South Western Highway
South Western Highway is a highway in the South West region of Western Australia connecting Perth's southeast with Walpole. It is a part of the Highway 1 network for most of its length, it is about 406 kilometres long. From Perth, the highway, signed as State Route 20, starts from the Albany Highway junction in Armadale, 28 km from Perth, follows a north-south route 20–30 km inland from the coast, passing through several agricultural and timber towns that sprang up in the 1890s when the nearby railway came through, such as Pinjarra, Waroona and Harvey. In January 2016, the Samson Brook bridge, one of the highway bridges near Waroona, was damaged by a bushfire. Just past Brunswick Junction, the highway heads southwest towards Western Australia's third-largest city, Bunbury; the typical scenery on this part of the highway includes small dairy farms and orchards and marri remnant forests and pine plantations. Until the 1980s, the Armadale-Bunbury section was part of National Highway 1, but following the upgrading of Old Coast Road and construction of the Mandurah bypass, Highway 1 now follows the coastal route via Kwinana Freeway and Old Coast Road to Bunbury passing through the resort town of Mandurah.
The highway does not enter Bunbury – it stops at the industrial suburb of Picton, following Robertson Drive for 1 km south before turning southeast past Bunbury Airport towards Boyanup. The highway used to follow what is now Boyanup-Picton Road from Picton via Dardanup, but changed to the present shorter route in the 1980s. From Bunbury, the highway goes through Boyanup and on to Donnybrook, the heart of WA's apple country. From on the highway passes through thick forests featuring many native trees like jarrah and karri; the region was settled much than other parts of south western WA, under a soldier resettlement scheme in the 1920s. Typical scenery is farmland interspersed with small timber towns; the highway goes through Bridgetown, Manjimup and to Walpole. This part of the highway from Manjimup, is sparsely populated and thickly forested, with abundant wildlife and wildflowers as well as many old growth trees the giant karri. From Walpole, the Highway 1 continues as South Coast Highway to Albany.
Armadale Byford Pinjarra Waroona Yarloop Harvey Brunswick Junction Bunbury Boyanup Donnybrook Bridgetown Manjimup Walpole Following the establishment of the Swan River Colony, the earliest report of exploration of the district around what is now Bunbury is from Lieutenant H. W. Bunbury in December 1836; the route he – and others – took was slow and hazardous, taking four days to cover around 80 miles, crossing four rivers. The route began with passage from Perth to Pinjarra, before turning south-west and passing through low, open scrubland, subsequently a medium-timbered area with low marshes; the first river to cross was the Harvey River, which could only be forded by horses at a single point, near the river mouth. Continuing south-westward, the northern tip of Leschenault Estuary was reached, its shores followed before curving around into Bunbury; the last stretch of 12 miles was the most dangerous for many years, as it required precarious crossings at the Collie and Preston Rivers. In an initial attempt to settle the area, the government declared the land open for pastoral settlement by ordinary settlers, but little progress was made.
By 1840, the population was just fifty-three, most of those were in or near Bunbury. The settlement of Australind by the Western Australian Land Company in 1840–41 prompted the first real need for a good quality road to Perth. Throughout much of 1842, there was much discussion over providing a new route to Bunbury. A coastal route from Fremantle had been proposed, while an alternative proposal published on 11 May 1842 was a new route from Pinjarra to Bunbury, via an upstream crossing of the Harvey River, where a bridge could be built; the coastal route would require a ferry to cross the Murray River's estuary, did not go through Pinjarra, a significant settlement in the area. During the winter of 1842, the existing route became impassable, Clifton decided to undertake the creation of the proposed coastal route, he sent his company's men to make a road. By the second half of the nineteenth century, the importance of the coast road was diminishing. For most of its length, the road went through well-timbered, sandy limestone country of little value to agriculture, settlers in the vicinity of the road were scarce.
In contrast, settlements had spread and prospered in the foothills of the Darling Scarp, on 1 July 1853, Colonial Secretary Frederick Barlee announced a new proposal for a Perth–Pinjarra–Bunbury route along the foothills, with a one chain width following the alignment of previous tracks. Between 1864 and 1876, two parties of convicts were involved in the making of the road. A road from Bunbury to Boyanup, called the Blackwood Road, existed as early as 1864. A bi-weekly mail route from Boyanup to Bridgetown via Preston and Greenbushes was established by 1891. Surveying of a direct Bridgetown–Albany route was requested in January 1871, so that an electric telegraph line could be established, but the government surveyors were overwhelmed by other work. Surveying of the route from Manjimup was undertaken in 1909 by Fred S. Bro
Shire of Manjimup
The Shire of Manjimup is a local government area in the South West region of Western Australia, about 320 kilometres south of the state capital, Perth. The Shire covers an area of 7,027 square kilometres, its seat of government is the town of Manjimup; the Shire area was first included in the Plantagenet and Sussex Road Districts in 1871. The area was included in the Nelson Road District. On 3 July 1908, the Warren Road Board was gazetted consisting of seven elected members, in 1925 it was renamed Manjimup. On 1 July 1961, it became the Shire of Manjimup following changes to the Local Government Act; the Shire is divided into six wards. The shire president is elected from amongst the councillors. Central Ward Coastal Ward East Ward North Ward South Ward West Ward The Shire of Manjimup is divided into 36 localities: Official website
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Manjimup, Western Australia
Manjimup is a town in Western Australia, 307 kilometres south of the state capital, Perth. The town of Manjimup is a regional centre for the largest shire in the South West region of Western Australia. At the 2016 census, Manjimup had a population of 4,349. Manjimup was named after the Noongar Aboriginal words "Manjin" and "up". Manjimup was first settled by timber cutter Thomas Muir, who took up land near the present town site in 1856, it was declared a town in 1910, a railway from Perth was completed in 1911. The population expanded; the Group Settlement Scheme was unsuccessful because the land was difficult to clear and many of the new settlers were not experienced farmers. The settlers who stayed became dairy farmers, which ended during the 1930s Great Depression when the price of butterfat collapsed. Timber is the town's major industry, but it has been joined by fruit and vegetable farms, dairy farms, wool and vineyards; the Cripps Pink, otherwise better known as the Pink Lady apple was created in Manjimup in 1973 by John Cripps of the then-named Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the trademark is now used on products across four continents.
Manjimup used to produce frozen French fries, had a lucrative tobacco industry that ended in the 1960s. Manjimup exports include marri flooring. Manjimup is the leading Australian-mainland producer of black truffles and research on truffle-growing is conducted in collaboration with WA universities, with an annual government grant of $250,000 for three years. Manjimup's climate is similar to other truffle-growing areas of France. Manjimup truffles are supplied to restaurants in Perth and Melbourne, requests for samples have been received from restaurants in France and Germany. Research is being conducted on green tea production by the Department of Agriculture and Food and the Manjimup Horticultural Research Institute. Japanese experts identified Manjimup as a suitable area for growing green tea based on "its climate,'clean green' image, fertile soils and good rainfall"; the Manjimup/Pemberton area is at a similar latitude to the prime tea-growing area Shizuoka in Japan, shares similar acidic soils and average annual temperature.
Trials of 10 varieties of green tea will determine which green tea varieties will be the most successful. Manjimup's tourist attractions include the Diamond Tree fire lookout. During wildflower season from October to December, the King Jarrah Heritage Trail is home to various native flowers. Since 2001, an annual cherry festival has been held in December; the three-day festival features the crowning of the cherry king and queen and a cherry spitting competition, is attended by some 5,000 visitors. In 1980, Manjimup held its first motocross event, named the Manjimup 15000 International Motocross in honour of the $15,000 prize for first place; the event was held annually in June until it was cancelled in 2006 due to public liability insurance issues and a lack of volunteers. In 2005, the event drew 6,000 spectators and 340 competitors from Australia, New Zealand and the United States; the event began running again in 2009. Two public primary schools and one public high school are located in Manjimup along with a Catholic K-12 school, Kearnan College.
Manjimup Primary School opened in 1911, moved to a new location in 2005. Manjimup Primary School had 431 students in semester 2, 2007, with 40 of those students in part-time kindergarten; the student attendance rate is 94%, compared with 93.1% statewide. The school's students tend to remain in Manjimup for their secondary education. East Manjimup Primary School opened in 1971. Seventy-five percent of students live in the town east of the railway line, with the remaining students from farms or smaller communities out of town or outside the school's catchment area; the school had 331 students in semester 2007, with 36 in part-time kindergarten. Its student attendance rate is 93.2%. Kearnan College was founded by the Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Sacred Heart in 1925 and was called St Joseph's; the school had 461 students from kindergarten to year 12, as of September 2016. Only a primary school in its early years, the high school was added under parish priest Father Stephen Kelly in 1970. With this addition, Kearnan College became the first coeducational catholic school in Western Australia.
The town's high school, Manjimup Senior High School, was established in 1957. School facilities were upgraded in 1997 and 1999, with the addition of a Technology and Enterprise Centre and refurbishment of several areas. Over half of its students travel to school on the school's buses, with the most distant students travelling more than 80 km, each way, per day; the school catchment area includes Manjimup, Northcliffe and Boyup Brook. Manjimup Senior High School had 668 students in semester 2, 2007. Selected school programmes are delivered in partnership with South West College of TAFE, Challenger TAFE, Edith Cowan University; the school performs well in Tertiary Entrance Exam results. In 2007, Manjimup Senior High School was the best performing state school in WA, placed at number 8 in the list of top-performing schools; the railway from Bridgetown was extended to Wilgarup in 1909, the railway line opened in 1911. As the line's terminus was near the Manjimup homestead, the station was named Manjim
Time in Australia
Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the individual state governments. Australia's external territories observe different time zones. Standard time was introduced in the 1890s. Before the switch to standard time zones, each local city or town was free to determine its local time, called local mean time. Now, Western Australia uses Western Standard Time. Daylight saving time is used in states in the south and south-east - South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and the ACT, it is not used in Western Australia, the Northern Territory or Queensland. The standardisation of time in Australia began in 1892, when surveyors from the six colonies in Australia met in Melbourne for the Intercolonial Conference of Surveyors; the delegates accepted the recommendation of the 1884 International Meridian Conference to adopt Greenwich Mean Time as the basis for standard time. The colonies enacted time zone legislation, which took effect in February 1895.
The clocks were set ahead of GMT by 8 hours in Western Australia. The three time zones became known as Western Standard Time, Central Standard Time, Eastern Standard Time. Broken Hill in the far west of New South Wales adopted Central Standard Time due to it being connected by rail to Adelaide but not Sydney at the time. On 1 May 1899 at 12:00AM local time, South Australia advanced Central Standard Time by thirty minutes after lobbying by businesses who wanted to be closer to Melbourne time and cricketers and footballers who wanted more daylight to practice in the evenings disregarding the common international practice of setting one-hour intervals between adjacent time zones. Attempts to correct these oddities in 1986 and 1994 were rejected; when the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and placed under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government, that Territory kept Central Standard Time. When the ACT was broken off from New South Wales, it retained Eastern Standard Time. Since 1899, the only major changes in Australian time zones have been the setting of clocks to one-half hour earlier than Eastern time on the territory of Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island changing from UTC+11:30 to UTC+11:00 on 4 October 2015.
When abbreviating "Australian Central Time" and "Australian Eastern Time", in domestic contexts the leading "Australian" may be omitted. Though the governments of the states and territories have the power to legislate variations in time, the standard time within each of these is set related to Coordinated Universal Time as determined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and set by section 8AA of the National Measurement Act of 1960 of the Commonwealth. Australia has kept a version of the UTC atomic time scale since the 1990s, but Greenwich Mean Time remained the formal basis for the standard times of all of the states until 2005. In November 2004, the state and territory attorneys-general endorsed a proposal from the Australian National Measurement Institute to adopt UTC as the standard of all Australian standard times, thereby eliminating the effects of slight variations in the rate of rotation of the Earth that are inherent in mean solar time. All states have adopted the UTC standard, starting on 1 September 2005.
In Victoria, South Australia and the ACT, the starting and ending dates of daylight saving times are determined by proclamations, declarations, or regulation made by the State Governor or by the responsible minister. Such instruments may be valid for only the current year, so this section only refers to the legislation. In New South Wales and Western Australia, the starting and ending dates, if any, are to be set by legislation. Western Standard Time – UTC+08:00 Western Australia – Standard Time Act 2005Central Standard Time – UTC+09:30 South Australia – Standard Time Act 2009 and the Daylight Saving Act 1971 Northern Territory – Standard Time Act 2005Eastern Standard Time – UTC+10:00 Queensland – Standard Time Act 1894 New South Wales – Standard Time Act 1987 No 149 Australian Capital Territory – Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972 Victoria – Summer Time Act 1972 Tasmania – Standard Time Act 1895 and the Daylight Saving Act 2007 The choice of whether to use DST is a matter for the governments of the individual states and territories.
However, during World War I and World War II all states and territories used daylight saving time. In 1968 Tasmania became the first state in peacetime to use DST, followed in 1971 by New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory. Western Australia and the Northern Territory did not adopt it. Queensland abandoned DST in 1972. Queensland and Western Australia have used DST during the past 40 years during trial periods; the main DST zones are the following: Central Daylight Saving Time – UTC+10:30, in South Australia Eastern Daylight Saving Time – UTC+11:00, in New South Wales, the ACT, TasmaniaDuring the usual
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
2016 Australian census
The 2016 Australian census was the seventeenth national population census held in Australia. The census was conducted with effect on Tuesday, 9 August 2016; the total population of the Commonwealth of Australia was counted as 23,401,892 – an increase of 8.8 per cent or 1,894,175 people since the 2011 census. Norfolk Island joined the census for the first time in 2016; the ABS annual report revealed that there were $24 million additional expenses accrued due to the outage on the census website. Results from the 2016 census were available to the public on 11 April 2017, from the Australian Bureau of Statistics website, two months earlier than for any previous census; the second release of data occurred on 27 June 2017 and a third data release was from 17 October 2017. Australia's next census is scheduled for 2021; the 2016 census had a response rate of 95.1% and a net undercount of 1.0%, with 63% of people completing the Census online. In the period leading up to census date the Australian Government decided that the retention period for names and addresses would be increased to up to four years, from 18 months in the 2006 and 2011 censuses, leading to concerns about privacy and data security.
As such, some Australian Senate crossbenchers said they would not complete those specific sections of the census, despite the fines associated with incorrect completion of the census. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics the first release of census data became available to the public on the ABS website on 11 April 2017, two months earlier than for any previous census; the second release of data occurred on 27 June 2017 and a third data release was from 17 October 2017. For the first time, the ABS favoured internet submission of census forms over the traditional paper forms, claiming it expected more than 65% of Australians would complete the census online. Reflecting this new preference, the tagline of the ad campaign for the census was the rhyming slogan "Get online on August 9". Across many regions, paper forms were no longer delivered by default to homes, households that wished to complete a paper census had to order such forms via an automated hotline. Letters were sent to each dwelling with unique code numbers that people would need to either login to the census website, or order a paper form if they preferred.
By census night, many households had still not received such a letter. Contrary to previous years where censuses were both delivered and retrieved from households by dedicated census employees, in 2016 most of the paperwork relating to the census was delivered from and to the ABS by Australia Post; the 2016 census was met by a significant controversy, which meant that many Australians could not complete the census online on the designated census day. The ABS census website shut down at about 7:30 pm AEST on the night the census was to be completed. According to the ABS, throughout 9 August the census website received four denial-of-service attacks. At 7:30 pm, when the site was being used, a software failure meant that the ABS was unable to keep blocking the denial-of-service attacks, leading to the failure of a router; as a result, the ABS decided to close down the system as a precaution. The 15th Chief Statistician, David Kalisch stated; the Australian Signals Directorate assisted the ABS to bring the infrastructure back online more than 24 hours after the closure.
The census website was restored at 2:30 pm on 11 August. On the same day Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull stated his unhappiness over the event, which had "been a failure of the ABS", with his expectation that "heads will roll" once a review was complete. Leader of the opposition Bill Shorten said that the 2016 census had been the "worst-run... in the history of Australia". The ABS blamed service provider IBM for the failure in the online census, saying that IBM had advised on the preparedness and resilience to DDoS attacks and had not offered any further protections that could be employed. On 31 August, Parliament initiated an inquiry into the 2016 census, it released its findings on 24 November and found that no individual party was responsible but it was shared between the government, IBM, the sub-contractors. The census forms were able to be submitted online until 23 September. Once collection was complete, the ABS issued an announcement which confirmed that in spite of the initial online problems, there was a preliminary response rate of more than 96%.
This consisted of 3.5 million paper forms. The preliminary response rate was similar to the previous two census response rates of 95.8% in 2006 and 96.5% in 2011. An independent panel established by the Australian Statistician to quality assure the data from the 2016 census found it was fit for purpose, comparable to previous Australian and international censuses and can be used with confidence. "The Independent Assurance Panel I established to provide extra assurance and transparency of Census data quality concluded that the 2016 Census data can be used with confidence." The Census form had 51 questions relating to the characteristics of individuals, plus an extra nine questions relating to households. Of the sixty questions, the following two questions were optional: What is the person's religion? Does each person agree to his/her name and address and other information on this form being kept by the National Archives of Australia and made publicly available after 99 years? The population counts for Australian states and territories were that New South Wales remains the most populous state, with 7,480,228 people counted, ahead of Victoria and Queensland.
Australian Capital Territory experienced the lar