Main Central Road
The Main Central Road, better known as MC Road is the arterial State Highway in the Travancore region of Kerala state, India. It is designated as SH 1 by the Kerala Public Works Department; the highway was built by Dewan of Travancore. This road starts from National Highway 66 at Kesavadasapuram in Thiruvananthapuram the capital city of Kerala and rejoins the NH 544 at Angamaly a suburb of Kochi city in Ernakulam district; the MC Road passes through Venjaramoodu, Nilamel, Kottarakkara, Pandalam, Tiruvalla, Kottayam, Kuravilangad, Koothattukulam, Pezhakkappilly, Mannoor and Kalady. Before NH 544 was built through Angamaly, MC road extended up to Karukutty village 6 km away from Angamaly town in the Chalakudy road. Few section of this road is upgraded to NH 220. MC Road is a popular route to access the shrine of Sabarimala, it covers many important towns of South Kerala. The MC road is being renovated under the World Bank aided'Kerala State Transport Project'; the upgrading is being carried out in two phases.
Phase 1In phase 1, two stretches, Thaikkod – Chengannur and Muvattupuzha – Angamaly were upgraded and works were completed in 2010. In addition, a new road link to NH 66 has been completed between Thaikkod and Vetturoad Kottarakara NH 208 Adoor Central Junction Adoor High School Junction Pandalam Mulakuzha Chengannur Thiruvalla Thiruvalla Changanassery Changanassery & Vazhoor Road) Kottayam (NH 220 towards Kumily & Teni Kottayam Baker Jn. & Cherthala Ettumanur Ettumanur Ettumanur Kuravilangad Kuravilangad Kuravilangad Monippally Koothattukulam Muvattupuzha Muvattupuzha Perumbavoor Kalady Kalady Angamali Punalur -Muvattupuzha road National Highway 183 NH 66 NH 544 Roads in Kerala List of State Highways in Kerala
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry by the Malayali people, it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India. Malayalam has official language status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry and is spoken by 38 million people worldwide. Malayalam is spoken by linguistic minorities in the neighbouring states. Due to Malayali expatriates in the Persian Gulf, the language is widely spoken in Gulf countries; the origin of Malayalam remains a matter of dispute among scholars. One view holds that Malayalam and modern Tamil are offshoots of Middle Tamil and separated from it sometime after the c. 7th century. A second view argues for the development of the two languages out of "Proto-Dravidian" or "Proto-Tamil-Malayalam" in the prehistoric era. Designated a "Classical Language in India" in 2013, it developed into the current form by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.
The oldest documents written purely in Malayalam and still surviving are the Vazhappalli Copper plates from 832 and Tharisapalli Copper plates from 849. The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it; the current Malayalam script is based on the Vatteluttu script, extended with Grantha script letters to adopt Indo-Aryan loanwords. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries; the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. The word Malayalam originated from the words mala, meaning "mountain", alam, meaning "region" or "-ship"; the term referred to the land of the Chera dynasty Tamil dynasty, only became the name of its language. The language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayali, Malean and Mallealle; the earliest extant literary works in the regional language of present-day Kerala date back to as early as the 12th century.
However, the named identity of this language appears to have come into existence only around the 16th century, when it was known as "Malayayma" or "Malayanma". The word "Malayalam" was coined in the period, the local people referred to their language as both "Tamil" and "Malayalam" until the colonial period; the held view is that Malayalam was the western coastal dialect of Tamil and separated from Tamil sometime between the 9th and 13th centuries. Some scholars however believe that both Tamil and Malayalam developed during the prehistoric period from a common ancestor,'Proto-Tamil-Dravidian', that the notion of Malayalam being a'daughter' of Tamil is misplaced; this is based on the fact that Malayalam and several Dravidian languages on the western coast have common features which are not found in the oldest historical forms of Tamil. Robert Caldwell, in his 1856 book "A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages", opined that Malayalam branched from Classical Tamil and over time gained a large amount of Sanskrit vocabulary and lost the personal terminations of verbs.
As the language of scholarship and administration, Old-Tamil, written in Tamil-Brahmi and the Vatteluttu alphabet greatly influenced the early development of Malayalam. The Malayalam script began to diverge from the Tamil-Brahmi script in the 9th centuries, and by the end of the 13th century a written form of the language emerged, unique from the Tamil-Brahmi script, used to write Tamil. Malayalam is similar to some Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, the two are mistaken by native Indian Tamil speakers; the Portuguese called the Kerala variant of Malayalam-Tamil Lingua Malabar Tamul. It was called Malabar Thamozhi; the first book to be printed in Lingua Malabar Tamul was Cartilha in 1554, which used Portuguese letters to write the Malabar Thamozhi. Ravikutty Pilla Por, written in the 17th century, is the shining example of Malayanma literature. Ananthapuri Varnanam, written in the 1800s, was among the last of these Malayalam-Tamil books. Itty Achudan, the famed Ayurvedic physician, used Malayanma and Kolezhuttu to write Hortus Malabaricus in 1678.
In the 17th century, the Malayanma script was extensively used by the Catholics of Kerala. Samkshepa Vedartham, in Malayanma, was printed in Rome in 1772; the Ramban Bible, written in Malayanma, was translated from Syriac by Fr. Phillipose and published in 1811. After this period, the British banned Malayanma and most of the books written in Malayanma disappeared; the British never supported or translated Malayanma books into Grantha Malayalam, which they chose to promote in the 19th century. Iravikutti Pilla Por, Vadakkan Pattu, Thacholi Pattu, Kannassa Ramayanam, Ramacharitham Ananthapuri Varnanam are a few of the Malayanma books which have survived. Malayanma, the indigenous Dravidian tongue, its great literary tradition were lost in history. In the 12th century, Kerala was invaded by the Tulu Bana Kings, with an army from Ahichatra on the Indo-Nepalese border. Keralolpathi mentions a Tulu invader called Banapperumal, the brother of Tulu king Kavi Raja Singhan of the Alupa dynasty, who invaded Kerala with a Large Nair army led by Pada Mala Nair.
Banapperumal established his capital at
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Kottayam is a city in the Indian state of Kerala. It is the administrative capital of Kottayam district, located in south-west Kerala, it had a population of 136,812 in the city's administrative limits according to the 2011 census. Kottayam is 146 km north of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala's capital city, it was known as ‘Cotym’ and ‘Cottayam’ during the British Raj. It hence called Akshara Nagari or Land of Letters. Many of the first Malayalam dailies like Deepika, Malayala Manorama, Mangalam were started and are headquartered in Kottayam. Headquarters of The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church is situated at Devalokam, Kottayam. During the British period, various missionaries, the Christian churches and St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara himself established many schools and other educational institutions in and around the city. Kottayam city is known as Chuvarchithra Nagari. Kottayam is known as the city of'Letters and Latex'. Kottayam district gets its name from the town of Kottayam, which serves as the headquarters of the district.
The royal house of the Thekkumkoor ruler were protected by a fort called Thaliyilkotta. It is believed that the name Kottayam is derived from a combination of the Malayalam words kotta which means fort and akam which means inside combining it become kottaykkakam, it can be translated as "the interior of the fort". From the beginning of the ninth century AD, the history of Thekkumkoor and of Kottayam are indistinguishable. Kottayam was a part of Vempolinad, an area in the Kulashekara Empire. By about 1100 AD, the Kingdom of Vempolinad had split into the Kingdoms of Thekkumkur and Vadakkumkur. After their separation, Thekkumkur became an independent kingdom, while Vedakkumkur became a vassal of Cochin; the royal house situated in Vennimala in Kottayam. It was protected by a fort known as Thaliyilkotta and as a result the locality came to be known in the same name as the fort. On a stage, Thekkumkoor kings shifted their headquarters to Nattassery near Kumaranallore at the outskirts of Kottayam town.
It is believed that the Thekkumkoor family ruled Kottayam from Thazhathangadi. The Portuguese and the Dutch established trade relations with both these kingdoms, dealing in black pepper and other spices. After the subjugation of the Dutch by Travancore in 1742, military operations of Marthanda Varma progressed against the northern neighbouring kingdoms including Thekkumkoor. Though Thekkumkoor allied with Chempakassery and Vadakkumkoor to protect the kingdom, all of them were annexed to Travancore. Another source states that the ruler of Thekkumkur had sided first with the Kingdom of Kayamkulam and with the principality of Ambalapuzha against Travancore under Marthanda Varma. After the fall of Ambalapuzha, as the ruler of Thekkumkoorr refused to come to terms with Travancore, his capital city was taken on 11 September in 1750 by Ramayyan Dalawa, the general and prime minister of Marthanda Varma and the state was annexed to Travancore in 1753. During British rule in India, Kottayam remained a part of the Princely State of Travancore.
There existed no institution in the princely state of Travancore before the 1800s. The Church Missionary Society of England established the CMS College the first college in India. Rev. Benjamin Bailey was the first principal of the CMS College, as it was known, the government of India welcomed the college as "a place of general education hence any demands of the state for officers to fill all departments of public service would be met" Kottayam has played its role in all the political agitations of modern times. The'Malayali Memorial' agitation may be said to have had its origin in Kottayam; the Malayali Memorial sought to secure better representation for educated Travancoreans in the Travancore civil service against persons from outside. The Memorial, presented to the Maharaja Sri Moolam Thirunal was drafted at a public meeting held in the Kottayam Public Library; the event marked the beginning of the modern political movement in the State. The people of Kottayam played a major role during the Abstention Movement in the 1930s, which aimed at the representation of Hindus of the lower castes, in the Travancore Legislature.
The Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 against untouchability, led by Mahatma Gandhi, took place in Vaikom near Kottayam. Kottayam became a revenue division of Travancore. A fifth division, existed for a short period but was added to Kottayam. At the time of the integration of the State of Travancore and Cochin in 1949, these revenue divisions were renamed as districts and the Diwan Peshkars gave way to District Collectors; as a result, in July 1949, Kottayam came into being as a district. Kottayam has an average elevation of 3 metres above sea level, and is situated in the basin of the Meenachil River and in the basin of the Vembanad backwaters, which are formed from several streams in the Western Ghats in Idukki district. According to the division of places in Kerala based on altitudes, Kottayam is classified as being a midland area; the general soil type is alluvial soil. The vegetation is tropical evergreen and moist deciduous type; the climate in this district is pleasant. Kottayam's proximity to the equator results in little seasonal temperature variation, with moderate to high levels of humidity.
Annual temperatures range between 20 to 35 °C. From June through September, the south-west monsoon brings in heavy rains, as Kottayam lies on the windward side of the Western Ghats. From October to December, Kottayam receives light rain from the northwest monsoon; the average annual rainfall is 3,200 millimetres. Kottayam
South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south; the geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Kaveri and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam and Kochi are the largest urban areas; the majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions.
Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Pandyas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas and Vijayanagara. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with 80% of the population capable of reading and writing; the fertility rate in South India is the lowest of all regions in India. South India known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names; the term "Deccan" referring to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas is an anglicised form of the word Prakrit dakkhin derived from the Sanskrit word dakshina meaning south.
Carnatic derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād" meaning high country has been associated with South India. Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; the region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Phoenicians, Greeks, Syrians and Chinese began from the Sangam period; the region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. Several dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.
C. to 14th century A. D; the Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. D. was the last Indian dynasty. After repeated invasions from the Sultanate of Delhi and the fall of Vijayanagara empire in 1646, the region was ruled by Deccan Sultanates and Nayak governors of Vijayanagara empire who declared independence; the Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British were involved in a protracted struggle for military control over the South India. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799 and the end of the Vellore Mutiny in 1806, the British consolidated their power over much of present-day South India with the exception of French Pondichéry; the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857. During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad State, Travancore, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states; the region played a major role in the Indian independence movement.
After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states: Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; as a result of this Act, Madras State retained its name and Kanyakumari district was added to it from the state of Travancore-Cochin. The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. Andhra Pradesh was created through the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of the Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala emerged from the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of the Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organised with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from the Bombay State, the
Kottayam is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala, India. Though the district is 65 km south to Kochi, it is located in an area with biggest diameter and population, it is the only district having no border with either the other states. Kottayam City is known as Akshara Nagari and Chuvar Chitra Nagari. Kottayam is known as the city of three'L's - Literacy and Latex. Kottayam is the first town to achieve 100% literacy rate in India. On 27 September 2008, Kottayam district became the first tobacco free districts in India. Bordered by hills on the east and the Vembanad Lake and paddy fields of Kuttanad on the west, Kottayam has many unique characteristics. Panoramic backwater stretches, lush paddy fields, highlands and hillocks, rubber plantations and places associated with many legends give Kottayam District the enviable title: The land of letters, legends and lakes; the district is 15.35% urbanised. The district has its headquarters at Kottayam city, located at 9.36° N and 76.17° E. Pala or Kidangoor may be the center point of the district.
Rubber Board campus located in Puthuppally has head office in Kottayam city. Hindustan Newsprint Limited and Rubber board are the central govt organizations in the district; the Headquarters of 2 significant religious communities in Kerala are located in Kottayam District: Nair Service Society and Indian Orthodox Church. Kottayam means the interior of a fort - Kotta + Akam. Rulers of Munjanad and Thekkumkur had their headquarters at Thazhathangadi near Kottayam town. Marthanda Varma of Travancore destroyed the palace and the Thaliyil Fort; the remnants of the palaces and forts are still seen here. Kottayam has played its role in all the political agitations of modern times. The'Malayali Memorial' agitation may be said to have had its origin in Kottayam; the Malayali Memorial sought to secure better representation for educated Travancoreans in the Travancore civil service against persons from outside. The Memorial, presented to the Maharaja Sri Moolam Thirunal was drafted at a public meeting held in the Kottayam Public Library.
The event marked the beginning of the modern political movement in the state. It was in Kottayam that the famous Vaikom Satyagraha, an epic struggle for the eradication of untouchability, took place. Scheduled castes and other backward classes in Travancore were denied not only entry into temples, but access to temple roads. Vaikom, the seat of a celebrated Siva Temple, was the venue of the symbolic satyagraha, it is of immense historic significance that national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, C. Rajagopalachari, Acharya Vinoba Bhave and E. V. Ramaswami Naykar, associated with this struggle. The' Nivarthana' agitation of the early thirties, to secure adequate representation for the non-caste Hindus and Muslims in the state Legislature, enjoyed considerable support from this district; the district was a centre of the agitation led by the state Congress for responsible Government in Travancore. The agitation had a triumphant end, with the overthrow of Sir C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, the Dewan of Travancore.
The present Kottayam district was a part of the erstwhile princely state of Travancore. Earlier, the Travancore state consisted of two revenue divisions viz. the southern and northern divisions, under the administrative control of a'Diwan Peshkar' for each. In 1868 two more divisions Quilon and Kottayam were constituted; the fifth division Devikulam came next but only for a short period, which in course of time, was added to Kottayam. At the time of the integration of the state of Travancore and Cochin in 1949, these revenue divisions were renamed as districts and the Diwan Peshkars gave way to District Collectors, paving the way for the birth of the Kottayam District in July 1949 which included Kottayam, Thodupuzha, Vaikkom, Meenachil and Peermade taluks. Kottayam is known as the language-capital of Kerala. Major religious communities in Kottayam district are Christianity. NSS has its headquarters at Changanaserry. Mannam memorial is located here; the headquarters of Indian Orthodox Church is the Catholicate Palace located at Kottayam.
It is the official headquarters of the Malankara Metropolitan and the Catholicos Of The East who reigns on the Supreme Throne of St. Thomas the Apostle; the headquarters of Madhya Kerala diocese of church of south India is located at Kottayam. Kottayam has a tropical climate like that of the rest of Kerala, hence there are no distinct seasons in the area. Humidity rises to about 90 % during the rainy season. Kottayam gets rain from the south-west monsoon and the north-east monsoon; the average rainfall is around 3600 mm per year. The south-west monsoon ends in September; the north-east monsoon season is from October to November. Pre-monsoon rains during March to May is accompanied by lightning. December and February are cooler, while March and May are warmer; the highest temperature recorded here was 38.5 °C and the lowest was 15 °C. Kottayam district experienced the most intense red rainfall, heavy downpours occurred in 2001 during which the rain was coloured red, yellow and black. Kottayam has a vast network of rivers, ancient religious places, hill stations.
Some of the noted tourist places here are: Vembanad Lak