The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m2, is used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 "ares" or 1⁄100 km2; when the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely". The name was coined from the Latin ārea; the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. The law of 18 Germinal, Year III defined five units of measure: The metre for length The are for area The stère for volume of stacked firewood The litre for volumes of liquid The gram for massIn 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures makes no mention of the are in the current definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". In 1972, the European Economic Community passed directive 71/354/EEC, which catalogued the units of measure that might be used within the Community; the units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, supplemented by a few other units including the are whose use was limited to the measurement of land. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the are; the centiare is one square metre. The deciare is ten square metres; the are is a unit of area, used for measuring land area. It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern International System of Units, it is still used in colloquial speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, in various European countries.
In Russian and other languages of the former Soviet Union, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large; the decare is derived from deca and are, is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans as a measure of land area. Instead of the name "decare", the names of traditional land measures are used, redefined as one decare: Stremma in Greece Dunam, donum, or dönüm in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey Mål is sometimes used for decare in Norway, from the old measure of about the same area; the hectare, although not a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area, accepted for use within the SI. In practice the hectare is derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre, it is used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership and management, including law, agriculture and town planning throughout the European Union.
The United Kingdom, United States, to some extent Canada use the acre instead. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units. Others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". In many countries, metrication clarified existing measures in terms of metric units; the following legacy units of area have been redefined as being equal to one hectare: Jerib in Iran Djerib in Turkey Gong Qing in Hong Kong / mainland China Manzana in Argentina Bunder in The Netherlands The most used units are in bold. One hectare is equivalent to: 1 square hectometre 15 mǔ or 0.15 qǐng 10 dunam or dönüm 10 stremmata 6.25 rai ≈ 1.008 chō ≈ 2.381 feddan Conversion of units Hecto- Hectometre Order of magnitude Official SI website: Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Hurricane Jeanne was the deadliest hurricane in the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the tenth named storm, the seventh hurricane, the fifth major hurricane of the season, as well as the third hurricane and fourth named storm of the season to make landfall in Florida. After wreaking havoc on Hispaniola, Jeanne struggled to reorganize strengthening and performing a complete loop over the open Atlantic, it headed westwards, strengthening into a Category 3 hurricane and passing over the islands of Great Abaco and Grand Bahama in the Bahamas on September 25. Jeanne made landfall in the day in Florida just 2 miles from where Frances had struck a mere 3 weeks earlier. Building on the rainfall of Frances and Ivan, Jeanne brought near-record flood levels as far north as West Virginia and New Jersey before its remnants turned east into the open Atlantic. Jeanne is blamed for at least 3,006 deaths in Haiti with about 2,800 in Gonaïves alone, nearly washed away by floods and mudslides; the storm caused 8 deaths in Puerto Rico, 18 in the Dominican Republic and 5 in the United States, bringing the total number of deaths to at least 3,037.
Final property damage in the United States was $7.5 billion, plus an additional $270 million in the Dominican Republic and $169.5 million in Puerto Rico. Tropical Depression Eleven formed from a tropical wave 70 miles east-southeast of Guadeloupe in the evening of September 13, was upgraded to Tropical Storm Jeanne the next day. Jeanne passed south of the U. S. Virgin Islands on September 15, making landfall near Yabucoa, Puerto Rico the same day. After crossing Puerto Rico, Jeanne reached hurricane strength on September 16 near the eastern tip of the Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola, but fell back to tropical storm strength that day as it moved across the mountainous island. Jeanne moved offshore the Dominican Republic late in the afternoon of September 17. By that time, Jeanne had weakened to tropical depression strength. Though Jeanne did not strike Haiti directly, the storm was large enough to cause flooding and mudslides in the northwestern part of the country. On September 18, while the system was being tracked near Great Inagua and Haiti, a new center formed well to the northeast and the previous circulation dissipated.
The system restrengthened, becoming a hurricane on September 20. Jeanne continued to meander for several days before beginning a steady westward motion toward the Bahamas and Florida. Jeanne continued strengthening as it headed west, passing over Great Abaco in the Bahamas on the morning of September 25. Shortly thereafter, the hurricane reached Category 3 strength. Jeanne maintained this intensity. At 11:50 p.m. EDT on September 25, Jeanne made landfall on Hutchinson Island, just east of Sewall's Point, Stuart and Port Saint Lucie, Florida, at Category 3 strength; this is the same place. Jeanne's track continued to follow within 20 miles of that of Frances; the cyclone swung more to the north, the center remained over land all the way to the Georgia state line, unlike Frances which exited into the Gulf of Mexico. Jeanne became an extratropical cyclone over Virginia on September 28 and the system moved back into the Atlantic offshore the New Jersey coast the next day. On the afternoon of September 13, tropical storm watches were issued for the British Virgin Islands, Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Maarten while tropical storm warnings were raised for Puerto Rico and the U.
S. Virgin Islands; the watches were upgraded to tropical storm warnings early on the morning of September 14. In the morning, tropical storm warnings were issued for St. Kitts and Nevis, while tropical storm watches were issued for Anguilla. During the afternoon, tropical storm warnings were lowered for Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Maarten, while hurricane warnings were issued for Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. Late on the morning of September 15, a hurricane watch was issued for the British Virgin Islands; that afternoon, tropical storm warnings were dropped for St. Kitts and Nevis, while hurricane warnings were lowered to tropical storm warnings for the U. S. Virgin Islands. On the evening of September 15, tropical storm warnings were dropped Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands, while hurricane warnings were downgraded to tropical storm warnings for Puerto Rico, all watches and warnings were dropped for the British Virgin Islands; the entire power grid of Puerto Rico was shut down by the government of Sila Maria Calderón as the storm approached to prevent electrocutions and infrastructure damage.
Tropical storm watches were issued from Cabrera to Isla Saona early in the afternoon on September 14. That afternoon, hurricane watches and tropical storm warnings were raised from Cabrera to Santo Domingo. Late in the morning of September 15, hurricane warnings were issued from Cabrera to Isla Saona, while hurricane watches and tropical storm warnings were raised from Cabrera to Puerto Plata; that evening, hurricane warnings were extended westward from Cabrera to Puerto Plata while hurricane watches and tropical storm warnings were issued from Puerto Plata to Monte Cristi. Late in the morning of September 16, tropical storm warnings were issued from Môle-Saint-Nicolas to Puerto Plata; that afternoon, hurricane warnings were downgraded to tropical storm warnings from Puerto Plata to Isla Saona while all hurricane watches were dropped. Late on the afternoon of September 17, tropical storm warnings were dropped for the remainder of Hispaniola
Palm Beach County, Florida
Palm Beach County is a county in the state of Florida, directly north of Broward County. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,320,134, making it the third-most populous county in Florida; the largest city and county seat is West Palm Beach. Named after one of its oldest settlements, Palm Beach, the county was established in 1909, after being split from Dade County; the county's modern-day boundaries were established in 1963. Palm Beach County is one of the three counties in South Florida that make up the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017; the area had been increasing in population since the late 19th century, with the incorporation of West Palm Beach in 1894 and after Henry Flagler extended the Florida East Coast Railway and built the Royal Poinciana Hotel, The Breakers, Whitehall. In 1928, the Okeechobee hurricane caused thousands of deaths. More the county acquired national attention during the 2000 presidential election, when a controversial recount occurred.
As of 2004, Palm Beach County is Florida's wealthiest county, with a per capita personal income of $44,518. It leads the state in agricultural productivity. Around 10,200 years ago, Native Americans began migrating into Florida. An estimated 20,000 Native Americans lived in South Florida, their population diminished by the 18th century, due to warfare and diseases from Europe. In 1513, Juan Ponce de León, who led a European expedition to Florida earlier that year, became the first non-Native American to reach Palm Beach County, after landing in the modern-day Jupiter area. Among the first non-Native American residents were African Americans, many of whom were former slaves or immediate descendants of former slaves. Runaway African slaves started coming to what was Spanish Florida in the late 17th century and they found refuge among the Seminoles. During the Seminole Wars, these African-American slaves fought with the Seminoles against White settlers and bounty hunters. Portions of the Second Seminole War occurred in Palm Beach County, including the Battle of Jupiter Inlet in 1838.
The oldest surviving structure, the Jupiter Lighthouse, was built in 1860, after receiving authorization to the land from President Franklin Pierce in 1854. During the American Civil War, Florida was a member of the Confederate States of America. Two Confederate adherents removed the lighting mechanism from the lighthouse. One of the men who removed the light, Augustus O. Lang, was the first White settler in Palm Beach County, he built a palmetto shack along the eastern shore of Lake Worth in 1863 after abandoning the cause of the Confederacy. After the Civil War ended, the Jupiter Lighthouse was relit in 1866. Thirteen years a National Weather Service office was established at the lighthouse complex. However, the office was moved to Miami in 1911 after that city's population began to grow. In October 1873, a hurricane caused a shipwreck between the New River; the crew nearly died due to starvation because of the desolation of the area. In response, five Houses of Refuge were built along the east coast of Florida from the Fort Pierce Inlet southward to Biscayne Bay.
Orange Grove House of Refuge No. 3 was built near Delray Beach in 1876. Henry Flagler, instrumental in the county's development in the late 19th century and early 20th century, first visited in 1892, he subsequently purchased land on both sides of Lake Worth. Other investors followed suit, causing a small boom and bringing in existing businesses and resulting in the establishment of many new businesses; the Royal Poinciana Hotel, constructed by Flagler to accommodate wealthy tourists, opened for business in February 1894. About a month the Florida East Coast Railway, owned by Flagler, reached West Palm Beach. On November 5, 1894, Palm Beach County's oldest city, West Palm Beach, was incorporated. In 1896, another hotel built by Flagler was opened, the Palm Beach Inn renamed The Breakers, he constructed his own winter home beginning in 1900. Flagler died there after falling down a flight of marble stairs; the Florida Legislature voted to establish Palm Beach County in 1909, carving it out of what was the northern portion of Dade County and including all of Lake Okeechobee.
The southernmost part of Palm Beach County was separated to create the northern portion of Broward County in 1915, the northwestern portion became part of Okeechobee County in 1917, southern Martin County was created from northernmost Palm Beach County in 1925. The boundaries remained the same until 1963, when about three-quarters of Lake Okeechobee was removed from Palm Beach County and divided among Glades, Hendry and Okeechobee Counties; this was the final change to the county's boundaries. Early on September 17, 1928, the Okeechobee hurricane made landfall near West Palm Beach as a category-4 storm and crossed Lake Okeechobee shortly thereafter. Coastal cities were devastated West Palm Beach, where more than 1,711 homes were destroyed. Further inland, wind-driven storm surge in Lake Okeechobee inundated adjacent communities Belle Glade and South Bay. Hundreds of square miles were flooded, including some areas with up to 20 feet of water. Numerous houses were damaged after crashing into other obstacles.
At least 2,500 deaths occurred. Damage in South Florida totaled $25 million. In response to the storm, the Herbert Hoover Dike was constructed to prevent a similar disaster; as a result of this hurrican
Key West International Airport
Key West International Airport is an international airport located in the City of Key West in Monroe County and two miles east of the main commercial center of Key West. Flights departing from EYW have weight restrictions because the airport's runway is only 4,801 feet long. Key West's aviation history began with a flight to Cuba by Augustin Parla. In 1928, Pan American Airways began scheduled flights from Key West; the main runway at Meacham Field was pressed into U. S. Army use after the Pearl Harbor attack, into U. S. Navy use in World War II as an alternative to the Trumbo Point seaplane base and the main Naval Air Station for fixed-wing and lighter-than-air aircraft on Boca Chica Key. After the war, the city took over. In January 1953, the city gave Monroe County the title to Meacham Field, allowing the county to apply for Federal Aviation Administration grants. Around the same time, the airport became Key West International Airport. National Airlines began flights to Miami in the mid 1940s with Lockheed Lodestar twin prop aircraft, although the airport did not have a paved runway until around 1956.
National served Key West for nearly 25 years and operated Convair 340 and Convair 440 prop aircraft, as well as Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprops, into the airport. In 1968, National began the first jet flights into Key West with Boeing 727-100s, providing nonstop service to Miami. By 1969, National was operating daily 727 jet service direct to Washington National Airport, Philadelphia International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport via intermediate stops in Miami, West Palm Beach, Orlando. Several other airlines began operating jet service into Key West. In 1979, Air Florida was operating five nonstop flights a day to Miami with Boeing 737 jetliners. In 1987, Eastern Airlines was operating daily mainline Boeing 727-100 jet service nonstop to Miami. By 1989, Piedmont Airlines was operating six nonstop flights a day to Miami with Fokker F28 Fellowship twin jets; this F28 jet service was continued by USAir following its acquisition of and merger with Piedmont. More Southwest Airlines, following its acquisition of AirTran, operated Boeing 737-700 jet service into the airport, including nonstop flights from New Orleans and Tampa.
However, Southwest subsequently ceased all service to the airport. As of May 9, 2010, the flight schedule included commercial service on Cape Air, United Express, American Eagle, Delta Airlines, Delta Connection and, most notably, AirTran Airways; some former routes to EYW in 2010 included Orlando and Tampa on AirTran Airways, Fort Myers on Cape Air, Fort Lauderdale and Tampa on United express. A number of commuter and regional airlines served Key West with turboprop and prop aircraft during the 1980s and 1990s with nonstop flights to Miami but with nonstop service to Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Naples and Tampa. According to the Official Airline Guide, these air carriers included Air Florida Commuter, Airways International, American Eagle Airlines, Bar Harbor Airlines, Cape Air, Dolphin Airlines, Gulfstream International Airlines, Gull Air, Pan Am Express, Paradise Island Airlines, Pro Air Services, Provincetown-Boston Airlines, Southeast Airlines, Southern Express and USAir Express. Turboprop aircraft operated into the airport included the ATR-42, British Aerospace BAe Jetstream 31, Beechcraft 1900C, Beechcraft 1900D, Beechcraft C99, CASA 212 Aviocar, de Havilland Canada DHC-7 Dash 7, de Havilland Canada DHC-8 Dash 8, Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante, Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia, Nord 262 and Saab 340.
American Eagle operated ATR-72 propjets into the airport before introducing regional jet service. Delta Connection subsequently introduced regional jet service as well. Piston engine twin prop aircraft flown by commuter air carriers serving Key West included the Cessna 402, Douglas DC-3, Martin 2-0-2, Martin 4-0-4 and Piper Navajo. On July 15, 2017, Key West International Airport was awarded a grant of $6.5 million by the FAA to assist in a $10 million runway project. The project will add 277 feet to the runway for takeoffs in one direction and add 10 feet-wide shoulders paved on each side of the runway; the added runway length will be for flights taking off to the East only. Construction work is set to begin in January 2018 and all construction is scheduled to be done at night. Key West International Airport covers 334 acres at an elevation of 3 feet, its one runway, 9/27, is 4,801 by 100 feet asphalt. The airport has two terminals designed by Mark Mosko and Dwane Stark of URS; the older ground-level terminal building opened in 1957 and now serves arriving passengers.
The terminal was expanded with the addition of a second building elevated over the parking lot in February 2009. With an area of about 30,000 square feet, it more than doubled the airport's terminal space; the newer building includes an elevated roadway and houses ticketing, check-in, the airport's security checkpoint. The older building was renovated with the former ticketing area becoming an expanded departure gate lounge, the baggage claim area was expanded into the former departure lounge; the two buildings are connected by an enclosed walkway. Parking for 300
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevation may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic datum –, used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and aircraft flight levels. A common and straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied over geological time scales; however 20th century and current millennium sea level rise is caused by global warming, careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change. The term above sea level refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a "mean sea level" is difficult to achieve because of the many factors that affect sea level. Instantaneous sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of space.
This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point and use it as a datum. For example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point. Still-water level or still-water sea level is the level of the sea with motions such as wind waves averaged out. MSL implies the SWL further averaged over a period of time such that changes due to, e.g. the tides have zero mean. Global MSL refers to a spatial average over the entire ocean. One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the mean sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the vertical datum was MSL at the Victoria Liverpool. Since the times of the Russian Empire, in Russia and other former its parts, now independent states, the sea level is measured from the zero level of Kronstadt Sea-Gauge.
In Hong Kong, "mPD" is a surveying term meaning "metres above Principal Datum" and refers to height of 1.230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and offers the longest collapsed data about the sea level, it is used for main part of Africa as official sea level. As for Spain, the reference to measure heights below or above sea level is placed in Alicante. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, which dates back to the 1690s. Satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite in 2008. Height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum, it is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to mean sea level, in the atmospheric sciences, land surveying.
An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, what systems such as GPS do. In aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is used to define heights; the alternative is to use a geoid-based vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, variations in elevation are shown by contour lines; the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, the elevation AMSL is negative. For one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. To extend this definition far from the sea means comparing the local height of the mean sea surface with a "level" reference surface, or geodetic datum, called the geoid. In a state of rest or absence of external forces, the mean sea level would coincide with this geoid surface, being an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravitational field.
In reality, due to currents, air pressure variations and salinity variations, etc. this does not occur, not as a long-term average. The location-dependent, but persistent in time, separation between mean sea level and the geoid is referred to as ocean surface topography, it varies globally in a range of ± 2 m. Adjustments were made to sea-level measurements to take into account the effects of the 235 lunar month Metonic cycle and the 223-month eclipse cycle on the tides. Several terms are used to describe the changing relationships between sea level and dry land; when the term "relative" is used, it means change relative to a fixed point in the sediment pile. The term "eustatic" refers to global changes in sea level relative to a fixed point, such as the centre of the earth, for example as a result of melting ice-caps; the term "steric" refers to global changes in sea level due to thermal expansion and salinity variations. The term "isostatic" refers to changes in
Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport
Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport is in Broward County, United States, The airport is off Interstate 595, U. S. Route 1, Florida State Road A1A, Florida State Road 5 bounded by the cities Fort Lauderdale and Dania Beach, three miles southwest of downtown Fort Lauderdale and 21 miles north of Miami; the airport is near cruise line terminals at Port Everglades and is popular among tourists bound for the Caribbean. With over 700 daily flights to 135 domestic and international destinations, FLL has become an intercontinental gateway since the late 1990s, although Miami International Airport still handles most long-haul flights, it is the largest base for Spirit Airlines, catering to the airline's international to domestic network, it is a focus city for JetBlue and Norwegian Air Shuttle. It is a focus city for Allegiant Air and Southwest Airlines. In 2016, the top five air carriers by market share were JetBlue Airways at 24.1%, Southwest Airlines at 21.2%, Spirit Airlines at 20.6%, Delta Air Lines at 9.7%, United Airlines at 6.1%.
FLL is ranked as the 18th busiest airport in the United States, as well as the nation's 14th busiest international air gateway and one of the world's 50 busiest airports. FLL is classified by the US Federal Aviation Administration as a "major hub" facility serving commercial air traffic. In 2018, the airport processed 35,963,370 passengers including 8,608,363 international passengers. Merle Fogg Airport opened on an abandoned 9-hole golf course on May 1, 1929. At the start of World War II, it was commissioned by the United States Navy and renamed Naval Air Station Fort Lauderdale; the base was used for refitting civil airliners for military service before they were ferried across the Atlantic to Europe and North Africa. NAS Fort Lauderdale became a main training base for Naval Aviators and enlisted naval air crewmen flying the Grumman TBF and TBM Avenger for the U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps aboard aircraft carriers and from expeditionary airfields ashore. NAS Fort Lauderdale was the home base for Flight 19, the five TBM Avengers that disappeared in December 1945, leading in part to the notoriety of the Bermuda Triangle.
NAS Fort Lauderdale closed on October 1, 1946 and was transferred to county control, becoming Broward County International Airport. Commercial flights to Nassau began on June 2, 1953, domestic flights began in 1958–1959: Northeast Airlines and National Airlines DC-6Bs flew nonstop to Idlewild, Northeast flew nonstop to Washington National. In 1959 the airport assumed its current name. In 1966, the airport averaged 48 airline operations a day; the Feb 1966 Official Airline Guide shows three nonstop departures to New York–Kennedy and no other nonstop flights beyond Tampa and Orlando. Five years later. FLL had added nonstop flights to Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, New York–La Guardia, Newark and Pittsburgh. By 1974, the airport was served by Braniff International Airways, Delta Air Lines, Eastern Air Lines, National Airlines, Northwest Orient Airlines, Shawnee Airlines and United Airlines. Delta and Eastern were 14 routes from FLL respectively. By 1979, following deregulation, Air Florida, Florida Airlines, Mackey International Airlines, Republic Airlines, Trans World Airlines and Western Airlines served the airport.
Low-cost airline traffic grew in the 1990s, with Southwest opening its base in 1996, Spirit in 1999, JetBlue in 2000. Spirit Airlines made FLL a hub in 2002. In 2003, JetBlue made FLL a focus city. US Airways planned a hub at Fort Lauderdale in the mid-2000s as part of its reorganization strategy before its merger with America West. Low-cost competition forced several major legacy airlines to cut back service to FLL, with United pulling out of the airport in 2008 and American Airlines moving its New York and Los Angeles services to West Palm Beach in 2013. During the 2005 hurricane season FLL was affected by Hurricane Wilma. Katrina struck land in late August as a Category 1 and made landfall on Keating Beach just two miles from the airport with 80 mph winds but caused only minor damage. However, when Hurricane Wilma made landfall in October roof damage was reported along with broken windows, damaged jetways, destroyed canopies; the airport was closed for a period of 5 days. Hurricane Wilma was a Category 2 when its center passed to the west of FLL.
In February 2007, the airport started fees including private aircraft. FLL is one of the few airports to administer fees to private pilots. A minimum charge of $10 is assessed on landing private aircraft. On October 11, 2016, Emirates announced that they would operate a flight from Dubai to Ft. Lauderdale daily using a Boeing 777-200LR; the airline decided on Fort Lauderdale instead of Miami, which has longer runways and better facilities for long haul flights, because of its codeshare agreement with JetBlue. The airline started flying in December 2016. On October 27, 2016, British Airways announced a flight from London Gatwick to Ft. Lauderdale three times a week, which began on July 6, 2017. A shooting took place at the airport on January 6, 2017 in Terminal 2, claiming five lives and injuring six. In 2018, NORAD announced that it would be stationing fighter jets at the airport during President Donald Trump's trips to Mar-a-Lago. F
Jacksonville International Airport
Jacksonville International Airport is a civil-military public airport 13 miles north of Downtown Jacksonville, in Duval County, Florida. It is operated by the Jacksonville Aviation Authority. Construction started in 1965 on a new airport to handle travel to nearby naval bases; the new airport was dedicated on September 1968, replacing Imeson Field. Terrain precluded lengthening the runways at Imeson, a necessity with the inception of commercial jet airliners. A new idea at JIA was separating departing and arriving passengers on different sides of the terminal; this is no longer the case, the airport now uses the more typical layout with departing passengers on an upper level with an elevated roadway, arriving passengers on the lower level. The new airport was slow to expand, only serving two million passengers a year by 1982, but it served over five million annually by 1999 and an expansion plan was approved in 2000; the first phase, which included rebuilding the landside terminal, the central square and main concessions area, as well as consolidating the security checkpoints at one location, more parking capacity was completed in 2004–2005.
In 2007, 6,319,016 passengers were processed. The second phase of the expansion program is being carried out over three years, commencing in mid-2006 and is projected to cost about $170 million; the new Concourses A and C are now open. Work on Concourse B was given a low priority because the capacities of Concourses A and C were more than adequate for existing demand; the expansion was designed by Smith & Hills. The economic downturn of 2009 caused a decrease in flights; this prompted the JAA to commence the demolition of Concourse B in June 2009 because it was safer and easier for the contractor. The remains will become part of an airline club lounge. After the debris was removed, asphalt was laid for ground equipment parking; the concourse will be rebuilt when passenger traffic increases, which the JAA projected in 2013. In 2018, the airport handled 6,460,253 passengers, breaking the previous record set in 2007; the airport covers 7,911 acres and has two concrete runways: 8/26, 10,000 x 150 ft and 14/32, 7,701 x 150 ft.
The terminal at JIA is composed of a baggage claim area, on the first floor and a ticketing area on the second floor, at the front of the structure. Past baggage claim and ticketing is the mezzanine, where shops and the security checkpoint are located. Beyond the mezzanine are the airport's Concourses A and C, which include 10 gates each, along with other shops and restaurants; the airport has a Delta Sky Club on Concourse A. The airport's two runways form a "V". A plan exists to build each paralleling one existing runway; the one alongside the existing southern runway will be built first. No date has been set. In the fiscal year ending September 2016 the airport had 101,575 aircraft operations, an average of 278 per day: 58% scheduled commercial, 19% air taxi, 15% general aviation and 8% military. In August 2017, there were 54 aircraft based at this airport: 3 single-engine, 8 multi-engine, 25 jet and 18 military. Concurrent with the closure of Imeson Airport, the 125th Fighter-Interceptor Group of the Florida Air National Guard relocated to Jacksonville International Airport.
Military Construction funds provided for the establishment of Jacksonville Air National Guard Base in the southwest quadrant of the airport and placement of USAF-style emergency arresting gear on the JAX runways. Upgraded from group to wing status and redesignated as the 125th Fighter Wing in the early 1990s, the wing is the host unit for Jacksonville ANGB and operates F-15C and F-15D Eagle aircraft; the 125 FW is operationally-gained by the Air Combat Command. Jacksonville ANGB is a small air force base, albeit without the military housing, military hospital or other infrastructure of major U. S. Air Force installations; the Air National Guard provides a equipped USAF Crash Fire Rescue station to augment the airport's own fire department for both on-airport structural fires and aircraft rescue and firefighting purposes. The base employs 300 full-time military personnel and 1,000 part-time military personnel who are traditional air national guardsmen. Jacksonville International Airport has direct public transit service to Jacksonville Transportation Authority's bus network.
The CT3 "AirJTA" bus connects the airport to downtown Jacksonville, with connections to Greyhound Bus Lines and to the Jacksonville Skyway monorail system. On December 6, 1984, PBA Flight 1039 crashed on takeoff, killing all 11 passengers and 2 crew on board. On June 7, 1988, an Air National Guard F-16 fighter jet hit 2 wild pigs on the airport's runway while attempting to land; the jet veered off the runway, pilot Lt. Col. Sam Carter was forced to eject. Carter suffered minor injuries and commented: "It's a inglorious way for a $16 million aircraft to come to an end". Both pigs died. On October 1, 2013, at around 6:30 p.m. EDT, the airport was evacuated due to a suspicious package. At around 11 p.m. EDT, after the bomb squad was called and removed the'destructive' device, the airport was given the all clear and reopened. Transportation in Jacksonville, Florida List of the busiest airports in the United States Jacksonville International Airport page at the Jacksonville Aviation Authority website "Jacksonville International Airport".
Brochure from CFASPP Jacksonville International Airport in the 1960s-1970s,1980