Garden of Eden
The Garden of Eden called Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God" described in the Book of Genesis and the Book of Ezekiel. Genesis 13:10 refers to the "garden of God", the "trees of the garden" are mentioned in Ezekiel 31; the Book of Zechariah and the Book of Psalms refer to trees and water without explicitly mentioning Eden. The name derives from the Akkadian edinnu, from a Sumerian word edin meaning "plain" or "steppe" related to an Aramaic root word meaning "fruitful, well-watered". Another interpretation associates the name with a Hebrew word for "pleasure"; the Hebrew term is translated "pleasure" in Sarah's secret saying in Genesis 18:12. Like the Genesis flood narrative, the Genesis creation narrative and the account of the Tower of Babel, the story of Eden echoes the Mesopotamian myth of a king, as a primordial man, placed in a divine garden to guard the Tree of Life; the Hebrew Bible depicts Adam and Eve as walking around the Garden of Eden naked due to their innocence. The location of Eden is described in the Book of Genesis as the source of four tributaries.
The Garden of Eden is considered to be mythological by most scholars. Among those that consider it to have been real, there have been various suggestions for its location: at the head of the Persian Gulf, in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers run into the sea; the second part of the Genesis creation narrative, Genesis 2:4-3:24, opens with YHWH-Elohim creating the first man, whom he placed in a garden that he planted "eastward in Eden". "And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree, pleasant to the sight, good for food. Last of all, the God made a woman from a rib of the man to be a companion for the man. In chapter three, the man and the woman were seduced by the serpent into eating the forbidden fruit, they were expelled from the garden to prevent them from eating of the tree of life, thus living forever. Cherubim were placed east of the garden, "and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way of the tree of life". Genesis 2:10–14 lists four rivers in association with the garden of Eden: Pishon, Gihon and Phirat.
It refers to the land of Cush—translated/interpreted as Ethiopia, but thought by some to equate to Cossaea, a Greek name for the land of the Kassites. These lands lie north of Elam to the east of ancient Babylon, unlike Ethiopia, does lie within the region being described. In Antiquities of the Jews, the first-century Jewish historian Josephus identifies the Pishon as what "the Greeks called Ganges" and the Geon as the Nile. According to Lars-Ivar Ringbom the paradisus terrestris is located in Shiz in northeastern Iran. In Ezekiel 28:12–19 the prophet Ezekiel the "son of man" sets down God's word against the king of Tyre: the king was the "seal of perfection", adorned with precious stones from the day of his creation, placed by God in the garden of Eden on the holy mountain as a guardian cherub, but the king sinned through wickedness and violence, so he was driven out of the garden and thrown to the earth, where now he is consumed by God's fire: "All those who knew you in the nations are appalled at you, you have come to a horrible end and will be no more.".
According to Terje Stordalen, the Eden in Ezekiel appears to be located in Lebanon. "t appears that the Lebanon is an alternative placement in Phoenician myth of the Garden of Eden", there are connections between paradise, the garden of Eden and the forests of Lebanon within prophetic writings. Edward Lipinski and Peter Kyle McCarter have suggested that the Garden of the gods, the oldest Sumerian version of the Garden of Eden, relates to a mountain sanctuary in the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges; the Garden of Eden is considered to be mythological by most scholars. However, there have been suggestions for its location: at its source of the rivers, while others have looked at the head of the Persian Gulf, in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers run into the sea. British archaeologist David Rohl locates it in Iran, in the vicinity of Tabriz, but this suggestion has not caught on with scholarly sources; the location of Eden is described in the Book of Genesis, chapter 2, verses 10–14: And a river departed from Eden to water the garden, from there it divided and became four tributaries.
The name of the first is Pishon, the circumnavigator of the land of Havilah where there is gold. And the gold of this land is good, and the name of the second river is Gihon, the circumnavigator of the land of Cush. And the name of the third is Chidekel, that which goes to the east of Ashur. Dilmun in the Sumerian story of Enki and Ninhursag is a paradisaical abode of the immortals, where sickness and death were unknown; the garden of the Hesperides in Greek mythology was somewhat similar to the Christian concept of the Garden of Eden, by the 16th century a larger intellectual association was made in the Cranach painting. In this painting, only the action that takes place there identifies the setting as distinct from the
Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as animals, the waves, the sky. Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaiʻi between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna." Hawaiian religion is polytheistic, with four deities most prominent: Kū, Lono and Kanaloa. Other notable deities include Laka, Haumea, Papahānaumoku, most famously, Pele. In addition, each family is considered to have one or more guardian spirits known as ʻaumakua that protected family. One breakdown of the Hawaiian pantheon consists of the following groups: the four gods – Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa the forty male gods or aspects of Kāne the four hundred gods and goddesses the great multitude of gods and goddesses the spirits the guardians Another breakdown consists of three major groups: the four gods, or akua: Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa many lesser gods, or kupua, each associated with certain professions guardian spirits, ʻaumakua, associated with particular families One Hawaiian creation myth is embodied in the Kumulipo, an epic chant linking the aliʻi, or Hawaiian royalty, to the gods.
The Kumulipo is divided into two sections: night, or pō, day, or ao, with the former corresponding to divinity and the latter corresponding to mankind. After the birth of Laʻilaʻi, the woman, Kiʻi, the man, the man succeeds at seducing and reproducing with the woman before the god Kāne has a chance, thereby making the divine lineage of the gods younger than and thus subservient to the lineage of man. This, in turn, illustrates the transition of mankind from being symbols for the gods into the keeper of these symbols in the form of idols and the like; the Kumulipo was recited during the time of Makahiki, to honor the god of Lono. The kahuna were well respected, educated individuals that made up a social hierarchy class that served the King and the Courtiers and assisted the Maka'ainana. Selected to serve many practical and governmental purposes, Kahuna were healers, builders, prophets/temple workers, philosophers, they talked with the spirits. Kahuna Kūpaʻiulu of Maui in 1867 described a counter-sorcery ritual to heal someone ill due to hoʻopiʻopiʻo, another’s evil thoughts.
He said. Prayers were said. "If the evil spirit appears and possesses the patient he or she can be saved by the conversation between the practitioner and that spirit."Pukui and others believed kahuna did not have mystical transcendent experiences as described in other religions. Although a person, possessed would go into a trance-like state, it was not an ecstatic experience but a communion with the known spirits. Kapu refers to a system of taboos designed to separate the spiritually pure from the unclean. Thought to have arrived with Pāʻao, a priest or chief from Tahiti who arrived in Hawaiʻi sometime around 1200 AD, the kapu imposed a series of restrictions on daily life. Prohibitions included: The separation of men and women during mealtimes Restrictions on the gathering and preparation of food Women separated from the community during their menses Restrictions on looking at, touching, or being in close proximity with chiefs and individuals of known spiritual power Restrictions on overfishingHawaiian tradition shows that ʻAikapu was an idea led by the kahuna in order for Wākea, the sky father, to get alone with his daughter, Hoʻohokukalani without his wahine, or wife, the earth mother, noticing.
The spiritually pure or laʻa, meaning "sacred" and unclean or haumia were to be separated. ʻAikapu included: The use of a different ovens to cook the food of male and female Different eating places Women were forbidden to eat pig, coconut and certain red foods because of their male symbolism. During times of war, the first two men to be killed were offered to the gods as sacrifices. Other Kapus included Mālama ʻĀina, meaning Niʻaupiʻo. Tradition says that mālama ʻāina originated from the first child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani being deformed so they buried him in the ground and what sprouted became the first kalo known as taro; the Hawaiian islands are all children of Papa, Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani so meaning that they are older siblings of the Hawaiian chiefs. Second child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani became the first Aliʻi Nui, or "Grand Chief"; this came to be called Niʻaupiʻo, the chiefly incest to create the "godly child". Punishments for breaking the kapu could include death, although if one could escape to a puʻuhonua, a city of refuge, one could be saved.
Kāhuna nui mandated long periods. No baby could cry, dog howl, or rooster crow, on pain of death. Human sacrifice was not unknown; the kapu system remained in place until 1819. Prayer was an essential part of Hawaiian life, employed when building a house, making a canoe, giving lomilomi massage. Hawaiians addressed prayers to various gods depending on the situation; when healers picked herbs for medicine, they prayed to Kū and Hina and female, right and left and supine. The people worshiped Lono during Kū during times of war. Histories from the 19th century describe prayer throughout the day, with specific p
Henry Perrine Baldwin
Henry Perrine Baldwin was a businessman and politician on Maui in the Hawaiian islands. He supervised the construction of the East Maui Irrigation System and co-founded Alexander & Baldwin, one of the "Big Five" corporations that dominated the economy of the Territory of Hawaii. Henry Perrine Baldwin was born on August 1842 in Lahaina, Hawaii, his father was American Christian missionary Dwight Baldwin, his mother was Charlotte Fowler Baldwin. He was named after Matthew LaRue Perrine, professor at Auburn Theological Seminary, from which his father had graduated shortly before his departure to the Hawaiian Islands, he returned to Maui to become a farmer. First he tried to manage William DeWitt Alexander's rice plantation. Instead by 1863 he went to work for his brother David, he never left the sugar industry. He took a job as foreman of the Waiheʻe plantation, owned by Christopher H. Lewers, under the management of Samuel Thomas Alexander. In 1867 he traveled to the west coast of the United States.
In 1869, Baldwin and Alexander became business partners and bought 12 acres in the eastern Maui ahupuaʻa called Hāmākua Poko. In 1870 they planted sugarcane. Baldwin had gone into debt to buy the land, they lived in an area called "Sunnyside" near the small Paliuli Sugar Mill, built on the edge of Rainbow Gulch 20°53′32″N 156°21′3″W by Robert Hind. Alexander managed the larger Haiku mill, constructed in 1861 by Castle & Cooke, formed by two former missionaries. Alexander had married Martha Eliza Cooke, daughter of Amos Starr Cooke, a co-founder of Castle & Cooke. On March 28, 1876 Baldwin lost his right arm in an industrial accident at the Paliuli mill. Trying to adjust the rollers, his fingers got stuck in the cane grinder, pulling in his right arm, he died before it could be turned off and reversed to free him. A worker was sent to get the nearest doctor ten miles away to do the amputation. Within weeks he learned to write with his left hand, continued to play organ in his church with one hand.
In a month he was riding horseback in his fields. The Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 gave freer access to market for sugar exported to the United States. Although the Hawaiian Islands have a 12-month growing season, a major problem with farming former dry forests was their wide extremes in precipitation. After a quick tropical downpour the intense sun can cause enormous growth, but there are years with little or no rain at all in some places. Baldwin said one day during a drought he prayed for rain, it came, he promised that if he became successful, he would make sure he would build a suitable monument. Alexander was more practical: his father had taught at Lahainaluna School where irrigation ditches had been used for small private gardens since the times of ancient Hawaii. Alexander noticed the rainforests on the eastern side of the island and upper slopes of Haleakalā received much more rainfall; the terrain in that area was too rough to plant, but they reasoned an aqueduct could bring water to the lower, flatter area of their fields.
William Harrison Rice had irrigated a small sugarcane plantation in 1856, but this system would supply 3,000 acres. Alexander arranged a survey, worked out financing from other planters to create the Hamakua Ditch Company and negotiated a two-year lease with the government of King David Kalākaua to build the project starting September 30, 1876. With no engineering training, Baldwin supervised what became known as the 17-mile Hamakua ditch while recovering from his injury. Sugar competitor Claus Spreckels had obtained another lease from the Kingdom government, so unless Baldwin completed his system by September 30, 1878, the water would go to Spreckels. Besides actual ditches lined with clay and siphons were used to cross several steep canyons. Baldwin would lower himself down into the gulches daily with his one remaining arm. Workers doubted that water would go down through a pipe and go uphill on the other side. Water started to flow to the Castle & Cooke plantation in July 1877. Crossing Maliko Gulch with the pipeline was the last major milestone, since they could irrigate their own fields.
Alexander left for a trip to Europe on July 9, 1878, left day-to-day management of Hawaiian operations to Baldwin. The project was over budget, but worked. Several other projects were added through 1923 to the system; the idea was copied over the years in projects on other islands. Irish civil engineer Michael O'Shaughnessy designed the Koolau Ditch in 1904–1905 and some similar projects using technology developed for railroad tunnels, he returned to San Francisco and applied the idea to the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct. Alexander and Baldwin consolidated these projects into their East Maui Irrigation Company; the East Maui irrigation system was declared a Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 2002. The irrigation projects became so profitable that the Alexander and Baldwin partnership was able to buy out other planters and enlarge their holdings. By 1877 Baldwin had the Hamakuapoko Mill built on the southwestern side of Maliko Gulch near the irrigated fields, 20°54′56″N 156°20′53″W; the Haiku mill shut down in 1879.
The Paʻia Mill opened in 1880, 20°54′25″N 156°22′32″W In 1881 the Kahului Railroad allowed the sugar to travel by train to the growing port of Kahului. In 1882 Alexander moved to Oakland, California and e
In Hawaiian mythology, Kū or Kūkaʻilimoku is one of the four great gods. The other three are Kanaloa, Kāne, Lono. Feathered god images or ʻaumakua hulu manu are considered to represent Kū. Kū is worshipped under many names, including Kū-ka-ili-moku, the "Snatcher of Land". Kūkaʻilimoku rituals included human sacrifice, not part of the worship of other gods. Owing to the multiplicity inherent in Hawaiian concepts of deity, Kū may be invoked under many names, which reference subordinate manifestations of the god. Ku-moku-haliʻi Ku-pulupulu Ku-olono-wao Ku-holoholo-pali Ku-pepeiao-loa/-poko Kupa-ai-keʻe Ku-mauna Ku-ka-ohia-laka Ku-ka-ieie Ku-ka-o-o Ku-kuila Ku-keolowalu Ku-ula or Ku-ula-kai Ku-nui-akea Ku-kaili-moku Ku-keoloewa Ku-hoʻoneʻenuʻu Ku-waha-ilo He is known as the god of war and the husband of the goddess Hina; some have taken this to suggest a complementary dualism, as the word kū in the Hawaiian language means " to stand " while one meaning of hina is " to fall ". This analysis is not supported by evidence from other Polynesian languages which distinguish the original "ng" and "n".
Hina's counterpart in New Zealand for example, is Hina, associated with the moon, rather than Hinga, "fallen down". Thus, the Hawaiian name Hina is rather connected to the other meaning of hina, denoting a silvery-grey color. Kū, Kāne, Lono caused light to shine in upon the world, they are uncreated gods. Kūkaʻilimoku was the guardian of Kamehameha I who erected monuments to the deity at the Holualoa Bay royal center and his residence at Kamakahonu. Three enormous statues of the god Kū were reunited for the first time in 200 years at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu in 2010, they were dedicated by Kamehameha at one of his temples on the archipelago in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries. These rare statues were acquired by the Bishop Museum, the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem and the British Museum in London. One feathered god image in the Bishop Museum, Honolulu is thought to be Kamehameha I's own image of his god; however it is still unclear whether all feathered god images represent Kū.
He is known as the god of War, politics and Fishing Manō, ʻIo, Niuhi, ʻĪlio, Iʻa ʻUla, ʻIeʻIe, ʻŌhiʻa Lehua Tūmatauenga, Māori war deity. The Kailua-Kona lighthouse was built on land known as Kūkaʻilimoku Point. Beckwith, M.: Hawaiian Mythology. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. Tregear, Edward: Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. Lyon and Blair, Wellington.. Pukui, Mary Kawena. University of Hawaii PRess, Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-1392-8
Makawao Union Church
Makawao Union Church is a church near Makawao on the Hawaiian island of Maui. It was founded by New England missionary Jonathan Smith Green during the Kingdom of Hawaii; the third historic structure used by the congregation was designed by noted local architect C. W. dedicated in 1917 as the Henry Perrine Baldwin Memorial Church. In 1985, Makawao Union Church was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1870, Henry Perrine Baldwin his wife, Emily Alexander Baldwin, their children joined the church. Henry served as organist for over forty years. Baldwin and his brother-in-law became wealthy co-founders of Baldwin. On January 5, 1878, Rev. Green died, his son Joseph Porter Green served at the church, was elected to the legislature of the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1860. In 1888, Baldwin offered the church a site for a new building, on the foundation of the former Paliuli Sugar Mill near what is now called Rainbow Gulch and Rainbow County Park; the mill was named for Pali uli, the place in Hawaiian mythology equivalent to the garden of Eden.
This church, a New England style white frame structure, was dedicated on March 10, 1889. The Pāʻia Community House, finished in hardwood on the inside, was built in 1914 adjacent to the church; the Community House, with its large auditorium and 40-foot deep stage was used for plays, school graduations, lectures, silent movies and dances. The site of the old church, 20°51′42″N 156°18′46″W became the cemetery; the Maui Veteran's Cemetery was built adjacent to the church cemetery. A native Hawaiian pastor John Kalama served at both Makawao and Poʻokela until his death in 1896; the original building stood until about 1900. The "Daily Bulletin Newspaper, Honolulu Oct 2, 1889 pg3 Announced the purchase of a new pipe organ built for the church, by the NY firm of Roosevelt. A small organ of one manual/pedal & 6 speaking stops; this being purchased, by Baldwin while he was in New York, he paid a visit to the organ Company. The frame church was razed in 1916 and construction began on a new Gothic Revival style structure.
The new building was designed by architect Charles William Dickey, whose mother was Emily Baldwin's sister. It has been called "one of his more outstanding works." The stone church was dedicated September 2, 1917. It was about the same size as the frame building, used the original Paliuli Mill foundation. Henry Alexander Baldwin, Henry Perrine's son, was featured speaker, along with William Hyde Rice; the organ was donated in the memory of Harry Baldwin's sons Jared Smith Baldwin and Leslie Alexander Baldwin. The walls were built of reinforced concrete with native basalt lava rock veneer; the roof was covered in slate from Vermont. Four stained glass windows and the bell were reused from the old building. A Seth Thomas clock has three faces on the Norman style tower; the main entry is through oak doors in the tower. Austin Craig Bowdish was pastor at the dedication. Augustine Jones became pastor in 1921; the 1938 Maui earthquake damaged the community house, but not the stone church. On June 29, 1985, Makawao Union Church was placed on the Hawaii Register of Historic Places as site 50-05-1610, December 17, 1985, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Hawaii as site 85003227.
It now calls itself an "interdenominational, community church with Congregational heritage". As of 2010 the pastor was Rev. Dave Schlicher; the road past the church was named Baldwin Avenue for the Baldwin family. It is located at 1445 Baldwin Avenue, Hawaii, 20°53′32″N 156°21′3″W; the church cemetery is located 3.9 miles southeast of the church, in the 3300 block of Baldwin Avenue Notable people buried there include the original missionary family: Theodosia Arnold Green, 1859, Jonathan Smith Green, 1878, Ansenath Cargill Green, 1894, Harry Baldwin, 1946 was a Republican Politician, Annie Montague Alexander, 1950 an explorer and scientist. Others from the Alexander and Baldwin families are buried in the cemetery. James Dole, 1958 owned the largest pineapple plantation in the world. Anne Alexander, 1940, Charles Henry Dickey, 1902 were parents of architect Charles William Dickey; the Maui Veteran's Cemetery, near the church cemetery, holds the graves of two actors: horror movie actress Evelyn Ankers, 1985, her husband Richard Denning, 1998, of Hawaii Five-O
Hawaiʻi is the largest island located in the U. S. state of Hawaii. It is the largest and the southeasternmost of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of volcanic islands in the North Pacific Ocean. With an area of 4,028 square miles, it has 63% of the Hawaiian archipelago's combined landmass, is the largest island in the United States. However, it has only 13% of Hawaiʻi's people; the island of Hawaiʻi is the third largest island in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand. The island is referred to as the Island of Hawaiʻi, the Big Island, or Hawaiʻi Island to distinguish it from the state. Administratively, the whole island encompasses Hawaiʻi County; as of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat and largest city is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County. Hawaiʻi is said to have been named after Hawaiʻiloa, the legendary Polynesian navigator who first discovered it. Other accounts attribute the name to the legendary realm of Hawaiki, a place from which some Polynesian people are said to have originated, the place where they transition to in the afterlife, or the realm of the gods and goddesses.
Captain James Cook, the English explorer and navigator, captain of the first European expedition that discovered the Hawaiian Islands, called them the "Sandwich Islands" after his patron, the Earl of Sandwich. Cook was killed on the Big Island at Kealakekua Bay on 14 February 1779, in a mêlée which followed the theft of a ship's boat. Hawaiʻi was the home island of Paiʻea Kamehameha known as Kamehameha the Great. Kamehameha united most of the Hawaiian islands under his rule in 1795, after several years of war, gave the kingdom and the island chain the name of his native island. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,086 square miles, of which 4,028 square miles is land and 1,058 square miles is water; the county's land area comprises 62.7 percent of the state's land area. It is the highest percentage by any county in the United States. At its greatest dimension, the island is 93 miles across, it has a land area of 4,028 square miles comprising 62% of the Hawaiian Islands' land area.
Measured from its sea floor base to its highest peak, Mauna Kea is the world's tallest mountain, taller than Mount Everest, since the base of Mount Everest is above sea level. Ka Lae, the southernmost point in the 50 states of the United States, is on Hawaii; the nearest landfall to the south is in the Line Islands. To the northwest of the island of Hawaii is the island of Maui, whose Haleakalā volcano is visible from Hawaii across the Alenuihaha Channel; the island of Hawaiʻi is built from five separate shield volcanoes that erupted somewhat sequentially, one overlapping the other. These are: Kohala – extinct Mauna Kea – dormant Hualālai – active Mauna Loa – active within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Kīlauea – active: erupting continuously from 1983 to 2018. Geologists now consider these "outcrops" to be part of the earlier building of Mauna Loa; because Mauna Loa and Kīlauea are active volcanoes, the island of Hawaii is still growing. Between January 1983 and September 2002, lava flows added 543 acres to the island.
Lava flowing from Kīlauea has destroyed several towns, including Kapoho in 1960, Kalapana and Kaimū in 1990. In 1987 lava filled in "Queen's Bath", a large, L-shaped, freshwater pool in the Kalapana area; some geologists count seven volcanoes as building the island, which include the submarine volcanoes Māhukona and Lōʻihi as parts of the base of the island. Māhukona off the northwest corner of the island has disappeared below the surface of the ocean. 22 miles southeast of Hawaii lies the undersea volcano known as Lōʻihi. It is an erupting seamount that now reaches 3,200 feet below the surface of the ocean. Continued activity at current rates from Lōʻihi will cause it to break the surface of the ocean sometime between 10,000 and 100,000 years from now; the Great Crack is an eight-mile-long, 60-foot-wide and 60-foot-deep fissure in the island, in the district of Kau. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Great Crack is the result of crustal dilation from magmatic intrusions into the southwest rift zone of Kilauea.
While neither the earthquake of 1868 nor that of 1975 caused a measurable change in the Great Crack, lava welled out of the lower 6 miles of the Great Crack in 1823. Visitors can find trails, rock walls, archaeological sites from as old as the 12th century around the Great Crack. 1,951 acres of private land were purchased during the presidency of Bill Clinton to protect various artifacts in this area, as well as the habitat of local wildlife. The Hilina Slump is a 4,760-cubic-mile section of the south slope of the Kīlauea volcano, slipping away from the island. Between 1990 and 1993, Global Positioning System measurements showed a southward displacement of about 4 inches per year. Undersea measurements show that a "bench" has formed a buttress and that this buttress may tend to reduce the likelihood of future catastrophic detachment. On 2 April 1868, an earthquake with a magnitude estimated between 7.25 and 7.9 rocked the southeast coast of Hawaii. This was the most destructive earthquake in the recorded history of Hawaii.