Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement
The Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement is the national Scouting organization of Libya. It was founded in 1954, became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1958 and of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1981; the coeducational Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement has about 18,500 members as of 2004. In 1966, Ali Khalifa el-Zaidi was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting. Other recipients include Dr. Mansour Mohamed El-Kikhia in 1983, Dr. Mohamed H. Fhema; the Scout Motto is Kun Musta'idan or كن مستعداً, translating as Be Prepared in Arabic, though the local variant is Wa a'eddou or و أعدوا. The noun for a single Scout is كشاف in Arabic. Scouts and Guides have a unified headquarters for planning and coordination of policies, but their activities are separate. There is strong Guide/Scout cooperation in planning training courses, youth program and hosting international activities.
Jamborees, leader training courses and conferences are held throughout the year on the sub-provincial and international levels. The organization has adopted relevant programs in the fields of conservation, Scouting with the handicapped, child health and desert Scouting; when Muammar Gaddafi was ruler of Libya, Libyan Scouts were active in the African Region as well as the Arab Region. The membership badge of the Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement incorporates a palm tree and other agricultural produce; the Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement escaped the ban on any form of independent organisation, when Muammar Gaddafi was ruler of Libya, because of its non-political stance and because Gaddafi was a Scout while growing up in the southern town of Sabha. However, in the Libyan Civil War Scouts acted as front-line support troops for the anti-Gaddafi forces. Official Homepage
Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia considered to include Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, in some definitions, some parts of western Jordan. The name was used by ancient Greek writers, it was used for the Roman province Syria Palaestina, the Byzantine Palaestina Prima, the Islamic provincial district of Jund Filastin; the region comprises most of the territory claimed for the biblical regions known as the Land of Israel, the Holy Land or Promised Land. It has been known as the southern portion of wider regional designations such as Canaan, ash-Sham, the Levant. Situated at a strategic location between Egypt and Arabia, the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture and politics; the region has been controlled by numerous peoples, including Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites and Judeans, Babylonians, ancient Greeks, the Jewish Hasmonean Kingdom, Parthians, Byzantines, the Arab Rashidun, Umayyad and Fatimid caliphates, Ayyubids, Mongols, the British, modern Israelis, Jordanians and Palestinians.
The boundaries of the region have changed throughout history. Today, the region comprises the State of Israel and the Palestinian territories in which the State of Palestine was declared. Modern archaeology has identified 12 ancient inscriptions from Egyptian and Assyrian records recording cognates of Hebrew Pelesheth; the term "Peleset" is found in five inscriptions referring to a neighboring people or land starting from c. 1150 BCE during the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. The first known mention is at the temple at Medinet Habu which refers to the Peleset among those who fought with Egypt in Ramesses III's reign, the last known is 300 years on Padiiset's Statue. Seven known Assyrian inscriptions refer to the region of "Palashtu" or "Pilistu", beginning with Adad-nirari III in the Nimrud Slab in c. 800 BCE through to a treaty made by Esarhaddon more than a century later. Neither the Egyptian nor the Assyrian sources provided clear regional boundaries for the term; the first clear use of the term Palestine to refer to the entire area between Phoenicia and Egypt was in 5th century BCE Ancient Greece, when Herodotus wrote of a "district of Syria, called Palaistinê" in The Histories, which included the Judean mountains and the Jordan Rift Valley.
A century Aristotle used a similar definition for the region in Meteorology, in which he included the Dead Sea. Greek writers such as Polemon and Pausanias used the term to refer to the same region, followed by Roman writers such as Ovid, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch as well as Roman Judean writers Philo of Alexandria and Josephus; the term was first used to denote an official province in c. 135 CE, when the Roman authorities, following the suppression of the Bar Kokhba Revolt, combined Iudaea Province with Galilee and the Paralia to form "Syria Palaestina". There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change, but the precise date is not certain and the assertion of some scholars that the name change was intended "to complete the dissociation with Judaea" is disputed; the term is accepted to be a translation of the Biblical name Peleshet. The term and its derivates are used more than 250 times in Masoretic-derived versions of the Hebrew Bible, of which 10 uses are in the Torah, with undefined boundaries, 200 of the remaining references are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel.
The term is used in the Septuagint, which used a transliteration Land of Phylistieim different from the contemporary Greek place name Palaistínē. The Septuagint instead used the term "allophuloi" throughout the Books of Judges and Samuel, such that the term "Philistines" has been interpreted to mean "non-Israelites of the Promised Land" when used in the context of Samson and David, Rabbinic sources explain that these peoples were different from the Philistines of the Book of Genesis. During the Byzantine period, the region of Palestine within Syria Palaestina was subdivided into Palaestina Prima and Secunda, an area of land including the Negev and Sinai became Palaestina Salutaris. Following the Muslim conquest, place names that were in use by the Byzantine administration continued to be used in Arabic; the use of the name "Palestine" became common in Early Modern English, was used in English and Arabic during the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem and was revived as an official place name with the British Mandate for Palestine.
Some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of this land include Canaan, Land of Israel, the Promised Land, Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Coele-Syria, "Israel HaShlema", Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Retenu, Southern Syria, Southern Levant and Syria Palaestina. Situated at a strategic location between Egypt and Arabia, the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture and politics; the region has been controlled by numerous peoples, including Ancient Egyptians, Israelites, Babylonians, Ancient Greeks, Parthians, Sasa
Baku is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. Baku is located 28 metres below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and the largest city in the world located below sea level. Baku lies alongside the Bay of Baku. At the beginning of 2009, Baku's urban population was estimated at just over 2,000,000 people. About 25 percent of all inhabitants of the country live in Baku's metropolitan area. Baku is the sole metropolis in Azerbaijan. Baku is divided into 48 townships. Among these are the townships on the islands of the Baku Archipelago, the town of Oil Rocks built on stilts in the Caspian Sea, 60 kilometres away from Baku; the Inner City of Baku, along with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower, were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. According to the Lonely Planet's ranking, Baku is among the world's top ten destinations for urban nightlife; the city is the scientific and industrial center of Azerbaijan.
Many sizeable Azerbaijani institutions have their headquarters there. The Baku International Sea Trade Port is capable of handling two million tons of general and dry bulk cargoes per year. In recent years, Baku has become an important venue for international events, it hosted the 57th Eurovision Song Contest in 2012, the 2015 European Games, 4th Islamic Solidarity Games, the F1 Azerbaijan Grand Prix since 2016, will host the final of the 2018-19 UEFA Europa League and, will be one of the host cities for UEFA Euro 2020. The city is renowned for its harsh winds, reflected in its nickname, the "City of Winds". Baku is derived from the Persian name of the city باد-کوبه Bād-kube, meaning "Wind-pounded city", in which bād means "wind" and kube is rooted in the verb کوبیدن kubidan, "to pound", thus referring to a place where wind is strong and pounding. Indeed, the city is renowned for harsh winds; this is reflected in the city's nickname as the "City of Winds". A less probable folk etymology explains the name as deriving from Baghkuy, meaning "God's town".
Baga and kuy are the Old Persian words for "god" and "town" respectively. Arabic sources refer to the city as Baku, Bakukh and Bakuye, all of which seem to come from a Persian name. During Soviet rule, the city was spelled in Cyrillic as "Баку" in Russian and "Бакы" in Azerbaijani. Nowadays, when Azerbaijan is using the Latin alphabet, it is spelled as "Bakı". Around 100,000 years ago, the territory of modern Baku and Absheron was savanna with rich flora and fauna. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone age. From the Bronze age there have been rock carvings discovered near Bayil, a bronze figure of a small fish discovered in the territory of the Old City; these have led some to suggest the existence of a Bronze Age settlement within the city's territory. Near Nardaran, in a place called Umid Gaya, a prehistoric observatory was discovered, where on the rock the images of sun and various constellations are carved together with a primitive astronomic table. Further archeological excavations revealed various prehistoric settlements, native temples and other artifacts within the territory of the modern city and around it.
In the 1st century CE, the Romans reached Baku. Near the city, in Gobustan, Roman inscriptions dating from 84–96 CE were discovered; this is one of the earliest written evidences for Baku. Baku was the realm of the Shirvanshahs during the 8th century CE; the city came under assault of the Khazars and the Rus. Shirvanshah Akhsitan I built a navy in Baku and repelled another Rus assault in 1170. After a devastating earthquake struck Shamakhi, the capital of Shirvan, Shirvanshah's court moved to Baku in 1191; the Shirvan era influenced Baku and the remainder of what is present-day Azerbaijan. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, massive fortifications were undertaken in Baku and the surrounding towns; the Maiden Tower, the Ramana Tower, the Nardaran Fortress, the Shagan Castle, the Mardakan Castle, the Round Castle and the famous Sabayil Castle on the island of the Bay of Baku was built during this period. The city walls of Baku were rebuilt and strengthened. By the early 16th century Baku's wealth and strategic position attracted the focus of its larger neighbors.
The fall of the Ak Koyunlu brought the city into the sphere of the newly formed Iranian Safavid dynasty, led by king Ismail I. Ismail I captured it, his successor, king Tahmasp I removed the Shirvanshahs from power, made Baku a part of the Shirvan province. Baku remained as an integral part of his empire and the successive Iranian dynasties to come for the next centuries, until the irrevocable cession in the first half of the 19th century; the House of Shirvan, who ruled Baku since the 9th century, was extinguished in the course of the Safavid rule. At this time the city was enclosed within the lines of strong walls, which were washed by the sea on one side and protected by a wide trench on land; the Ottomans gained control over Baku as a result of the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1578–1590. In 1604 Baku fortress was destroyed by Shah A
The West Bank is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan to the east and by the Green Line separating it and Israel on the south and north. The West Bank contains a significant section of the western Dead Sea shore; the West Bank was the name given to the territory, captured by Jordan in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, subsequently annexed in 1950 until 1967 when it was occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War. The Oslo Accords, signed between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel, created administrative districts with varying levels of Palestinian autonomy within each area. Area C, in which Israel maintained complete civil and security control, accounts for over 60% of the territory of the West Bank; the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. As of July 2017 it has an estimated population of 2,747,943 Palestinians, 391,000 Israeli settlers, another 201,200 Israeli settlers in East Jerusalem.
The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. The International Court of Justice advisory ruling concluded that events that came after the 1967 occupation of the West Bank by Israel, including the Jerusalem Law, Israel's peace treaty with Jordan and the Oslo Accords, did not change the status of the West Bank as occupied territory with Israel as the occupying power; the name West Bank is a translation of the Arabic term ad-Diffah I-Garbiyyah, given to the territory west of the Jordan River that fell, in 1948, under occupation and administration by Jordan, which subsequently annexed it in 1950. This annexation was considered illegal and was recognized only by Britain and Pakistan; the term was chosen to differentiate the west bank of the River Jordan from the "east bank" of this river. The neo-Latin name Cisjordan or Cis-Jordan is the usual name for the territory in the Romance languages and Hungarian.
The name West Bank, has become the standard usage for this geopolitical entity in English and some of the other Germanic languages since its creation following the Jordanian army's conquest. In English, the name Cisjordan is used to designate the entire region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean in the historical context of the British Mandate and earlier times; the analogous Transjordan has been used to designate the region now comprising the state of Jordan, which lies to the east of the Jordan River. From 1517 through 1917, the area now known as the West Bank was under Ottoman rule as part of the provinces of Syria. At the 1920 San Remo conference, the victorious Allied powers allocated the area to the British Mandate of Palestine; the San Remo Resolution adopted on 25 April 1920 incorporated the Balfour Declaration of 1917. It and Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations were the basic documents upon which the British Mandate for Palestine was constructed. Faced with the determination of Emir Abdullah to unify Arab lands under the Hashemite banner, the British proclaimed Abdullah ruler of the three districts, known collectively as Transjordan.
Confident that his plans for the unity of the Arab nation would come to fruition, the emir established the first centralized governmental system in what is now modern Jordan on 11 April 1921. The West Bank area was conquered by Jordan during the 1948 war with the new state of Israel. In 1947, it was subsequently designated as part of a proposed Arab state by the United Nations partition plan for Palestine; the resolution recommended partition of the British Mandate into a Jewish State, an Arab State, an internationally administered enclave of Jerusalem. The resolution designated the territory described as "the hill country of Samaria and Judea" as part of the proposed Arab state, but following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War this area was captured by Transjordan. 1949 Armistice Agreements defined the interim boundary between Jordan. Following the December 1948 Jericho Conference, Transjordan annexed the area west of the Jordan River in 1950, naming it "West Bank" or "Cisjordan", designated the area east of the river as "East Bank" or "Transjordan".
Jordan ruled over the West Bank from 1948 until 1967. Jordan's annexation was never formally recognized by the international community, with the exception of the United Kingdom. A two-state option, dividing Palestine, as opposed to a binary solution arose during the period of the British mandate in the area; the United Nations Partition Plan had envisaged two states, one Jewish and the other Arab/Palestinian, but in the wake of the war only one emerged at the time. King Abdullah of Jordan had been crowned King of Jerusalem by the Coptic Bishop on 15 November 1948. Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank and East Jerusalem were granted Jordanian citizenship and half of the Jordanian Parliament seats. In June 1967, the West Bank and East Jerusalem were captured by Israel as a result of the Six-Day War. With the exception of East Jerusalem and the former Israeli-Jordanian no man's land, the West Bank was not annexed by Israel but came under Israeli military control until 1982. Although th
Girlguiding is the operating name of The Guide Association named The Girl Guides Association and is the national guiding organisation of the United Kingdom. It is the UK's largest girl-only youth organisation. Girlguiding is a charitable organisation. Within Girlguiding, participants take on adventurous activities, such as climbing, canoeing and orienteering and have the opportunity to get involved in camps and international events, including girl-only festivals and overseas development projects. In local groups – called'units' - girls complete badges and challenges that cover topics from circus skills and scientific investigation, to first aid and community action; each year, the organisation publishes the Girls' Attitudes Survey, which surveys the views of girls and young women on topics such as body image, career aspirations and mental health. Girlguiding is a campaigning organisation, having supported the No More Page 3 campaign and lobbied the government on sexual harassment in schools, women's political representation and media sexism.
Guiding began in the UK in 1910, when Robert Baden-Powell, founder of The Scout Association, established a separate organisation for girls. The Guide Association was a founding member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1928. Girlguiding is supported by around 100,000 volunteers. Following the origin of the Boy Scouts in 1907 many girls took up Scouting. In 1909, a number of Girl Scouts attended the Boy Scout Rally in Crystal Palace Park The girls told Robert Baden Powell that they wanted'to do the same thing as the boys'. Guiding was introduced to respond to the demand. In 1910 Robert Baden-Powell formed the Girl Guides and asked his sister Agnes to look after the Girl Guides organisation. A few years Baden-Powell's new wife Olave became involved and, in 1918, was appointed Chief Guide; the name Guides was chosen from Baden-Powell's military background, "Guides" had operated in the north-west frontier in India, their main task was to go on hazardous expeditions. These men had influenced Baden-Powell as they continued training minds and body when off duty.
As a result, Baden Powell decided Girl Guides would be a suitable name for the pioneering young women's movement he wished to establish. In 1914 Rosebuds were established for girls aged 8–10, this name was changed to Brownies. Two years in 1916 the first Senior Guide groups were formed, in 1920 these groups became Rangers. 1943 saw the establishment of the Trefoil Guild for members over 21 who wished to remain a part of the movement but couldn't remain active with a unit. The section for the youngest members of the association, was introduced in 1987 for girls aged 5–7. In 1936 the Girl Guides Association was one of the founding members of The National Council for Voluntary Youth Services, created with the aim of promoting and supporting youth development work across England. Girlguiding has remained a member of NCVYS since. In 1964, a "Working Party" was established to review and update the whole programme of the association; these recommendations were implemented in 1968 and included new uniforms and awards across all the sections of the association.
Land and Air Rangers were merged into a single Ranger section. Girls are organised into sections by age; these are Rainbows, Brownies and Rangers. Rainbow Guides or Rainbows are aged from 5 to 7 year old, except in Northern Ireland where girls can join from age 4. Activities are organised around work the four areas of the Rainbow Jigsaw – Look, Learn and Love. In the UK the girls used to wear a tabard in one of the colours of the Rainbow, now the newer uniform is worn. There is a baseball cap, cycle shorts, jogging bottoms, polo shirt to choose from; each girl makes a promise on joining a Rainbow unit and must be able to understand and want to make this promise. This Promise is a simpler version of the one; the Rainbow Jigsaw is used in the unit via the Rainbow Roundabout. The Rainbows themselves choose an activity from one of each of the four Jigsaw areas; these activities are carried out alongside the normal activities. When all four have been completed the Rainbow is awarded a badge showing the symbols of each of the Jigsaw areas.
It is intended. Roundabouts have a theme, ones produced so far are Roundabout Festivals, Roundabout the World, Roundabout Rainbows, Roundabout Get Healthy and Roundabout Global Adventure. Rainbows can receive other badges for activities that they attend, other activities they complete within their unit, maybe after a themed half term. During 2008, a special challenge book Olivia's Favourites was produced to commemorate the 21st Birthday of the section and a badge was produced. At the end of the Rainbow programme, as the girls get ready to move on to the Brownie section, girls undertake the personal Pot of Gold Challenge. Brownie Guides or Brownies are from 7 to 10 years old. Brownies work from the Brownie Adventure, divided into three areas: You and World. Brownies can work towards activity badges covering a variety of subjects. Brownies units are called Packs. Packs are divided into small groups of girls who work together. Sixes are traditionally named after fairies e.g. Gnomes, Leprechauns; each six has a leader called a'Sixer' and a'Second'.
The adult leader in charge is called Brown Owl. Other leaders are named after different owls; these two elements are taken from the Brownie Story, in wh
St. George's School, Jerusalem
St. George's School is a British boys' school in East Jerusalem run by the Anglican diocese of Jerusalem. St. George's School is located next to St. George's College, just outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem; the school was established in 1899. The Rev. Wilbert Awdry, author of The Railway Series, taught at the school in 1933-1936. Built in the affluent Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood, it served as a place where Jerusalem's Christians and Muslims would send their sons for secondary education; the school runs the regular Tawjihi program. Dimitri Baramki Ziad Rafiq Beydoun Emil Ghuri Ismail Khalidi Manoug Manougian Mufid Nashashibi Sari Nusseibeh Stav Prodromou Edward Said Ibrahim Touqan St. George's College, Jerusalem
Algerian Muslim Scouts
Algerian Muslim Scouts is the national Scouting association in Algeria. SMA has 24,750 members as of 2011. Scouting in Algeria began formatively around 1911, but Scouting was founded in French Algeria in 1935, introduced by Algerian Scouter Mohamed Bouras with a troop in Algiers called the "al Falah". Other sections united with them: in Miliana the section "Ibn Khaldoun", others in Constantine, Blida, Tizi Ouzou and Guelma. With the proposal of Mohamed Bouras, the league of the scouts Moslem Algerian was created and obtained the approval of the government of the Popular front in July 1939. Encouraged by Oulémas reformists, the movement propagated patriotic ideas, was guided by nationalist chiefs, carried out many demonstrations, like that of May 8, 1945 during which Bouzid Chaal, a young scout, died. Many scouts took part in the war of independence, with the call of the mujaheddin. Algeria became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1963. Members are involved in national construction and community development projects.
They have planted trees and conducted literacy campaigns. The Scout Motto is "Kun Musta'idan" or كن مستعداً, Be Prepared in Arabic, Sois Prêt in French; the noun for a single Scout is el-Kechaf or كشاف in Arabic. A scout is called Askuti in Berber; the Scout emblem incorporates elements and color scheme of the flag of Algeria. It has the crescent of Islam. Algerian Muslim Scouts Homepage History of Les Scouts Musulmans Algeriens