Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly
The Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly is a Roman Catholic archdiocese in mid-western Ireland. The archdiocese is led by the Archbishop of Cashel and Emly, who serves as pastor of the mother church, the Cathedral of the Assumption and metropolitan of the ecclesiastical province of Cashel and Emly; the Diocese of Cashel was established in 1111 by the Synod of Rathbreasail. The ecclesiastical province, co-extensive with the secular province of Munster, was created in 1152 by the Synod of Kells; the cathedral church of the archdiocese is located in County Tipperary. The incumbent archbishop is Kieran O'Reilly; the Province of Cashel and Emly is one of four ecclesiastical provinces that together form the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland. The geographical remit of the province includes most of County Tipperary as well as an eastern slice of County Limerick. Large population centres include including Cashel, Newport, Borrisoleigh, Templemore and Tipperary; the suffragan dioceses of the province are: Cloyne Cork and Ross Kerry Killaloe Limerick Waterford and Lismore Kilfenora - administered by the Bishop of Galway in the Province of Tuam.
The archdiocese consists of two older entities: The "Diocese of Cashel" and the "Diocese of Emly". Since the Papal Legate, Cardinal Paparo, awarded the pallium to Donat O'Lonergan of Cashel at the Synod of Kells, his successors have ruled the ecclesiastical province of Cashel and Emly or, as it was known until 26 January 2015, the province of Cashel; the diocese of Emly took its name from the village of Emly in County Tipperary, the location of the principal church of the Eóghanacht dynasty. The original dioceses of Cashel and Emly have been governed by the same bishop since 1718, with the archbishop of Cashel acting as apostolic administrator of Emly, until they were united on 26 January 2015 to form the new metropolitan see of Cashel and Emly. Following the Reformation in Ireland, the two dioceses of the established church were united in 1569; this union lasted until 1976. Since that date, the Church of Ireland diocese of Cashel was merged with United dioceses of Cashel, Lismore, Ossory and Leighlin while Emly was merged with the United dioceses of Limerick, Kilfenora, Clonfert and Emly.
Despite the name, the archdiocese's episcopal seat lies in neither of the towns of Cashel and Emly, but in nearby Thurles. This is due to the supplanting of the Roman Catholic archbishops from their see by the appointees of the crown on behalf of the established Church of Ireland. From the time of the English Reformation onwards, those archbishops appointed by the Holy See had to make their throne in whichever house in Tipperary would hide them from the forces of the Crown; this state of affairs continued until the late 18th century when some of the harsher provisions of the Penal Laws were relaxed. James Butler 2nd, on being appointed by Rome, moved his residence and cathedra from Cashel, favouring Thurles instead, where his successors continue to reign today in the Cathedral of the Assumption; this is a list of the ten most recent archbishops: Robert Laffan Michael Slattery Patrick Leahy Thomas Croke Thomas Fennelly John Harty Jeremiah Kinane Thomas Morris Dermot Clifford Kieran O'Reilly The archdiocese is divided into eight deaneries, each of, divided into a number of parishes.
They are Ballingarry, Fethard, Hospital, Murroe and Tipperary. Bishop of Emly Synod of Cashel Diocese of Cashel and Ossory GigaCatholic This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Time in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland uses Irish Standard Time in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time in the winter period. In Ireland, the Standard Time Act 1968 established that the time for general purposes in the State shall be one hour in advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year; this act was amended by the Standard Time Act 1971, which established Greenwich Mean Time as a winter time period. Ireland therefore operates one hour behind standard time during the winter period, reverts to standard time in the summer months; this is defined in contrast to the other states in the European Union, which operate one hour ahead of standard time during the summer period, but produces the same end result. The instant of transition to and from daylight saving time is synchronised across Europe. In Ireland, winter time begins at 02:00 IST on the last Sunday in October, ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March; the following table lists recent past and near-future starting and ending dates of Irish Standard Time or Irish Summer Time: Before 1880, the legal time at any place in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was defined as local mean time, as held by the appeal in the 1858 court case Curtis v. March.
The Statutes Act, 1880 defined Dublin Mean Time as the legal time for Ireland. This was the local mean time at Dunsink Observatory outside Dublin, was about 25 minutes 21 seconds behind Greenwich Mean Time, defined by the same act to be the legal time for Great Britain. After the Easter Rising, the time difference between Ireland and Britain was found inconvenient for telegraphic communication and the Time Act, 1916 provided that Irish time would be the same as British time, from 2:00 am Dublin Mean Time on Sunday 1 October 1916. Summer time had been introduced in May 1916 across the United Kingdom as a temporary efficiency measure for the First World War, the changeover from Dublin time to Greenwich time was simultaneous with the changeover from summer time to winter time. John Dillon opposed the first reading of the Time Bill for having been introduced without consultation of the Irish Parliamentary Party. T. M. Healy opposed the second reading on the basis that "while the Daylight Saving Bill added to the length of your daylight, this Bill adds to the length of your darkness".
After the Irish Free State became independent in 1922, subsequent developments tended to mirror those in the United Kingdom. This avoided having different times on either side of the border with Northern Ireland. Summer time was provided on a one-off basis by acts in 1923 and 1924, on an ongoing basis by the Summer Time Act, 1925; the 1925 act provided a default summer time period. Double summer time was considered but not introduced during the Emergency of World War II. From 1968 standard time was observed all year round, with no winter time change; this was an experiment in the run-up to Ireland's 1973 accession to the EEC, was undone in 1971. In those years, time in Ireland was the same as in the six EEC countries, except in the summer in Italy, which switched to Central European Summer Time. One artefact of the 1968 legislation is that "standard time" refers to summer time. From the 1980s, the dates of switch between winter and summer time have been synchronised across the European Union; the statutory instruments that have been issued under the Standard Time Acts are listed below, in format year/SI-number, linking to the Irish Statute Database text of the SI.
Except where stated, those issued up to 1967 were called "Summer Time Order <year>", while those issued from 1981 are "Winter Time Order <year>". 1926/, 1947/71, 1948/128, 1949/23, 1950/41, 1951/27, 1952/73, 1961/11, 1961/232, 1962/182, 1963/167, 1964/257, 1967/198, 1981/67, 1982/212, 1986/45, 1988/264, 1990/52, 1992/371, 1994/395, 1997/484, 2001/506 Possible adjustments to the Irish practice were discussed by the Oireachtas joint committee on Justice and Equality in November 2011, but the government stated it had no plans to change. In November 2012, Tommy Broughan introduced a private member's bill to permit a three-year trial of advancing time by one hour, to CET in winter and CEST in summer. Debate on the bill's second stage was adjourned on 5 July 2013, when Alan Shatter, the Minister for Justice and Equality, agreed to refer the matter to the joint committee for review, suggested that it consult with the British parliament and devolved assemblies. In July 2014, the joint committee issued an invitation for submissions on the bill.
On 8 February 2018, the European Parliament voted to ask the European Commission to re-evaluate the principle of Summer Time in Europe. After a web survey showing high support for not switching clocks twice annually, on 12 September 2018 the European Commission decided to propose that an end be put to seasonal clock changes In order for this to be valid, the European Union legislative procedure must be followed that the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament must both approve the proposal; the United Kingdom is due to have left the EU by and, if the UK does not follow the reform and contin
County Clare is a county in Ireland, in the Mid-West Region and the province of Munster, bordered on the West by the Atlantic Ocean. There is debate whether it should be considered a part of Connacht. Clare County Council is the local authority; the county had a population of 118,817 at the 2016 census. The county town and largest settlement is Ennis. Clare is north-west of the River Shannon covering a total area of 3,400 square kilometres. Clare is the 7th largest of Ireland's 32 traditional counties in area and the 19th largest in terms of population, it is bordered by two counties in Munster and one county in Connacht: County Limerick to the south, County Tipperary to the east and County Galway to the north. Clare's nickname is the Banner County; the county is divided into the baronies of Bunratty Lower, Bunratty Upper, Clonderalaw, Ibrickan, Islands, Tulla Lower and Tulla Upper. These in turn are divided into civil parishes; these divisions are cadastral, defining ownership, rather than administrative.
Bodies of water define much of the physical boundaries of Clare. To the south-east is the River Shannon, Ireland's longest river, to the south is the Shannon Estuary; the border to the north-east is defined by Lough Derg, the third largest lake on Ireland. To the west is the Atlantic Ocean, to the north is Galway Bay. County Clare contains a unique karst region, which contains rare flowers and fauna. At the western edge of The Burren, facing the Atlantic Ocean, are the Cliffs of Moher; the highest point in County Clare is Moylussa, 532 m, in the Slieve Bernagh range in the east of the county. The following islands lie off the coast of the county: Aughinish Inishmore Island Inishloe Mutton Island Scattery Island County Clare hosts the oldest known evidence of human activity in Ireland; the patella of a bear, subject to butchering close to the time of death, was found in the Alice and Gwendoline Cave, near Edenvale House, Clarecastle. The bone features a number of linear-cut marks, has been dated to circa 10,500 BC, from the Paleolithic era.
This discovery, publicized in 2017, pushed back Ireland's occupation by 2,500 years - what was regarded as the oldest site of occupation was the Mesolithic site of Mount Sandel, County Londonderry. This bear bone was discovered in 1903 during an archaeological excavation but was not studied until over a century later. There was a Neolithic civilization in the Clare area — the name of the peoples is unknown, but the Prehistoric peoples left evidence behind in the form of ancient dolmen: single-chamber megalithic tombs consisting of three or more upright stones. Clare is one of the richest places in Ireland for these tombs; the most noted. The remains of the people inside the tomb have been excavated and dated to 3800 BC. Ptolemy created a map of Ireland in his Geographia with information dating from 100 AD. Within his map, Ptolemy names the areas in which they resided. Historians have found the tribes on the west of Ireland the most difficult to identify with known peoples. During the Early Middle Ages, the area was part of the Kingdom of Connacht ruled by the Uí Fiachrach Aidhne.
In the mid-10th century, it was annexed to the Kingdom of Munster to be settled by the Dalcassians. It was renamed meaning North Munster. Brian Boru became a leader from here during this period the most noted High King of Ireland. From 1118 onwards the Kingdom of Thomond was in place as its own petty kingdom, ruled by the O'Brien Clan. After the Norman invasion of Ireland, Thomas de Clare established a short-lived Norman lordship of Thomond, extinguished at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea in 1318 during Edward Bruce's invasion. There are two main hypotheses for the origins of the county name "Clare". One is that the name is derived from Thomas de Clare, embroiled in local politics and fighting in the 1270s and 1280s. An alternative hypothesis is that the county name Clare comes from the settlement of Clare, whose Irish name Clár refers to a crossing over the River Fergus. In 1543, during the Tudor conquest of Ireland, Murrough O'Brien, by surrender and regrant to Henry VIII, became Earl of Thomond within Henry's Kingdom of Ireland.
Henry Sidney as Lord Deputy of Ireland responded to the Desmond Rebellion by creating the presidency of Connaught in 1569 and presidency of Munster in 1570. He transferred Thomond from Munster to Connaught. About 1600, Clare was removed from the presidency of Connaught and made a presidency in its own right under the Earl of Thomond; when Henry O'Brien, 5th Earl of Thomond died in 1639, Lord Deputy Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford decreed Clare should return to the presidency of Munster, but the Wars of the Three Kingdoms delayed this until the Restoration of 1660. Clare's county nickname is the Banner County, for which various origins have been suggested: the banners captured by Clare's Dragoons at the Battle of Ramillies.
The River Shannon is the longest river in Ireland at 360.5 km. It drains the Shannon River Basin which has an area of one fifth of the area of Ireland; the Shannon divides the west of Ireland from the south. County Clare, being part of the province of Munster, is the major exception; the river represents a major physical barrier between east and west, with fewer than thirty-five crossing-points between Limerick city in the south and the village of Dowra in the north. The river is named after a Celtic goddess; the Shannon has been an important waterway since antiquity, having first been mapped by the Graeco-Egyptian geographer Ptolemy. The river flows southwards from the Shannon Pot in County Cavan before turning west and emptying into the Atlantic Ocean through the 102.1 km long Shannon Estuary. Limerick city stands at the point; the Shannon is tidal east of Limerick as far as the base of the Ardnacrusha dam. By tradition the Shannon is said to rise in the Shannon Pot, a small pool in the townland of Derrylahan on the slopes of Cuilcagh Mountain in County Cavan, from where the young river appears as a small trout stream.
Surveys have defined a 12.8 km2 immediate pot catchment area covering the slopes of Cuilcagh. This area includes Cavan, 2.2 km to the northeast, drained by Pollnaowen. Further sinks that source the pot include Pollboy and, through Shannon Cave, Pollahune in Cavan and Polltullyard and Tullynakeeragh in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland; the highest point in the catchment is a spring at Tiltinbane on the western end of the Cuilcagh mountain ridge. From the Shannon Pot, the river subsumes a number of tributaries before replenishing Lough Allen at its head; the river runs through or between 11 of Ireland's counties, subsuming the tributary rivers Boyle, Suck and Brosna, among others, before reaching the Shannon Estuary at Limerick. Many different values have been given for the length of the Shannon. A traditional value is 390 km. An official Irish source gives a total length of 360.5 km. Most Irish guides now give 344 km; some academic sources give 280 km. The reason is; the 344 km length relates to the distance between Shannon Pot and a line between Kerry Head and Loop Head, the furthest reaches of the land.
The 280 km distance finishes where the Shannon estuary joins the estuary of the River Fergus, close to Shannon Airport. Longer distances emerged before the use of modern surveying instruments. At a total length of 360.5 km, this means. That the Shannon is the longest river in either Ireland or Great Britain was evidently known in the 12th century, although a map of the time showed this river as flowing out of the south of Ireland; the River Shannon is a traditional freshwater river for about 45% of its total length. Excluding the 102 km tidal estuary from its total length of 360 km, if one excludes the lakes from the Shannon's freshwater flow of 258 km, the Shannon, as a freshwater river, is only about 161 km long. There are some tributaries within the Shannon River Basin which have headwaters that are further in length than the Shannon Pot source, such as the Owenmore River in County Cavan and the Boyle River with its source in Mayo. Apart from being Ireland's longest river, the Shannon is by far, Ireland's largest river by flow.
It has a long term average flow rate of 208.1 m3/s. This is double the flow rate of Ireland's second largest river, the River Corrib (104.8 m3/s. If the discharges from all of the rivers and streams into the Shannon Estuary are added to the discharge at Limerick, the total discharge of the River Shannon at its mouth at Loop Head reaches 300 m3/s. Indeed, the Shannon is a major river by the time it leaves Lough Ree with an average flow rate of 98 m3/s, larger than any of the other Irish rivers' total flow; the Shannon Callows, areas of lowland along the river, are classified as a Special Area of Conservation. Settlements along the river include Kilrush, Glin, Askeaton, Shannon Town, Castletroy, Castleconnell, O'Briensbridge, Killaloe, Portumna, Athlone, Carrick-on-Shannon, Leitrim village and Dowra; the river began flowing along its present course after the end of the last glacial period. Ptolemy's Geography described a river called Σηνος from PIE *sai-/sei- ‘to bind’, the root of English sinew and Irish sin ‘collar’, referring to the long and sinuous estuary leading up to Limerick.
According to Irish mythology, the river was named after a woman named Sionann, the granddaughter of Lir. She went to Connla's Well to find wisdom, despite being warned not to approach it. In some sources she, like Fionn mac Cumhaill and ate the Salmon of Wisd
Foynes is a village and major port in County Limerick in the midwest of Ireland, located at the edge of hilly land on the southern bank of the Shannon Estuary. The population of the town was 542 as of the 2011 census. During the late 1930s and early 1940s, land-based planes lacked sufficient flying range for Atlantic crossings. Foynes was the last port of call on its eastern shore for seaplanes; as a result, Foynes would become one of the biggest civilian airports in Europe during World War II. Surveying flights for flying boat operations were made by Charles Lindbergh in 1933 and a terminal was begun in 1935; the first transatlantic proving flights were operated on July 5, 1937 with a Pan Am Sikorsky S-42 service from Botwood, Newfoundland on the Bay of Exploits and a BOAC Short Empire service from Foynes with successful transits of twelve and fifteen-and-a-quarter hours respectively. Services to New York, Montreal and Lisbon followed, the first non-stop New York service operating on June 22, 1942 in 25 hours 40 minutes.
All of this changed following the construction and opening in 1942 of Shannon Airport on flat bogland on the northern bank of the Estuary. Foynes flying-boat station closed in 1946. A college for the learning of the Irish language was opened in the former terminal in 1954; the Port Trustees purchased the building in 1980 and the Foynes Flying Boat Museum leased a portion in 1988. One of Foynes's main claims to fame is the invention there of Irish Coffee; this came about, it is said, in order to alleviate the suffering of cold and wet passengers during its aviation days in the 1930s and early'40s. Brendan O'Regan was Catering Comptroller between 1943-1945 and after had the same position at Shannon Airport where in established the world's first duty-free shop amongst his innovations; the Foynes Flying Boat Museum contains much memorabilia from that era, including the original radio and weather room, along with its equipment and a full-size replica Boeing 314 flying boat. Foynes as a port has a longer history, being first surveyed in 1837, is now the location of a major deep water seaport operated by the Shannon Foynes Port Company, an amalgamation under the Harbours Act 2000 of the agencies operating the ports of Limerick and Foynes.
It is anticipated that more traffic from the upstream Limerick Port will be diverted there as the latter portlands are redeveloped as commercial and residential properties. A railway line to Limerick via Patrickswell and Raheen not operational. Iarnród Éireann's policy of concentrating on what it sees as more profitable passenger operations means the Port's traffic is served by road. Foynes Port Company was amalgamated with the Shannon Estuary Ports Company in 2000, to form Shannon Foynes Port Company. SFPC is the second largest port facility in Ireland, handling over 10 million tonnes of cargo annually through the six terminals operational. Planning permission has been granted for an LNG import terminal at Co.. Kerry, within SFPC's jurisdiction. Foynes railway station was opened on 29 April 1858, but closed to passenger traffic on 4 February 1963. Freight traffic declined until the final revenue movement - a train of molasses on 30 October 2000; the line was "mothballed" at the end of 2001. On 7 May 2002 the annual Irish Rail weed spray train visited the line and the last known movement on the line was on 9 January 2003 when a permanent way inspection railcar traversed the line.
Although the line is not operational it has not been formally abandoned. The Shannon Foynes Port Company and others maintain contact with Irish Rail to review opportunities for reopening it for future bulk cargo projects. In an interview on Limerick's Live 95 fm on April 18, 2011, Kay McGuinness Chairperson of Shannon Foynes Port Company said that they are confident that the rail link could be reopened for €7 million, less than quoted price of €30 million by Irish Rail following the involvement of consultants and it was now a do-able project. On 10 February 2015, Irish Rail wrote to lineside neighbours informing them of plans over the next 6 weeks, to clear the line of vegetation in order to allow a condition survey and inspection of structures to take place; this to inform a study that they are undertaking on behalf of the Shannon Foynes Port Company into the re-establishment of rail freight traffic on the line. On 29 June 2015, it was announced that as part of the EU Infrastructure - TEN-T - Connecting Europe funding that the Shannon Foynes Port Company was successful in securing €800,000 for a study to develop the business case to reopen the line.
The project is called Connecting International Sea Cargo to the Irish Rail Network. Bus Éireann route 314 provides a few journeys a day to Limerick via Askeaton. In the opposite direction there are buses to Glin with a weekend service to Tralee and a Summer service to Ballybunion. Foynes Flying Boat Museum. Knockpatrick Gardens, an award-winning 3-acre garden overlooking the scenic Shannon Estuary is located 2 km from Foynes. Foynes is near to Adare, a famous heritage town, the city of Limerick; the main gateway to the region is Shannon Airport. Foynes is located on the N69 "coast road" to Tralee in County Kerry. Saint Senan's GAA club draws its players from the parish centred on Foynes and the neighbouring town of Shanagolden. Although it has fielded hurling teams on occasions, it is a Gaelic football club and, after winning the intermediate championship in 2003, Saint Senan's were narrowly beaten in the final of the 2006 Limerick Senior Football Championship, its predecessor, the Foynes tea
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power