Paliperidone, sold under the brand name Invega among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is marketed by Janssen Pharmaceutica. Invega is an extended release formulation of paliperidone that uses the OROS extended release system to allow for once-daily dosing. Paliperidone is used to treat schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting injectable formulation of paliperidone palmitoyl ester indicated for once-every 28 days injection after an initial titration period, it is used for the treatment of schizoaffective disorder. In a 2013 study in a comparison of 15 antipsychotic drugs in effectiveness in treating schizophrenic symptoms, paliperidone was ranked fifth and demonstrated standard-high effectiveness. 10-14% more effective than haloperidol and aripiprazole, 11% less effective than risperidone, 43% less effective than clozapine. Sources: Very Common Headache Tachycardia Somnolence Insomnia Hyperprolactinaemia Sexual DysfunctionCommon Cough Extrapyramidal side effects Orthostatic hypotension Weight gain QT interval prolongation Nasopharyngitis Anxiety Indigestion Constipation The British National Formulary recommends a gradual withdrawal when discontinuing antipsychotics to avoid acute withdrawal syndrome or rapid relapse.

Symptoms of withdrawal include nausea and loss of appetite. Other symptoms may include restlessness, increased sweating, trouble sleeping. Less there may be a feeling of the world spinning, numbness, or muscle pains. Symptoms resolve after a short period of time. There is tentative evidence, it may result in reoccurrence of the condition, being treated. Tardive dyskinesia can occur when the medication is stopped. In April 2014, it was reported that 21 Japanese people who had received shots of the long-acting injectable paliperidone to date had died, out of 10,700 individuals prescribed the drug. Paliperidone is the primary active metabolite of the older antipsychotic risperidone. While its specific mechanism of action is unknown, it is believed paliperidone and risperidone act via similar, if not identical, pathways, its efficacy is believed to result from central serotonergic antagonism. Food is known to increase the absorption of Invega type ER OROS prolonged-release tablets. Food increased exposure of paliperidone by up to 50-60%, half-life was not affected.

The effect was due to a delay in the transit of the ER OROS formulation in the upper part of the GI channel, resulting in increased absorption. The half-life is 23 hours. Paliperidone was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in 2006. Paliperidone was approved by the FDA for the treatment of schizoaffective disorder in 2009; the long-acting injectable form of paliperidone, marketed as Invega Sustenna in U. S. and Xeplion in Europe, was approved by the FDA on July 31, 2009. It is the only available brand in Bangladesh under the brand name "Palimax ER" manufactured & marketed by ACI Pharmaceuticals, it was approved in Europe in 2007 for schizophrenia, the extended release form and use for schizoaffective disorder were approved in Europe in 2010, extension to use in adolescents older than 15 years old was approved in 2014. On May 18, 2015, a new formulation of paliperidone palmitate was approved by the FDA under the brand name Invega Trinza. A similar 3 -monthly injection of prolonged release suspension was approved in 2016 by the European Medicines Agency under the brand name Paliperidone Janssen renamed to Trevicta.

Invega Official website Invega Sustenna Official website Invega Trinza Official website

Douglas Francis McArthur

Douglas Francis "Doug" McArthur is an educator and former political figure in Saskatchewan, Canada. He represented Regina Lakeview from 1978 to 1982 in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan as a New Democratic Party member, he was born in Watrous, the son of Neil McArthur, was educated at the University of Saskatchewan, the University of Toronto and Oxford University. In 1967, McArthur married Wenda Jean Berglind, he served in the Saskatchewan cabinet as Minister of Education, as Minister of Continuing Education and as Minister of Culture and Youth. McArthur was defeated by Tim Embury when he ran for reelection to the provincial assembly in 1982. After leaving politics, he served in the British Columbia public service as Deputy Minister to the Premier and Cabinet Secretary and as Deputy Minister of Aboriginal Affairs in British Columbia, in the Yukon public service as Chief Land Claims Negotiator and in the Saskatchewan public service as Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Deputy Minister of Northern Saskatchewan.

McArthur was a Senior Fellow in Public Policy at the University of British Columbia. As of 2012, he was a professor in the school of Public Policy at Simon Fraser University and chair of the board of directors for the British Columbia chapter of Sierra Club Canada

Charmaine Bingwa

Charmaine Bingwa is a Zimbabwean / Australian actress and director who won the 2018 Heath Ledger Scholarship award. Bingwa was born in Australia, she began her career as a singer, but when completing her Bachelor of Music at university, she took acting as one of her final electives and said “something clicked inside of her.” She completed the acting course in addition to her music degree and signed with an acting agent soon after graduating. She won critical acclaim in the stage role Doubt: A Parable starring as Mrs. Muller, which she received a Sydney Theatre Awards nomination. In 2018, she won the Australian Media and Arts Alliance Scholarship to study at the Atlantic Theater Company in New York and the won the Heath Ledger Scholarship – becoming the first woman of colour and gay recipient. Bingwa starred, produced and co-directed the series Little Sista, which won the LGBT Toronto Film Festival. Charmaine Bingwa on IMDb