Horn of Africa, into an evolving Arab identity. The modern Arabic language has two distinct words which can be translated into English as "nationalism": qawmiyya قومية, derived from the word qawm, wataniyya وطنية, derived from the word watan; the term qawmiyya means attachment to the Arab nation, while wataniyya means loyalty to a single Arab state. Wataniyya is sometimes disparaged as "regionalism" by those who consider pan-Arabism the only legitimate variant of Arab nationalism.
In the post-World War years, the concept of qawmiyya "gradually assumed a leftist coloration, calling for... the creation of revolutionary Arab unity." Groups who subscribed to this point of view advocated opposition and non-violent, against Israel and against Arabs who did not subscribe to this point of view. The person most identified with qawmiyya was Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, who used both military and political power to spread his version of pan-Arab ideology throughout the Arab world. While qawmiyya still remains a potent political force today, the death of Nasser and the Arab defeat in the Six-Day War has weakened faith in this ideal; the current dominant ideology among Arab policy makers has shifted to wataniyya. Throughout the late 19th century, beginning in the 1860s, a sense of loyalty to the "Fatherland" developed in intellectual circles based in the Levant and Egypt, but not an "Arab Fatherland", it developed from observance of the technological successes of Western Europe which they attributed to the prevailing of patriotism in those countries.
During this period, a heavy influx of Christian missionaries and educators from Western countries provided what was termed the "Arab political revival", resulting in the establishment of secret societies within the empire. In the 1860s, literature produced in the Mashriq, under Ottoman control at the time, contained emotional intensity and condemned the Ottoman Turks for "betraying Islam" and the Fatherland to the Christian West. In the view of Arab patriots, Islam had not always been in a "sorry state" and attributed the military triumphs and cultural glories of the Arabs to the advent of the religion, insisting that European modernism itself was of Islamic origin; the Ottomans, on the other hand, thus suffered decline. The reforming Ottoman and Egyptian governments were blamed for the situation because they attempted to borrow Western practices from the Europeans that were seen as unnatural and corrupt; the Arab patriots' view was that the Islamic governments should revive true Islam that would in turn, pave way for the establishment of constitutional representative government and
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini, popularly known as Yasser Arafat or by his kunya Abu Ammar, was a Palestinian political leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization from 1969 to 2004 and President of the Palestinian National Authority from 1994 to 2004. Ideologically an Arab nationalist, he was a founding member of the Fatah political party, which he led from 1959 until 2004. Arafat was born to Palestinian parents in Cairo, where he spent most of his youth and studied at the University of King Fuad I. While a student, he embraced Arab anti-Zionist ideas. Opposed to the 1948 creation of the State of Israel, he fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Returning to Cairo, he served as president of the General Union of Palestinian Students from 1952 to 1956. In the latter part of the 1950s he co-founded Fatah, a paramilitary organisation seeking the disestablishment of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian state.
Fatah operated from where it launched attacks on Israeli targets. In the latter part of the 1960s Arafat's profile grew. Fatah's growing presence in Jordan resulted in military clashes with King Hussein's Jordanian government and in the early 1970s it relocated to Lebanon. There, Fatah assisted the Lebanese National Movement during the Lebanese Civil War and continued its attacks on Israel, resulting in it becoming a major target of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions. From 1983 to 1993, Arafat based himself in Tunisia, began to shift his approach from open conflict with the Israelis to negotiation. In 1988, he acknowledged Israel's right to exist and sought a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 1994 he returned to Palestine, settling in Gaza City and promoting self-governance for the Palestinian territories, he engaged in a series of negotiations with the Israeli government to end the conflict between it and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit.
In 1994 Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo. At the time, Fatah's support among the Palestinians declined with the growth of Hamas and other militant rivals. In late 2004, after being confined within his Ramallah compound for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat fell into a coma and died. While the cause of Arafat's death has remained the subject of speculation, investigations by Russian and French teams determined no foul play was involved. Arafat remains a controversial figure; the majority of the Palestinian people view him as a heroic freedom fighter and martyr who symbolized the national aspirations of his people. Conversely, most Israelis came to regard him as an unrepentant terrorist, while Palestinian rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government. Arafat was born in Egypt, his father, Abdel Raouf al-Qudwa al-Husseini, was a Palestinian from Gaza City, whose mother, Yasser's paternal grandmother, was Egyptian.
Arafat's father battled in the Egyptian courts for 25 years to claim family land in Egypt as part of his inheritance but was unsuccessful. He worked as a textile merchant in Cairo's religiously mixed Sakakini District. Arafat was the second-youngest of seven children and was, along with his younger brother Fathi, the only offspring born in Cairo, his mother, Zahwa Abul Saud, was from a Jerusalem-based family. She died from a kidney ailment in 1933. Arafat's first visit to Jerusalem came when his father, unable to raise seven children alone, sent Yasser and his brother Fathi to their mother's family in the Moroccan Quarter of the Old City, they lived there with their uncle Salim Abul Saud for four years. In 1937, their father recalled them to be taken care of by Inam. Arafat had a deteriorating relationship with his father. Arafat's sister Inam stated in an interview with Arafat's biographer, British historian Alan Hart, that Arafat was beaten by his father for going to the Jewish quarter in Cairo and attending religious services.
When she asked Arafat why he would not stop going, he responded by saying that he wanted to study Jewish mentality. In 1944, Arafat enrolled in the University of King Fuad I and graduated in 1950. At university, he engaged Jews in discussion and read publications by Theodor Herzl and other prominent Zionists. By 1946 he was an Arab nationalist and began procuring weapons to be smuggled into the former British Mandate of Palestine, for use by irregulars in the Arab Higher Committee and the Army of the Holy War militias. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Arafat left the University and, along with other Arabs, sought to enter Palestine to join Arab forces fighting against Israeli troops and the creation of the state of Israel. However, instead of joining the ranks of the Palestinian fedayeen, Arafat fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood, although he did not join the organization, he took part in combat in the Gaza area. In early 1949, the war was winding down in Israel's favor, Arafat returned to Cairo from a lack of logistical support.
After returning to the University, Arafat studied civil engineering and served as pr