Jacksonville Public Library
The Jacksonville Public Library is the public library system of Jacksonville, Florida. It serves Jacksonville and Duval County, is used by the neighboring Baker, Clay, St. Johns Counties, it is one of the largest library systems in Florida, with a collection of over three million items. A division of the city government, the library has the third largest group of city employees after the city's Fire Department and Sheriff's Office. There are a Main Library in the system. Located downtown near City Hall and Hemming Plaza, the Main Library opened in November 2005, replacing the Haydon Burns Library. Designed by Robert A. M. Stern Architects, the new library is three times the size of the Haydon Burns building; the North Laura facility is 300,000 square feet with the capacity to hold one million books. A 600-space parking garage across from the library building on Duval Street makes the Main Library accessible. State-of-the-art technology offers 250 public computers and video conferencing capabilities with infrastructure to support future technologies.
On April 18, 2012, the AIA Florida Chapter placed the Jacksonville Public Library – Main Library on its list of Florida Architecture: 100 Years. 100 Places. In addition to the Library and the Conference Center, the Library building hosts a bookstore and a cafe; the BOOKtique bookstore, run by the Friends of the Library, opened concurrently with the Library. In 2013, the BOOKtique was closed to make way for The Lounge @ 303 North. After a year and a half of legal wrangling and construction, on May 14, 2007, Shelby's Café opened inside the concession space in the Main Library; the concession stand closed in 2011. Highlands – Dunn Avenue, serving the Northside. Pablo Creek – Beach Blvd between Hodges and Kernan serving the Southside. Southeast – Deerwood Park Blvd serving the Southside. Charles D. Webb Wesconnett – 103rd Street serving the Westside. Argyle – Near the Argyle Forest subdivision serving the Westside. Beaches – A1A in Neptune Beach. Bradham*Brooks Northwest – Edgewood Avenue serving the Northside.
Brentwood – Pearl St serving the urban core. Dallas A. James Graham – Myrtle Avenue serving the urban core. Mandarin – Kori Road serving the Mandarin area. Maxville – Maxville Blvd serving the Maxville area. Murray Hill – Edgewood Avenue South serving the urban core. Raiford A. Brown Eastside – Harrison St serving the urban core. Regency Square – Regency Square Blvd serving the Arlington/Regency area. San Marco – The San Marco Branch on LaSalle Street serves the San Marco neighborhood South Mandarin – San Jose Blvd near the St. John's County border. University Park – University Blvd North serving the Arlington area including Jacksonville University. West – Chaffee Road serving the Westside. Westbrook – Commonwealth Avenue serving the urban core. Willowbranch – Park St serving the Riverside and Avondale areas. Jacksonville was the first library in Florida to offer a mobile library service, established in 1928. For over 75 years, the Jacksonville Public Library continued this service of providing accessible materials to rural residents and areas where a branch had not been established.
However, due to funding cuts, the bookmobile was discontinued as of October 2005. After the discontinuation of the bookmobile service, the library looked for ways to continue servicing the area where the mobile branch had been operating. In 2012, the library opened the Oceanway Express location to provide limited service to customers who have no geographically-close library branch; the pickup/drop-off service is located near the Oceanway Community Center in northwest Jacksonville. As a branch of the city government, the system is funded by local taxes; the system receives aid supplemental funds from various grants. The Jacksonville Public Library is one of the few departments of the City Government to be administered by an independent board; the eleven members of the Library Board of Trustees are appointed by the Mayor of Jacksonville and approved by the City Council. Board members serve for four years, may serve a second consecutive term if reappointed; the Library Board approves library policies, submits an annual budget request, oversees the operation of the system and hires the library director.
Barbara A. B. Gubbin served as director from 2005 to June 30, 2017, she is succeeded by Tim Rogers who will begin serving as director on January 29, 2018. Patrons of the Jacksonville Public Library may borrow books, most magazines,'zines', videos and audio materials. Patrons may check out 50 items at 10 of these being DVDs. Most items, except for express DVDs are a three-week checkout period. Overdue materials collect fines, except on days. Fees totaling $10 or more will result in a block to the user's account. A fine balance of $9.99 or less is considered a library account in good standing. All materials borrowed from the library can be returned to any branch, regardless of where they were borrowed. Patrons can place up to 25 holds on library materials; these materials will be held for patrons for 7 days after the patron is notified of their availability. Jacksonville Public Library cards are free for residents of Duval County, including Baldwin and the Beaches communities, non-residents employed by a city/county agency or who own businesses or property in the county.
Other non-residents may apply for a card, at $25 for three months, $50 for six months, or $100 for one year. Hardship waivers are available upon request. Lost cards may be replaced by paying a small, $2 fee. Children under the age of 18 can apply for a card with parental permission. Parents are responsible for all items checked out on th
Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts
The Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts is a performing arts center located in Jacksonville, Florida. Situated along the Riverbank, the venue is known as the First Coast’s "premiere riverfront entertainment facility". Opening in 1962, the facility was renovated beginning in 1995 until 1997; the center consists of three venues: a theatre. It is home to the Jacksonville Symphony, Jacksonville Symphony Youth Orchestra, the FSCJ Artist Series. Commissioned in 1955, the City of Jacksonville approved a new civic auditorium and a municipal coliseum, to help brighten the scenery around the riverfront. In 1957, the site was purchased from the Seaboard Air Line Railroad. At the same time, Mayor W. Haydon Burns lobbied the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad to move its headquarters from North Carolina to Jacksonville. Thus, construction began on the auditorium and the Atlantic Coastline Building both began in 1957. On December 7, 1957, the Seaboard Docks were demolished to make way for the forthcoming auditorium.
The site was prepared via bulk heading the shoreline of the St. Johns River; this involved adding fill dirt. The original site of the municipal coliseum was moved further along the riverbank and opened in 1960 along with the Atlantic Coastline Building; the Civic Auditorium was opened on September 16, 1962, with a performance by the Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra. The center served as a replacement for the aging Duval County Armory and became the preferred mid-sized concert venue alongside the Florida Theatre; the civic auditorium consisted of the main auditorium, "Exhibition Hall" and the "Little Theater". By the 1990s, the auditorium developed a bad reputation amongst music acts. Like the coliseum, the venue was known for its poor acoustics; this caused many concerts to be moved to Gainesville. In 1993, Mayor Ed Austin proposed the River City Renaissance Plan. A portion of the $235 million bond was allocated to the renovation of the facility and the construction of a new convention center, replacing the underused Prime F. Osborn III Convention Center.
Construction began in 1995. It was headed by KBJ Architects, Rothman & Heineman, Kirkegaard Associates and Jones & Phillips Associates, Inc; the original auditorium was divided into three facilities. In 1994, local newspaper, The Florida Times-Union, purchased naming rights for $3 million; the renovated facility included a lounge, art gallery and lobby. The lobby areas included marble column from the Barnett National Bank Building and art from the Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville; the center reopened on February 1997, with a performance by the FSCJ Artist Series. The Jim & Jan Moran Theater is a theatre and main performance venue of the center; the theater was designed for theatrical and musical performances. All genres from rock to gospel have performed at the theater. Since 2006, the Jim & Jan Moran Theatre has been the home of Extraganza, an annual talent showcase by the students of Douglas Anderson School of the Arts; the theater can seat nearly 3,000. It replaced the main auditorium; the Robert E. Jacoby Symphony Hall is a concert hall used for orchestral performances.
The hall is modeled after the Wiener Musikverein in Austria. It is designed in a shoebox shape, similar to many European venues, it is known as a pure concert hall, providing an intimate setting with no stage curtains, orchestra pit, fly space or backstage wings. It houses the Bryan Concert organ, a rebuilt Casavant pipe organ, it is the home to the Jacksonville Symphony Youth Orchestra. Seating over 1,700 guests, it used as an intimate concert venue, it replaced the Exhibition Hall. The C. Herman & Mary Virginia Terry Theater is a recital hall primary used for poetry readings, dance recitals and comedy shows; the venue seats over 600 guests. It replaced the Little Theater. List of concert halls
UNF Arena is a multi-purpose arena located on the campus of the University of North Florida in Jacksonville, Florida. It is home to women's basketball and women's volleyball teams, it is used for other events, such as concerts and graduation ceremonies, has served as the site of the Orlando Magic franchise's training camp. It opened in 1993 and has a capacity of up to 6,300. In 2004 the Arena was used by the U. S. Men's and Women's Olympic teams. On September 2, 2008, the University announced plans for UNF Varsity Village. Upgrades will be on the existing locker rooms, athletics offices and seating. Planned additions will include a video room, academic support area, a hall of fame/recruiting lounge. On March 8, 2015, the UNF Arena attendance record was set as 6,155 fans watched North Florida defeat USC Upstate in the 2015 Atlantic Sun Men's Basketball Tournament championship game. In the first round of the 2016 National Invitation Tournament, 6,011 fans saw the Ospreys fall to Florida, 97–68. List of NCAA Division I basketball arenas Official website UNF Arena at UNFOspreys.com
Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens
The Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens is a museum located in Jacksonville, Florida. It was founded in 1961 after the death of Ninah Cummer, who bequeathed her gardens and personal art collection to the new museum; the Cummer Museum has since expanded to include the property owned by Ninah's brother-in-law, but it still includes her original garden designs and a portion of her home with its historic furnishing. The museum and gardens attract 130,000 visitors annually; the permanent collection of the museum includes over five thousand works of art dating from 2100 BCE to the twenty-first century. The museum's collection is strong in European and American paintings and includes substantial holdings of Meissen porcelain; the museum has an award-winning education center, Art Connections, which possesses a number of interactive educational installations and serves underprivileged and special education students with its programs. There are three flower gardens on the museum grounds, the oldest dating back to 1903.
These gardens have preserved their original layout for over a century and were designed by landscape designers such as the Olmsted Brothers, Thomas Meehan & Sons, Ellen Biddle Shipman. The Cummer Gardens are on the National Register of Historic Places; the history of the Cummer Museum dates back to 1902. That year and Ninah Cummer built their home on Riverside Avenue. Arthur's parents Wellington and Ada Cummer lived next door, Arthur's brother Waldo and sister-in-law Clara lived nearby. Wellington Cummer was a wealthy lumber baron from Cadillac, Michigan who moved to Jacksonville in 1896; the Cummer Lumber company was, at one point, the largest landowner in Florida. Wellington built the Jacksonville and Southwestern Railroad. In 1906, on their honeymoon and Arthur Cummer purchased their first piece of art, a painting titled Along the Strand directly from the artist, Paul King; the painting depicts two men riding horse-drawn carts on a beach. In 1931, Ada Cummer died, her two sons tore down her old home and split the property.
Ninah Cummer hired landscape architect Ellen Biddle Shipman to create the Italian Garden on her and Arthur's land. Clara Cummer had her portion combined with her existing garden to create the Olmsted Garden. After Arthur's death in January 1943, Ninah Cummer began collecting art in earnest. During the fifteen years before her death, Ninah expanded her art collection to sixty pieces, all of which are still in the Museum’s collection today. In 1957, the year before her death, Ninah announced that her gifts would “make only a small beginning toward a large vision” and hoped “that others will share this vision and by their interest and contributions will help establish here a center of beauty and culture worthy of the community.” She created the DeEtte Holden Cummer Museum Foundation, named for the deceased infant daughter of the Cummers, to manage her vision after her death. Ninah Cummer and Clara Cummer, both now widows, died in 1958. Ninah Cummer left her estate, including her gardens, to the DeEtte Holden Cummer Museum Foundation for a museum to house her art collection.
In 1960, the siblings' homes were both demolished in order to build the museum. Clara and Waldo's property was sold and now houses the Northeast Florida chapter of the American Red Cross and the Cummer's education center, Art Connections. Parts of the gardens were destroyed during this demolition; the new building was designed by Saxelbye and Powell and constructed in 1961. It featured an Art Deco façade and an inner courtyard, paved with the terra cotta tiles of the Cummers' old roof. One room from the original Cummer home, known as the Tudor Room, was preserved and incorporated into the new museum; the Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens named The Cummer Gallery, opened on November 11, 1961. The museum's first opening was attended by one thousand guests, including Jacksonville Mayor W. Haydon Burns and Florida Governor Farris Bryant. Burns was noted as saying, "The people of Jacksonville have never received a gift comparable in generosity or beauty to the museum… a testament to the heritage of the past and representing the strength and character of those who were leaders of Jacksonville in the past."
The museum's collection was on display, as well as three special exhibitions: a collection of 51 etchings by James McBey, a selection of French paintings on loan from a New York gallery, an exhibition of American art on loan from the National Academy of Design. In 1971, ten years after the museum's opening, the Cummer celebrated the addition of a new wing for 17th-century art. In 1989, the museum acquired an ancient Egyptian stela, dating back to 2100 BCE, making it the oldest piece of art in the museum's collection; the Cummer Museum acquired the Barnett building in the early 1990s, remodeling the first floor into the museum’s education center, Art Connections, using the second floor for administrative offices. The two buildings were connected by the Barnett Concourse, two more major galleries were added; this expansion was completed in 1992. In early 2002, the museum acquired the adjacent Woman's Club of Jacksonville, a Tudor-style residential building which would serve as a space for programs and events for the museum.
The museum acquired the Jacobsen Gallery of American Art in 2005, the Mason Gallery in 2006. On January 25, 2010, the Cummer Gardens were added to the National Register of Historic Places. In March 2016, the board of trustees of the Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens announced that the old Woman's Club of Jacksonville, to become a center for programming for the museum, would have to be demolished because of an infestation of Formosan subterranean termites, costing the museum its $7 million investment into the building, it had been
The Henry Holland Buckman Bridge carries I-295 West Beltway traffic over the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida, it was named for Henry Holland Buckman, a prominent legislator and attorney, instrumental in establishing the Florida state road system. Prior to 1970, travel across the St. Johns River from Orange Park to Mandarin was a journey. One route involved driving north to downtown Jacksonville, crossing the Fuller Warren Bridge driving south, a distance of nearly 30 miles and an hour of travel time; the alternative was to drive south to Green Cove Springs and across the wooden planks of the Shands Bridge twice the distance of the northern route. The first public hearing was held in July, 1963 and after intense discussion regarding the placement of the structure, the decision was made in April, 1964 to place the bridge in Duval County, just north of the Clay County line. Construction began. Investigation revealed that the heat generated from the curing concrete increased Anaerobic digestion by bacteria in the brackish water and generated methane gas.
The engineers were forced to change their construction method. The bridge is of beam-type construction 3.1 miles in length, travels east–west. The eastbound and westbound lanes are built on separate bridge structures. Average daily traffic in 1996 was estimated at 78,000 vehicles. In 1995, the bridge was expanded from two lanes in each direction with partial breakdown lanes to four lanes in each direction with full breakdown lanes. A Florida Department of Transportation study in 1997 counted 110,743 vehicles. With busy exits within a half mile of either end of the bridge, rush-hour backups are typical. Downtown Jacksonville and Naval Air Station Jacksonville are visible from the bridge to the north. On a clear day, the Seminole Electric power plant in Palatka can be seen to the south of the bridge. While closed for weather, two situations have made shutdown necessary: Tropical Storm Fay and prolonged freezing conditions. During tropical storms or hurricanes, sustained winds of over 40 miles per hour are considered hazardous and warrant closure.
On December 23, 1989 the temperature dropped to 26° and precipitation changed from rain to sleet to snow, which lasted for several days. All the bridges in Jacksonville were impassable and closed for more than 24 hours, except for the original St. Elmo W. Acosta Bridge, first opened to traffic in 1921. Bridges portal Florida portal List of crossings of the St. Johns River Nautical Chart
St. James Building
The St. James Building is an historic building in Downtown Jacksonville, Florida housing Jacksonville City Hall, it was designed by architect Henry John Klutho and opened in 1912. One of many structures in downtown Jacksonville designed by Klutho after the Great Fire of 1901, it is considered his masterpiece; the building is located on the former site of the St. James Hotel, it was designed as a mixed-use building containing the Cohen Bros. Department Store; the department store closed in 1987. In 1993 it was purchased by the City of Jacksonville under the River City Renaissance plan, with the intention of remodeling it as the new City Hall, it reopened in 1997. On April 18, 2012, the American Institute of Architects's Florida Chapter placed the building on its list of Florida Architecture: 100 Years. 100 Places. St. James Hotel The original St. James Building was a hotel constructed and owned by investors from Connecticut following the American Civil War. In addition to lodging for 500 guests, it boasted a passenger elevator and a restaurant with excellent cuisine.
The facility included a laundry, wine room, telegraph office and reading rooms. Touring orchestras performed concerts for the guests, who included society people and the rich. At the peak of Jacksonville's popularity, 65,000 people spent the winter in north Florida; the hotel was so prominent that the public square across the street, known as "City Park", was changed to "St. James Park". Jacksonville's Great Fire of 1901 destroyed most of the city, including the original St. James; the owner of the St. James property, J. R. Campbell, wanted to rebuild, but did not have the resources; the Windsor Hotel, located adjacent to the St. James rebuilt and was able to purchase the St. James land from the cash-strapped Campbell to prevent a competing hotel from being built downtown. Jacob and Morris Cohen purchased the St. James property from the Windsor after agreeing not to build a hotel. Cohen Brothers' Department Store In March 1910, Klutho agreed to design a building for the Cohen Brothers' department store.
Among the proposals sent to the Cohens was a striking design for a building with four floors, twice what had been requested. Klutho proposed a "mixed use" design that would contain small shops on the first floor exterior with the department store in the interior and on the second floor; the third and fourth floors would contain offices for rent. He convinced the brothers that their structure would become the center of commerce for Jacksonville and they embraced his idea. Klutho not only designed the building, but acted as construction manager using the fast-track method, whereby work begins prior to design completion; the project was finished in a half, using 200 skilled tradesmen. The structure was named the St. James Building, it was Klutho's crowning achievement; when dedicated on October 21, 1912, it was the largest structure in Jacksonville, occupying an entire city block. The St. James Building was the featured article in The Western Architect and Klutho's work was highlighted throughout the magazine in June 1914.
The most striking interior feature was a 75 ft octagonal glass dome. The elevators were open "cages"; the building exterior was decorated with large abstract terra-cotta ornaments. The Cohen brothers operated their store until The May Department Stores Company purchased it in 1958, renaming it May Cohens. Four other May Cohen stores were opened at shopping centers around town and the downtown store in the St. James Building was closed in July 1987. City Hall The city of Jacksonville purchased the building in 1993 as part of the River City Renaissance, a plan put forward by Mayor Ed Austin that included $24 million to purchase and restore the St. James as the new city hall; the goal was to relocate government offices to the center of downtown, all around Hemming Plaza. Saxelbye, Roberts & Ponder Architects were chosen for what was more of a restoration than renovation. Demolition of all interior walls and partitions was required to remove the effects of prior renovations. A 75 ft octagonal glass dome was reconstructed after it was removed in early 1927 to build more rentable space, much to the disgust of Klutho, who commented that "a showplace was killed" and moved his offices out of the building in protest.
In the 1990s restoration, the major change from the original design was the dome, mounted on the roof of the fourth floor, instead of between the second and third floors. An infrastructure upgrade was required to meet current building codes, handicap-accessibility requirements and be energy efficient; the new City Hall in the St. James Building opened on December 12, 1997; the Jacksonville Historical Society described the St. James Building as "one of Jacksonville's most monumental works of art one of the most beautiful city halls in America". Architecture of Jacksonville Florida's Office of Cultural and Historical Programs Duval County listings City Hall - St. James Building Historic American Buildings Survey No. FL-353, "St. James Building, 117 West Duval Street, Duval County, FL", 4 photos, 12 data pages, 1 photo caption page
Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, the most populous city in the southeastern United States and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. It is the seat of Duval County, with which the city government consolidated in 1968. Consolidation gave Jacksonville its great size and placed most of its metropolitan population within the city limits; as of 2017 Jacksonville's population was estimated to be 892,062. The Jacksonville metropolitan area has a population of 1,523,615 and is the fourth largest in Florida. Jacksonville is centered on the banks of the St. Johns River in the First Coast region of northeast Florida, about 25 miles south of the Georgia state line and 328 miles north of Miami; the Jacksonville Beaches communities are along the adjacent Atlantic coast. The area was inhabited by the Timucua people, in 1564 was the site of the French colony of Fort Caroline, one of the earliest European settlements in what is now the continental United States. Under British rule, settlement grew at the narrow point in the river where cattle crossed, known as Wacca Pilatka to the Seminole and the Cow Ford to the British.
A platted town was established there in 1822, a year after the United States gained Florida from Spain. Harbor improvements since the late 19th century have made Jacksonville a major military and civilian deep-water port, its riverine location facilitates Naval Station Mayport, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, the U. S. Marine Corps Blount Island Command, the Port of Jacksonville, Florida's third largest seaport. Jacksonville's military bases and the nearby Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay form the third largest military presence in the United States. Significant factors in the local economy include services such as banking, insurance and logistics; as with much of Florida, tourism is important to the Jacksonville area tourism related to golf. People from Jacksonville may be called "Jacksonvillians" or "Jaxsons"; the area of the modern city of Jacksonville has been inhabited for thousands of years. On Black Hammock Island in the national Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, a University of North Florida team discovered some of the oldest remnants of pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BC.
In the 16th century, the beginning of the historical era, the region was inhabited by the Mocama, a coastal subgroup of the Timucua people. At the time of contact with Europeans, all Mocama villages in present-day Jacksonville were part of the powerful chiefdom known as the Saturiwa, centered around the mouth of the St. Johns River. One early map shows. French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault charted the St. Johns River in 1562, calling it the River of May because, the month of his discovery. Ribault erected a stone column at his landing site near the river's mouth, claiming the newly discovered land for France. In 1564, René Goulaine de Laudonnière established the first European settlement, Fort Caroline, on the St. Johns near the main village of the Saturiwa. Philip II of Spain ordered Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to protect the interest of Spain by attacking the French presence at Fort Caroline. On September 20, 1565, a Spanish force from the nearby Spanish settlement of St. Augustine attacked Fort Caroline, killed nearly all the French soldiers defending it.
The Spanish renamed the fort San Mateo, following the ejection of the French, St. Augustine's position as the most important settlement in Florida was solidified; the location of Fort Caroline is subject to debate but a reconstruction of the fort was established on the St. Johns River in 1964. Spain ceded Florida to the British in 1763 after the French and Indian War, the British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to Georgia; the road crossed the St. Johns River at a narrow point, which the Seminole called Wacca Pilatka and the British called the Cow Ford; the British introduced the cultivation of sugar cane and fruits, as well the export of lumber. As a result, the northeastern Florida area prospered economically more than it had under the Spanish. Britain ceded control of the territory to Spain in 1783, after being defeated in the American Revolutionary War, the settlement at the Cow Ford continued to grow. After Spain ceded the Florida Territory to the United States in 1821, American settlers on the north side of the Cow Ford decided to plan a town, laying out the streets and plats.
They named the town Jacksonville, after President Andrew Jackson. Led by Isaiah D. Hart, residents wrote a charter for a town government, approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832. During the American Civil War, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle being shipped from Florida to feed the Confederate forces; the city was blockaded by Union forces. Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville proper, the city changed hands several times between Union and Confederate forces. In the Skirmish of the Brick Church in 1862, Confederates won their first victory in the state. However, Union forces captured a Confederate position at the Battle of St. Johns Bluff, occupied Jacksonville in 1862. Slaves escaped to freedom in Union lines. In February 1864 Union forces left Jacksonville and confronted a Confederate Army at the Battle of Olustee, going down to defeat. Union forces held the city for the remainder of the war. In Ma