MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts, in the northeastern United States. Its historic, maritime character and ample beaches attract heavy tourism during the summer months; as defined by the Cape Cod Commission's enabling legislation, Cape Cod is conterminous with Barnstable County, Massachusetts. It extends from Provincetown in the northeast to Woods Hole in the southwest, is bordered by Plymouth to the northwest. Since 1914, most of Cape Cod has been separated from the mainland by the Cape Cod Canal; the canal cuts 7 miles across the base of the peninsula, though small portions of the Cape Cod towns of Bourne and Sandwich lie on the mainland side of the canal. Two highway bridges cross the Cape Cod Canal: the Bourne Bridge. In addition, the Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge carries railway freight and limited passenger services onto the Cape. Cape territory is divided into 15 towns with many villages. Like Cape Cod itself, the islands south of the Cape have evolved from whaling and trading areas to become resort destinations, attracting wealthy families and other tourists.
These include the large nearby islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, which have grown in population by 6.8 percent and 10.3 percent between 2000 and 2010 while the year-round population of Barnstable County dropped 3 percent according to the Census. Both islands are famous summer tourist destinations accessed by ferry from several locations on the cape; the phrases Cape Cod and the Islands and the Cape and Islands are used to describe the whole region of Barnstable County, Dukes County, Nantucket County. Several small islands right off Cape Cod, including Monomoy Island, Monomoscoy Island, Popponesset Island, Seconsett Island, are in Barnstable County; the Forbes family-owned Naushon Island was first purchased by John Murray Forbes. Naushon is one of the Elizabeth Islands, many of which are owned. One of the publicly accessible Elizabeths is the southernmost island in the chain, with a year-round population of 52 people. Several prominent families have established compounds or estates on the larger islands, making these islands some of the wealthiest resorts in the Northeast, yet they retain much of the early merchant trading and whaling culture.
Cape Cod in particular is a popular retirement area. And the average age of residents is the highest of any area in New England. By voter registration numbers, Democrats outnumber Republicans by less in the three counties than in the whole of Massachusetts, to varying degrees; the bulk of the land in the area is glacial terminal moraine and represents the southernmost extent of glacial coverage in southeast New England. The name "Cape Cod", as it was first used in 1602, applied only to the tip of the peninsula, it remained that way for 125 years, until the "Precinct of Cape Cod" was incorporated as the Town of Provincetown. No longer in "official" use over the ensuing decades, the name came to mean all of the land east of the Manomet and Scusset rivers – along the line that became the Cape Cod Canal; the creation of the canal separated the majority of the peninsula from the mainland. Most agencies, including the Cape Cod Commission and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, treat the Cape as an island with regard to disaster preparedness, groundwater management, the like.
Cape Codders tend to refer to the land on the mainland side of the canal as "off-Cape", though the legal delineation of Cape Cod, coincident to the boundaries of Barnstable County, includes portions of the towns of Bourne and Sandwich that are located north of the canal. Cape Cod Bay lies in between Cape Cod and the mainland – bounded on the north by a horizontal line between Provincetown and Marshfield. North of Cape Cod Bay is Massachusetts Bay, which contains the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, located 5 miles north of Provincetown; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east of Cape Cod, to the southwest of the Cape is Buzzards Bay. The Cape Cod Canal, completed in 1916, connects Buzzards Bay to Cape Cod Bay. Cape Cod extends 65 miles into the Atlantic Ocean, with a breadth of between 1–20 miles, covers more than 400 miles of shoreline, its elevation ranges from 306 feet at its highest point, at the top of Pine Hill, in the Bourne portion of Joint Base Cape Cod, down to sea level. One of the biggest barrier islands in the world, Cape Cod shields much of the Massachusetts coastline from North Atlantic storm waves.
This protection erodes the Cape's shoreline at the expense of its cliffs, while protecting towns from Fairhaven to Marshfield. Cape Cod and the Islands are part of a continuous archipelagic region consisting of a thin line of islands stretching west to include Long Island; this region is and collectively known by naturalists as the Outer Lands. Cape Cod incorporates all of Barnstable County, which comprises 15 towns: Bourne, Falmouth, Barnstable, Harwich, Brewster, Orleans, Wellfleet and Provincetown; each of these towns include a number of villages. Barnstable, the most populated municipality on Cape Cod, is the only one to have adopted a city form of government, whose legislative body is an elected 13-member council. However, like other smaller Massa
Post-punk is a broad type of rock music that emerged from the punk movement of the 1970s, in which artists departed from the simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock to adopt a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and diverse influences. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with sources including electronic music and black styles like dub, free jazz, disco. Communities that produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines developed around these pioneering musical scenes, which coalesced in cities such as London, New York, Melbourne and San Francisco; the early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups such as Siouxsie and the Banshees, Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group, Cabaret Voltaire, Pere Ubu, Gang of Four, Joy Division, Talking Heads, Throbbing Gristle, the Slits, the Cure, the Fall, Au Pairs. The movement was related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock, neo-psychedelia, no wave, industrial music.
By the mid-1980s, post-punk had dissipated while providing the impetus for the New Pop movement as well much subsequent alternative and independent music. Post-punk is a diverse genre. Called "new musick", the terms were first used by various writers in the late 1970s to describe groups moving beyond punk's garage rock template and into disparate areas. Sounds writer Jon Savage used "post-punk" in early 1978. NME writer Paul Morley stated that he had "possibly" invented the term himself. At the time, there was a feeling of renewed excitement regarding what the word would entail, with Sounds publishing numerous preemptive editorials on new musick. Towards the end of the decade, some journalists used "art punk" as a pejorative for garage rock-derived acts deemed too sophisticated and out of step with punk's dogma. Before the early 1980s, many groups now categorized as "post-punk" were subsumed under the broad umbrella of "new wave", with the terms being deployed interchangeably. "Post-punk" became differentiated from "new wave".
Nicholas Lezard described the term "post-punk" as "so multifarious that only the broadest use... is possible". Subsequent discourse has failed to clarify whether contemporary music journals and fanzines conventionally understood "post-punk" the way that it was discussed in years. Music historian Clinton Heylin places the "true starting-point for English post-punk" somewhere between August 1977 and May 1978, with the arrival of guitarist John McKay in Siouxsie and the Banshees in July 1977, Magazine's first album, Wire's new musical direction in 1978 and the formation of Public Image Ltd. Simon Reynolds' 2005 book Rip It Up and Start Again is referenced as post-punk doctrine, although he has stated that the book only covers aspects of post-punk that he had a personal inclination toward. Wilkinson characterized Reynolds' readings as "apparent revisionism and'rebranding'". Author/musician Alex Ogg criticized: "The problem is not with what Reynolds left out of Rip It Up... but, that too much was left in".
Ogg suggested that post-punk pertains to a set of artistic sensibilities and approaches rather than any unifying style, disputed the accuracy of the term's chronological prefix "post", as various groups labeled "post-punk" predate the punk rock movement. Reynolds defined the post-punk era as occurring between 1978 and 1984, he advocated that post-punk be conceived as "less a genre of music than a space of possibility", suggesting that "what unites all this activity is a set of open-ended imperatives: innovation. AllMusic employs "post-punk" to denote "a more adventurous and arty form of punk". Many post-punk artists were inspired by punk's DIY ethic and energy, but became disillusioned with the style and movement, feeling that it had fallen into a commercial formula, rock convention, self-parody, they repudiated its populist claims to accessibility and raw simplicity, instead of seeing an opportunity to break with musical tradition, subvert commonplaces and challenge audiences. Artists moved beyond punk's focus on the concerns of a white, working-class population and abandoned its continued reliance on established rock and roll tropes, such as three-chord progressions and Chuck Berry-based guitar riffs.
These artists instead defined punk as "an imperative to constant change", believing that "radical content demands radical form". Though the music varied between regions and artists, the post-punk movement has been characterized by its "conceptual assault" on rock conventions and rejection of aesthetics perceived of as traditionalist, hegemonic or rockist in favor of experimentation with production techniques and non-rock musical styles such as dub, electronic music, noise, free jazz, world music, the avant-garde; some previous musical styles served as touchstones for the movement, including particular brands of krautrock, art rock, art pop and other music from the 1960s. Artists once again approached the studio as an instrument, using new recording methods and pursuing novel sonic territories. Author Matthew Bannister wrote that post-punk artists rejected the high cultural references of 1960s rock artists like the Beatles and Bob Dylan as well as paradigms that defined "rock as progressive, as art, as'sterile' studio perfectionism... by adopting an avant-garde aesth
Bootleg Retrospective is the second-released album by The Slits. The album is untitled, it is referred to as Y, Y3LP, Y3Lp—The Official Bootleg, and, in Greil Marcus' book "Lipstick Traces," A Boring Life, or Once Upon A Time In A Living Room. The album consists of lo-fi demos and live performances in all likelihood from 1977-9, preceding the sessions for 1979's Cut album. Two recordings, "Face Place" and "Or Was Is It?", are skeletal, incomplete sketches of songs which appeared in finished form on 1981's Return of the Giant Slits album. A 30-second section of "Bongos on the Lawn" appears at the opening of the promotional video for "Instant Hit" from the Cut album. In spite of its rough and informal appearance, the album was an authorized release compiled by the Slits, who were signed to Y Records at the time, it was released by Y Records, on or around March 17, 1980, was distributed by Rough Trade Records. All tracks written by Viv Albertine, Tessa Pollitt, Arianne Forster and Paloma Romero "A Boring Life" "Slime" "Face Place" "No. 1 Enemy" "Vaseline" "Or What Is It?"
"Bongos On The Lawn" "Let's Do The Split" "Once Upon A Time In A Living Room" "No More Rock n Roll For You"/"Mosquitoes"A CD re-release by Japanese RCA Victor uses the wrong song titles on several of the tracks. The performance titled "No More Rock n Roll For You" is a May 30, 1977 live encore co-performance with the bands Subway Sect and The Prefects, from the California Ballroom in Dunstable; this track is included on Vic Godard and the Subway Sect's compilation Twenty Odd Years as "We Oppose All Rock And Roll/Sister Ray". Ari Up - vocals Viv Albertine - guitar Tessa Pollitt - bass guitar Paloma Romero - Drums Nina Hagen - vocals on "No. 1 Enemy" Additional vocals/instruments on "No Rock N Roll for You" by Vic Godard/Subway Sect, members of The Prefects Release date/press release confirmed in "Punk diary: the ultimate trainspotter's guide to underground rock, 1970-1982", George Gimarc, p. 307
John Graham Mellor, known by his stage name Joe Strummer, was a British musician, singer and songwriter, the co-founder, rhythm guitarist and lead vocalist of the Clash, a rock band formed in 1976 as part of the original wave of British punk rock. Their second album, Give'Em Enough Rope reached number 2 on the UK charts. Soon after, they achieved success in the US, starting with London Calling, peaking with 1982's Combat Rock, reaching number 7 on the US charts and being certified 2× platinum there; the Clash's explosive political lyrics, eclectic musical experimentation, rebellious attitude had a far-reaching influence on rock music in general, alternative rock in particular. Their music incorporated reggae, dub, funk and rockabilly. Strummer's musical experience included stints with the 101ers, Latino Rockabilly War, the Mescaleros, the Pogues, in addition to his own solo music career, his work as a musician allowed him to explore other interests, including acting, creating film scores for television and movies, radio broadcasting, a position as a radio host on a BBC show titled London Calling.
Strummer and the Clash were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in January 2003. In his remembrance, Strummer's friends and family established the Joe Strummer Foundation, a non-profit organisation which gives opportunities to musicians and support to projects around the world that create empowerment through music. Joe Strummer was born John Graham Mellor in Ankara, Turkey, on 21 August 1952, his Scottish mother, Anna Mackenzie, a crofter's daughter born and raised in Bonar Bridge in the Scottish Highlands, was a nurse. His British father, Ronald Ralph Mellor, M. B. E. was a clerical officer- attaining the rank of second secretary- in the foreign service, born in Lucknow, India. Ronald Mellor, whose father was a railway official in India, had an Armenian maternal grandfather and a German Jewish paternal grandmother; the family spent much time moving from place to place, Strummer spent parts of his early childhood in Cairo, Mexico City and Bonn. At the age of 9, Strummer and his older brother David, 10, began boarding at the City of London Freemen's School in Surrey.
Strummer saw his parents during the next seven years. T the age of nine I had to say good-bye to them because they went abroad to something. I went to boarding school and only saw them once a year after that – the Government paid for me to see my parents once a year. I was left on my own, went to this school where thick rich people sent their thick rich kids. Another perk of my father's job – it was a job with a lot of perks – all the fees were paid by the Government, he developed a love of rock music listening to records by Little Richard and the Beach Boys as well as American folk-singer Woody Guthrie. Strummer would go by the nickname "Woody" for a few years. Strummer would say that "the reason played music was the Beach Boys". By 1970 his brother David had become estranged from his family, his suicide in July profoundly affected Strummer, as did having to identify his body after it had lain undiscovered for three days. After finishing his time at City of London Freemen's School, Ashtead Park, Surrey, in 1970, Strummer moved on to the Central School of Art and Design in London, where he flirted with the idea of becoming a professional cartoonist and completed a one-year foundation course.
During this time, Mellor shared a flat in the north London suburb of Palmers Green with friends Clive Timperley and Tymon Dogg. In 1971 Strummer remained one until his death. In 1973 Strummer moved to Wales, he did not study at Newport College of Art but met up with college musicians in the Students' Union in Stow Hill and became vocalist for Flaming Youth, renaming the band the Vultures. The Vultures included three former members of Rip Off Park Rock & Roll Allstars, the original college band co-founded by Terry Earl Taylor. For the next year he was the band's part-time rhythm guitarist. During this time Strummer worked as a gravedigger in St Woolos Cemetery. In 1974, the band fell apart and he moved back to London where he met up again with Tymon Dogg, he was a street performer for a while and decided to form another band with his West London roommates. The band was called the 101ers, named after the address of their squat; the band played many gigs in London pubs, playing covers of popular American blues songs.
In 1975 he stopped calling himself "Woody" Mellor and adopted the stage name of Joe Strummer, insisted that his friends call him by that name. The name "Strummer" referred to his role as rhythm guitarist, in a rather self-deprecating way. Strummer began to write original songs for the group. One song he wrote was inspired by his girlfriend at The Slits drummer Palmolive; the group liked the song "Keys to Your Heart", picked it as their first single. On 3 April 1976, the then-unknown Sex Pistols opened for The 101ers at a venue called the Nashville Rooms in London, Strummer was impressed by them. Sometime after the show, Strummer was approached by Mick Jones. Jones wanted Strummer to join as lead singer. Strummer agreed to leave the 101ers and join Jones, bassist Paul Simonon, drummer Terry Chimes and guitarist Keith Levene; the band was named the Clash by Simonon and made their debut on 4 July 1976 in Sheffield, opening for the Sex Pistols at the Black Swan. On 25 January 1977, the band signed with CBS Records as a three-piec
Compendium Books was an independent bookstore in London specialising in experimental literary and theoretical publications, from 1968 until its closure in 2000. The Guardian's John Williams described it as "Britain's pre-eminent radical bookstore. Whether you wanted books on anarchism, poststructuralism, feminism or Buddhism, Compendium was the place to go." The shop was founded by Diana Gravill and Nicholas Rochford and was located at 234 Camden High Street and opened in August 1968. Following the closures of Better Books and Indica, Compendium was for many years the main place for "the London literary avant-garde", it was a key venue for the British Poetry Revival and for availability of the texts of post-1968 political and cultural theory. There was a massive music section, with many imported US titles on blues, soul and rock and roll. Compendium had sections for left-wing politics, the occult and science fiction; the knowledgeable staff at Compendium included Nick Kimberley, now the opera critic for the London Evening Standard, the critic and writer Elizabeth Young, whose Guardian obituary described the shop in the late 1970s:'In the 1970s, she worked in London's finest alternative bookstore, the late-lamented Compendium Books, in Camden Town.
More than a bookshop, Compendium was a cultural centre for the punk-rock scene.... The Clash, in particular, were regular visitors, writing The Prisoner about the shop's patriarch Nick Rochford. In the 1980s, the fiction and poetry department was run by Mike Hart, whose Guardian obituary recalls,'To walk into Compendium, survey the novels on display and ask Mike's advice was to enter a new world of fiction; the shop became the haunt of an unlikely mixture of more or less literary luminaries, from Nick Cave to Ben Okri, Ivor Cutler to Kathy Acker. Thanks to Mike, others, Camden Town in the 1980s became a kind of counter-cultural nexus: a place where you could drift from record shop to caff to Compendium and thence to the pub. There you would find Mike at the heart of a group of autodidacts, writers and drunks whose house band was the Pogues and whose cultural heroes were Jim Thompson, Hank Williams, Tom Raworth and Little Willie John.... As the 1980s moved into the 1990s, Camden became a magnet for the world's teenagers and Compendium underwent a facelift.
Mike formalised its literary scene by initiating regular readings in the bookshop, something of an innovation at the time. Visiting Americans, from old beat heroes like Lawrence Ferlinghetti to new literary lions like Walter Mosley, read there, he was to be found manning the front desk. In Chris's Guardian obituary his friend Philip Darbishire recalls the William Burroughs book signing that Chris masterminded. A key person in the running of Compendium was Don Skirving, who went on to run the successful'Airlift Books' with his partner Beth. Airlift continued to distribute the type of books that Compendium sold after the demise of Compendium. By the end of the 1990s, Camden Town was commercialised,'its last remaining outposts of bohemianism swamped by endless leather jacket stores.' Compendium Books closed in October 2000
Return of the Giant Slits
Return of the Giant Slits is the second studio album by The Slits, released in 1981 by CBS Records on LP and cassette. In comparison with its acclaimed predecessor, released in 1979, it showcases a rhythmic, more experimental sound, inspired by afro-pop. Several months after its release The Slits disbanded; the album was out of print for more than two decades until being reissued on CD by CBS Japan in 2004 and by Blast First in 2007 with a bonus disc featuring alternate versions of songs from the album. All songs written by The Slits. "Earthbeat" "Or What It Is?" "Face Place" "Walk About" "Difficult Fun" "Animal Space/Spacier" "Improperly Dressed" "Life on Earth" CBS Japan issued the album on CD in 2004 with the Japanese version of "Earthbeat" as a bonus track. "Japanese Earthbeat" "German Earthbeat" "Dub Beat" "Face Place Dub" "Begin Again Rhythm" "Earthbeat" 12" Version "Earthbeat Extra" WORT FM USA Interview The SlitsAri Up - vocals, percussion Viv Albertine - guitar, backing vocals Tessa Pollitt - bass guitar Bruce Smith - drums, percussionwith: Dave Lewis - other instruments Steve Beresford - other instruments Neneh Cherry - Backing vocalsTechnicalNick Launay - engineer Neville Brody - sleeve