Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. A related term is ahimsa, a core philosophy in Hinduism and Jainism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works in The Kingdom of God Is Within You. Mohandas Gandhi propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called "satyagraha", instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement, its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr. James Lawson, James Bevel, Thich Nhat Hanh and many others in the civil rights movement. Pacifism covers a spectrum of views, including the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war, opposition to any organization of society through governmental force, rejection of the use of physical violence to obtain political, economic or social goals, the obliteration of force, opposition to violence under any circumstance defence of self and others.
Historians of pacifism Peter Brock and Thomas Paul Socknat define pacifism "in the sense accepted in English-speaking areas" as "an unconditional rejection of all forms of warfare". Philosopher Jenny Teichman defines the main form of pacifism as "anti-warism", the rejection of all forms of warfare. Teichman's beliefs have been summarized by Brian Orend as "... A pacifist believes there are no moral grounds which can justify resorting to war. War, for the pacifist, is always wrong." In a sense the philosophy is based on the idea. Pacifism may be based on moral principles or pragmatism. Principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and interpersonal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found. Pacifists reject theories of Just War; some pacifists follow principles of nonviolence, believing that nonviolent action is morally superior and/or most effective.
Some however, support physical violence for emergency defence of self or others. Others support destruction of property in such emergencies or for conducting symbolic acts of resistance like pouring red paint to represent blood on the outside of military recruiting offices or entering air force bases and hammering on military aircraft. Not all nonviolent resistance is based on a fundamental rejection of all violence in all circumstances. Many leaders and participants in such movements, while recognizing the importance of using non-violent methods in particular circumstances, have not been absolute pacifists. Sometimes, as with the civil rights movement's march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965, they have called for armed protection; the interconnections between civil resistance and factors of force are complex. An absolute pacifist is described by the British Broadcasting Corporation as one who believes that human life is so valuable, that a human should never be killed and war should never be conducted in self-defense.
The principle is described as difficult to abide by due to violence not being available as a tool to aid a person, being harmed or killed. It is further claimed that such a pacifist could logically argue that violence leads to more undesirable results than non-violence. Although all pacifists are opposed to war between nation states, there have been occasions where pacifists have supported military conflict in the case of civil war or revolution. For instance, during the American Civil War, both the American Peace Society and some former members of the Non-Resistance Society supported the Union's military campaign, arguing they were carrying out a "police action" against the Confederacy, whose act of Secession they regarded as criminal. Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, French pacifist René Gérin urged support for the Spanish Republic. Gérin argued that the Spanish Nationalists were "comparable to an individual enemy" and the Republic's war effort was equivalent to the action of a domestic police force suppressing crime.
In the 1960s, some pacifists associated with the New Left supported wars of national liberation and supported groups such as the Viet Cong and the Algerian FLN, arguing peaceful attempts to liberate such nations were no longer viable, war was thus the only option. Advocacy of pacifism can be found far back in literature. During the Warring States period, the pacifist Mohist School opposed aggressive war between the feudal states, they took this belief into action by using their famed defensive strategies to defend smaller states from invasion from larger states, hoping to dissuade feudal lords from costly warfare. The Seven Military Classics of ancient China view warfare negatively, as a last resort. For example, the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong says: "As for the military, it is not an auspicious instrument; the Taoist scripture "Classic of Great Peace" foretells "the coming Age of Great Peace". The Taiping Jing advocates "a world full of peace"; the Lemba religion of southern Frenc
The West Bank is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan to the east and by the Green Line separating it and Israel on the south and north. The West Bank contains a significant section of the western Dead Sea shore; the West Bank was the name given to the territory, captured by Jordan in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, subsequently annexed in 1950 until 1967 when it was occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War. The Oslo Accords, signed between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel, created administrative districts with varying levels of Palestinian autonomy within each area. Area C, in which Israel maintained complete civil and security control, accounts for over 60% of the territory of the West Bank; the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. As of July 2017 it has an estimated population of 2,747,943 Palestinians, 391,000 Israeli settlers, another 201,200 Israeli settlers in East Jerusalem.
The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. The International Court of Justice advisory ruling concluded that events that came after the 1967 occupation of the West Bank by Israel, including the Jerusalem Law, Israel's peace treaty with Jordan and the Oslo Accords, did not change the status of the West Bank as occupied territory with Israel as the occupying power; the name West Bank is a translation of the Arabic term ad-Diffah I-Garbiyyah, given to the territory west of the Jordan River that fell, in 1948, under occupation and administration by Jordan, which subsequently annexed it in 1950. This annexation was considered illegal and was recognized only by Britain and Pakistan; the term was chosen to differentiate the west bank of the River Jordan from the "east bank" of this river. The neo-Latin name Cisjordan or Cis-Jordan is the usual name for the territory in the Romance languages and Hungarian.
The name West Bank, has become the standard usage for this geopolitical entity in English and some of the other Germanic languages since its creation following the Jordanian army's conquest. In English, the name Cisjordan is used to designate the entire region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean in the historical context of the British Mandate and earlier times; the analogous Transjordan has been used to designate the region now comprising the state of Jordan, which lies to the east of the Jordan River. From 1517 through 1917, the area now known as the West Bank was under Ottoman rule as part of the provinces of Syria. At the 1920 San Remo conference, the victorious Allied powers allocated the area to the British Mandate of Palestine; the San Remo Resolution adopted on 25 April 1920 incorporated the Balfour Declaration of 1917. It and Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations were the basic documents upon which the British Mandate for Palestine was constructed. Faced with the determination of Emir Abdullah to unify Arab lands under the Hashemite banner, the British proclaimed Abdullah ruler of the three districts, known collectively as Transjordan.
Confident that his plans for the unity of the Arab nation would come to fruition, the emir established the first centralized governmental system in what is now modern Jordan on 11 April 1921. The West Bank area was conquered by Jordan during the 1948 war with the new state of Israel. In 1947, it was subsequently designated as part of a proposed Arab state by the United Nations partition plan for Palestine; the resolution recommended partition of the British Mandate into a Jewish State, an Arab State, an internationally administered enclave of Jerusalem. The resolution designated the territory described as "the hill country of Samaria and Judea" as part of the proposed Arab state, but following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War this area was captured by Transjordan. 1949 Armistice Agreements defined the interim boundary between Jordan. Following the December 1948 Jericho Conference, Transjordan annexed the area west of the Jordan River in 1950, naming it "West Bank" or "Cisjordan", designated the area east of the river as "East Bank" or "Transjordan".
Jordan ruled over the West Bank from 1948 until 1967. Jordan's annexation was never formally recognized by the international community, with the exception of the United Kingdom. A two-state option, dividing Palestine, as opposed to a binary solution arose during the period of the British mandate in the area; the United Nations Partition Plan had envisaged two states, one Jewish and the other Arab/Palestinian, but in the wake of the war only one emerged at the time. King Abdullah of Jordan had been crowned King of Jerusalem by the Coptic Bishop on 15 November 1948. Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank and East Jerusalem were granted Jordanian citizenship and half of the Jordanian Parliament seats. In June 1967, the West Bank and East Jerusalem were captured by Israel as a result of the Six-Day War. With the exception of East Jerusalem and the former Israeli-Jordanian no man's land, the West Bank was not annexed by Israel but came under Israeli military control until 1982. Although th
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism in opposition to social hierarchy. It involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished; the term left-wing can refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were coined during the French Revolution, referring to the seating arrangement in the French Estates General: those who sat on the left opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization, while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime. Use of the term "Left" became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the "Independents"; the word "wing" was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century with disparaging intent and "left-wing" was applied to those who were unorthodox in their religious or political views.
The term was applied to a number of movements republicanism during the French Revolution in the 18th century, followed by socialism, communism and social democracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since the term left-wing has been applied to a broad range of movements including civil rights movements, feminist movements, anti-war movements and environmental movements, as well as a wide range of parties. According to former professor of economics Barry Clark, " claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status and wealth are eliminated". In politics, the term "Left" derives from the French Revolution, as the anti-monarchist Montagnard and Jacobin deputies from the Third Estate sat to the left of the presiding member's chair in parliament, a habit which began in the French Estates General of 1789. Throughout the 19th century in France, the main line dividing Left and Right was between supporters of the French Republic and those of the monarchy.
The June Days Uprising during the Second Republic was an attempt by the Left to assert itself after the 1848 Revolution, but only a small portion of the population supported this. In the mid-19th century, socialism and anti-clericalism became features of the French Left. After Napoleon III's 1851 coup and the subsequent establishment of the Second Empire, Marxism began to rival radical republicanism and utopian socialism as a force within left-wing politics; the influential Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted that all human history is the history of class struggle. They predicted that a proletarian revolution would overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create a classless, post-monetary communist society, it was in this period that the word "wing" was appended to both Right. In the United States, many leftists, social liberals and trade unionists were influenced by the works of Thomas Paine, who introduced the concept of asset-based egalitarianism, which theorises that social equality is possible by a redistribution of resources.
The International Workingmen's Association, sometimes called the First International, brought together delegates from many different countries, with many different views about how to reach a classless and stateless society. Following a split between supporters of Marx and Mikhail Bakunin, anarchists formed the International Workers' Association; the Second International became divided over the issue of World War I. Those who opposed the war, such as Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, saw themselves as further to the left. In the United States after Reconstruction, the phrase "the Left" was used to describe those who supported trade unions, the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. More in the United States, left-wing and right-wing have been used as synonyms for Democratic and Republican, or as synonyms for liberalism and conservatism respectively. Since the Right was populist, both in the Western and the Eastern Bloc anything viewed as avant-garde art was called leftist in all Europe, thus the identification of Picasso's Guernica as "leftist" in Europe and the condemnation of the Russian composer Shostakovich's opera in Pravda as follows: "Here we have'leftist' confusion instead of natural, human music".
The following positions are associated with left-wing politics. Leftist economic beliefs range from Keynesian economics and the welfare state through industrial democracy and the social market to nationalization of the economy and central planning, to the anarcho-syndicalist advocacy of a council- and assembly-based self-managed anarchist communism. During the industrial revolution, leftists supported trade unions. At the beginning of the 20th century, many leftists advocated strong government intervention in the economy. Leftists continue to criticize what they perceive as the exploitative nature of globalization, the "race to the bottom" and unjust lay-offs. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the belief that government ought to be directly involved in the day-to-day workings of an economy declined in popularity amongst the center-left social democrats who became influenced by "Third Way" ideology. Other leftists believe in Marxian economics; some distinguish Marx's economic theories from his political philos
2006 Palestinian legislative election
Elections for the second Palestinian Legislative Council, the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority, were held on 25 January 2006. The result was a victory for Hamas, contesting under the list name of Change and Reform, who won with 74 seats of the 132 seats, whilst the ruling Fatah won just 45. In terms of votes received, Hamas took 44.45% of the vote, whilst Fatah received 41.43% and of the Electoral Districts, Hamas party candidates received 41.73% and Fatah party candidates received 36.96%. The second PLC first met on 18 February 2006; the Prime Minister, Ahmed Qurei, but at the request of President Mahmoud Abbas, remained as interim Prime Minister until 19 February 2006, when Hamas leader Ismail Haniya formed a new government. The 2006 election was the second election for the Palestine Legislative Council. Elections had been postponed for many years due to discord between Hamas. An agreement in March 2005 produced the Palestinian Cairo Declaration, which called for legislative elections with a mixed voting system.
The Palestinian Legislative Council in June 2005 increased the number of PLC members from 88 to 132, with half being elected under a system of proportional representation and half by plurality-at-large voting in traditional constituencies. Palestinian voters in both the Gaza Strip and in the West Bank were eligible to participate in the election. Earlier, the 2005 municipal elections and the 9 January 2005 presidential election had taken place; the legislative elections were scheduled for 17 July 2005, but on 9 August 2005, Abbas announced that the elections would take place in January 2006. On 20 August 2005, Abbas set the elections for 25 January. On 15 January 2006, Abbas declared that, despite unrest in Gaza, he would not change the election date, unless if Israel were to prevent Palestinians in East Jerusalem from voting. Israel had made it clear that it will not allow campaigning in East Jerusalem by Hamas, which had carried out the majority of attacks against Israel in the previous five years, during the Second Intifada, refused to recognise Israel or the Oslo Accords.
The United States had spent $2.3 million in USAID on support for the Palestinian elections designed to bolster the image of President Abbas and his Fatah party. USAID's Offices used discretionary spending accounts for various projects, including tree planting, schoolroom additions, a soccer tournament, street cleaning, computers at community centers. USAID removed its usual branding requirement on its sponsored activities; the US was accused of trying to influence the outcome of the election. The European Union supplied election observers to "assess the whole election process, including the legal framework, the political environment and campaign, electoral preparations and counting as well as the post-election period". In the 1996 elections, 88 PLC members were chosen from several multi-member constituencies via block voting. In advance of the 2006 elections, the Palestinian electoral law was changed to enlarge the PLC from 88 to 132 seats and to introduce a degree of proportional representation via a parallel voting system.
The mixed voting system divided the PLC election seats into two groups: 50% elected by proportional representation taking the OPT as a single district and 50% by the majoritarian system in different districts. Each voter received two ballots. On the first, the voter chose one of several nationwide party lists. 66 of the PLC seats were distributed proportionally to those lists that received more than 2% of the total list votes. Each list had to include at least one woman in the first three names, at least one woman in the next four names, at least one woman in the five names that followed; the second ballot was for a voter's local constituency. The voter could cast up to as many votes for individual candidates as there were seats in his or her constituency. Votes were unweighted, the candidates with the most votes were elected. For example, a voter in the Nablus district could cast up to six votes. In some constituencies, one or two seats were set aside for the Christian candidates with the most votes.
For instance, in Ramallah, a five-seat constituency, the Christian candidate with the most votes was elected if he or she was not among top five candidates overall. The six seats reserved for Christians were considered the minimum quota for their representation in the PLC; the number of seats each electoral district received was determined by its population. However, Fatah had been beset by internal strife in advance of the elections, with younger and more popular figures like Mohammed Dahlan, who took part in the negotiations of the 1993 Oslo Accords, Marwan Barghouti levelling allegations of corruption against Fatah leadership. Fatah organised primary elections t
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine is a secular Palestinian Marxist–Leninist and revolutionary socialist organization founded in 1967 by George Habash. It has been the second-largest of the groups forming the Palestine Liberation Organization, the largest being Fatah; as of 2015 the PFLP boycotts participation in the PLO Executive Committee and the Palestinian National Council. Ahmad Sa'adat has served as Secretary-General of the PFLP since 2001, he was sentenced in December 2006 to 30 years in an Israeli prison. The PFLP considers both the Fatah-led government in the West Bank and the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip illegal because elections to the Palestinian National Authority have not been held since 2006; the United States, Canada and the European Union have designated the PFLP as a terrorist organization. From its foundation the PFLP sought both superpower and regional patrons and early developed ties with the People's Republic of China, the Soviet Union and, at various times, with regional powers such as Syria, South Yemen and Iraq, as well as with left-wing groups around the world, including the PKK, FARC and the Japanese Red Army.
When that support diminished or stopped, in the late 1980s and 1990s, the PFLP sought new allies and developed contacts with Islamist groups linked to Iran, despite the PFLP's strong adherence to secularism and anti-clericalism. The relationship between the PFLP and the Islamic Republic of Iran has fluctuated – it strengthened as a result of Hamas moving away from Iran due to differing positions on the Syrian Civil War. Iran rewarded the PFLP for its pro-Assad stance with an increase in financial and military assistance; the PFLP has taken a hard line on Palestinian national aspirations, opposing the more moderate stance of Fatah. It does not recognise the State of Israel, it opposes negotiations with the Israeli government, favours a one-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict; the military wing of the PFLP is called the Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades. The PFLP is well known for pioneering armed aircraft-hijackings in early 1970s. According to PFLP Politburo member and former aircraft-hijacker Leila Khaled, the PFLP does not see suicide bombing as a form of resistance to occupation or as a strategic action or policy and no longer carries out such attacks.
The PFLP grew out of the Harakat al-Qawmiyyin al-Arab, or Arab Nationalist Movement, founded in 1953 by George Habash, a Palestinian Christian, from Lydda. In 1948, 19-year-old Habash, a medical student, went to his home town of Lydda during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to help his family. While he was there, the Israel Defense Forces attacked the city and as a result most of its civilian population was forced to leave, they marched for three days without water until they reached the Arab armies' front lines." Habash finished his medical education in Lebanon at the American University in Beirut, graduating in 1951. In an interview with US journalist John K. Cooley, Habash identified the Arab defeat by the Zionists as "the scientific society of Israel as against our own backwardness in the Arab world; this called for the total rebuilding of Arab society into a twentieth-century society."The ANM was founded in this nationalist spirit. " held the'Guevara view' of the'revolutionary human being'," Habash told Cooley.
"A new breed of man had to emerge, among the Arabs as everywhere else. This meant applying everything in human power to the realization of a cause."The ANM formed underground branches in several Arab countries, including Libya, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait still under British rule. It adopted secularism and socialist economic ideas, pushed for armed struggle. In collaboration with the Palestinian Liberation Army, the ANM established Abtal al-Audah as a commando group in 1966. After the Six-Day War of June 1967, ANM merged in August with two other groups, Youth for Revenge and Ahmed Jibril's Syrian-backed Palestine Liberation Front, to form the PFLP, with Habash as leader. By early 1968, the PFLP had trained between three thousand guerrillas, it had the financial backing of Syria, was headquartered there, one of its training camps was based in as-Salt, Jordan. In 1969, the PFLP declared itself a Marxist–Leninist organization, but it has remained faithful to Pan Arabism, seeing the Palestinian struggle as part of a wider uprising against Western imperialism, which aims to unite the Arab world by overthrowing "reactionary" regimes.
It published a newspaper, al-Hadaf, edited by Ghassan Kanafani. The PFLP gained notoriety in the late 1960s and early 1970s for a series of armed attacks and aircraft hijackings, including on non-Israeli targets, their Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades claimed responsibility for several suicide attacks during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. See #Armed attacks of the PFLP below. In 1967, Palestinian Popular Struggle Front broke away from the PFLP. In 1968, Ahmed Jibril broke away from the PFLP to form the Syrian-backed Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command. In 1969, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine formed as a separate, ostensibly Maoist, organization under Nayef Hawatmeh and Yasser Abd Rabbo as the PDFLP. In 1972, the Popular Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Palestine was formed following a split in PFLP; the PFLP had a troubled relationship with George Habash's one-time deputy, Wadie Haddad, expelled because he refused orders to stop attacks and kidnapping operations abroad.
Haddad has been identified in released Soviet archival documents as
Jordan the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is an Arab country in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and Israel and Palestine to the west; the Dead Sea is located along its western borders and the country has a small coastline to the Red Sea in its extreme south-west, but is otherwise landlocked. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe; the capital, Amman, is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon and Edom. Rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France; the Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite Emir, Abdullah I, the emirate became a British protectorate.
In 1946, Jordan became an independent state known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, became one of two Arab states to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1994. Jordan is the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation; the sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers. Jordan is a small, semi-arid landlocked country with an area of 89,342 km2 and a population numbering 10 million, making it the 11th-most populous Arab country. Sunni Islam, practiced by around 95% of the population, is the dominant religion in Jordan and coexists with an indigenous Christian minority. Jordan has been referred to as an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region, it has been unscathed by the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in 2010.
From as early as 1948, Jordan has accepted refugees from multiple neighbouring countries in conflict. An estimated 2.1 million Palestinian and 1.4 million Syrian refugees are present in Jordan as of a 2015 census. The kingdom is a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians fleeing persecution by ISIL. While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure. Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" with an "upper middle income" economy; the Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce. The country is a major tourist destination attracting medical tourism due to its well developed health sector. Nonetheless, a lack of natural resources, large flow of refugees and regional turmoil have hampered economic growth. Jordan takes its name from the Jordan River. While several theories for the origin of the river's name have been proposed, it is most plausible that it derives from the Semitic word Yarad, meaning "the descender", reflecting the river's declivity.
Much of the area that makes up modern Jordan was called Transjordan, meaning "across the Jordan", used to denote the lands east of the river. The Old Testament refers to the area as "the other side of the Jordan". Early Arab chronicles referred to the river as corresponding to the Semitic Yarden. Jund Al-Urdunn was a military district around the river in the early Islamic era. During the Crusades in the beginning of the second millennium, a lordship was established in the area under the name of Oultrejordain; the oldest evidence of hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least 200,000 years. Jordan is rich in Paleolithic remains due to its location within the Levant where expansions of hominids out of Africa converged. Past lakeshore environments attracted different hominids, several remains of tools have been found from this period; the world's oldest evidence of bread-making was found in a 14,500 years old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. The transition from hunter-gatherer to establishing populous agricultural villages occurred during the Neolithic period.'Ain Ghazal, one such village located in today's eastern Amman, is one of the largest known prehistoric settlements in the Near East.
Dozens of plaster statues of the human form dating to 7250 BC were uncovered there and they are among the oldest found. Other than the usual Chalcolithic villages such as Tulaylet Ghassul in the Jordan Valley, a series of circular stone enclosures in the eastern basalt desert−whose purpose remains uncertain–have baffled archaeologists. Fortified towns and urban centers first emerged in the southern Levant early on in the Bronze Age. Wadi Feynan became a regional center for copper extraction, exploited on a large-scale to produce bronze. Trade and movement of people in the Middle East peaked and refining civilizations. Villages in Transjordan expanded in areas with reliable water resources and agricultural land. Ancient Egyptians controlled both banks of the Jordan River. During the Iron Age after the withdrawal of the Egyptians, Transjordan was home to Ammon and Moab, they spoke Semitic languages of the Canaanite group, an
State of Palestine
Palestine the State of Palestine, is a de jure sovereign state in Western Asia claiming the West Bank and Gaza Strip with Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is located in Ramallah. The entirety of territory claimed by the State of Palestine has been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War in 1967. Palestine has a population of 4,816,503 as of 2016, ranked 123rd in the world. After World War II, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. After the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, neighboring Arab armies invaded the former British mandate on the next day and fought the Israeli forces; the All-Palestine Government was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 to govern the Egyptian-controlled enclave in Gaza. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan.
Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip. Israel captured the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank from Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria in June 1967 following the Six-Day War. On 15 November 1988, Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, in Algiers proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine. A year after the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinian National Authority was formed to govern the areas A and B in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Gaza would be ruled by Hamas in 2007, two years after the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza; the State of Palestine is recognized by 136 UN members and since 2012 has a status of a non-member observer state in the United Nations – which implies recognition of statehood. It is a member of the Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, G77, the International Olympic Committee and other international bodies.
Since the British Mandate, the term "Palestine" has been associated with the geographical area that covers the State of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. General use of the term "Palestine" or related terms to the area at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea beside Syria has been taking place since the times of Ancient Greece, with Herodotus writing of a "district of Syria, called Palaistine" in which Phoenicians interacted with other maritime peoples in The Histories; some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of the geographical region of "Palestine" include Canaan, Land of Israel, Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Coele-Syria, "Israel HaShlema", Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Retenu, Southern Syria, Southern Levant and Syria Palaestina. The areas claimed by the State of Palestine lie in the Levant; the Gaza Strip borders the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Egypt to the south, Israel to the north and east. The West Bank is bordered by Jordan to the east, Israel to the north and west.
Thus, the two enclaves constituting the area claimed by State of Palestine have no geographical border with one another, being separated by Israel. These areas would constitute the world's 163rd largest country by land area. In 1947, the UN adopted a partition plan for a two-state solution in the remaining territory of the mandate; the plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab leaders, Britain refused to implement the plan. On the eve of final British withdrawal, the Jewish Agency for Israel declared the establishment of the State of Israel according to the proposed UN plan; the Arab Higher Committee did not declare a state of its own and instead, together with Transjordan and the other members of the Arab League of the time, commenced military action resulting in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. During the war, Israel gained additional territories that were designated to be part of the Arab state under the UN plan. Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip and Transjordan occupied and annexed the West Bank.
Egypt supported the creation of an All-Palestine Government, but disbanded it in 1959. Transjordan never recognized it and instead decided to incorporate the West Bank with its own territory to form Jordan; the annexation was rejected by the international community. The Six-Day War in 1967, when Israel fought against Egypt and Syria, ended with Israel occupying the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, besides other territories. In 1964, when the West Bank was controlled by Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established there with the goal to confront Israel; the Palestinian National Charter of the PLO defines the boundaries of Palestine as the whole remaining territory of the mandate, including Israel. Following the Six-Day War, the PLO moved to Jordan, but relocated to Lebanon after Black September in 1971; the October 1974 Arab League summit designated the PLO as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" and reaffirmed "their right to establish an independent state of urgency."
In November 1974, the PLO was recognized as competent on all matters concerning the question of Palestine by the UN General Assembly granting them observer status as a "non-state entity" at the UN. After the 1988 Declaration of Independence, the UN General Assembly acknowledged the proclamation and decided to use the designation "Palestine" instead of "Palestine Liberation Organization" in the UN. In spite of thi