Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel
Van Nuys Airport
For the United States Air Force use of the airport, see Van Nuys Air National Guard BaseVan Nuys Airport is a public airport in Van Nuys in the San Fernando Valley section of the City of Los Angeles, California. No major airlines fly into this airport, owned and operated by Los Angeles World Airports. Van Nuys Airport is one of the busiest general aviation airports in the world. With two parallel runways, Van Nuys Airport averages over 230,000 landings annually; the airport is home to the Van Nuys FlyAway Bus service, which runs nonstop buses to Los Angeles International Airport for travelers who park their cars at Van Nuys. Many news, medical transport, tour helicopters from the Los Angeles area are based at Van Nuys Airport; the Los Angeles City Fire Department operates its Air Operations Unit at Van Nuys Airport. The City of Los Angeles has its maintenance hub at the airport, used for staging and maintaining LAPD and LADWP helicopters. Van Nuys Airport covers 725 acres and has two runways: 16R/34L: 8,001 ft × 150 ft Asphalt 16L/34R: 4,013 ft × 75 ft Asphalt In 2001 a KTTV news helicopter "Sky Fox 2", a secondary helicopter, owned by KTLA, crashed at Van Nuys airport after experiencing problems while covering the Academy Awards.
A Cessna 525 Citation CJ1 twin-engine jet departing for Long Beach Airport crashed 0.5 miles north of the airport on January 12, 2007, killing two people on board. One was reported to be the owner of the company. On November 25, 2008, a Cessna 310 carrying 2 people experienced landing gear problems. After burning off fuel, it was able to land on the runway without incident, although its front gear collapsed upon landing. On January 9, 2015, a Lancair aircraft crashed after takeoff just south of the airport at the intersection of Vanowen Street and Hayvenhurst Avenue; the pilot, an experienced flight instructor and Jet Propulsion Laboratory robotics engineer, was killed. FBOs: Signature Flight Support Clay Lacy Aviation Castle and Cooke Aviation Jet Aviation Airport businesses Mather Aviation Thorton Aircraft Company HeliNet Van Nuys Airport has been the location of many film and music video shoots. Parts of the climatic scene of the 1942 film Casablanca were filmed at Van Nuys Airport, at the time known as Metropolitan Airport.
The dramatic ending of the 1950 film noir Armored Car Robbery takes place at what was Los Angeles Metropolitan Airport. Antagonist William Talman and his burlesque queen girlfriend Adele Jergens are attempting to escape by chartered airplane, are cornered by Detective Charles McGraw. Talman runs, is killed on the runway by a landing airplane. In 2005, One Six Right, a film documenting the history of Van Nuys Airport was released, it was named after the most favored runway at the airport. Many television shows have filmed at the airport, including an episode of the TV show Alias, several episodes of Season 5 of 24. A major part of the science fiction classic Silent Running was filmed at the Van Nuys Airport in March 1971; the Domes from the spacecraft that contained the last surviving forests were filmed there. The forest environments were intended to be filmed in the Mitchell Park Domes in Milwaukee, but the production budget forced the sequences to be shot in a newly completed aircraft hangar in Van Nuys.
The 1980s action-espionage series Airwolf used the Van Nuys Airport hangars as the site of "Santini Air", the charter air service company owned and operated by Ernest Borgnine's character in the series. In the last episode of Season 1 of the HBO series Entourage, the final scene takes place at Van Nuys Airport, where Vincent Chase and company take off for New York City, it was used in the fourth season when Kanye West offers the group a plane ride on a Marquis Jet to Cannes. In Season 5 episode 7, Chase and Ari Gold run into each other in a hangar as each are about to depart on separate flights to Geneva and Hawaii, respectively; the last episode of season 6, episode 12, is used as a location where Chase and his crew run into Matt Damon on the way to Italy for a film shoot. Britney Spears's music video for "Stronger" Metallica's music video for "The Memory Remains" Blink-182's music video for "All The Small Things" Kiss's music video for "God Gave Rock and Roll To You 2" This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.
FAA Airport Master Record for VNY Official website openNav: VNY / KVNY charts FAA Airport Diagram, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: AirNav airport information for KVNY ASN accident history for VNY FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart for KVNY FAA current VNY delay information Facebook: Van Nuys Airport Twitter: @VanNuysAirport
Air traffic control
Air traffic control is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions and expedite the flow of air traffic, provide information and other support for pilots. In some countries, ATC is operated by the military. To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. Many aircraft have collision avoidance systems, which provide additional safety by warning pilots when other aircraft get too close. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to obey, or advisories that pilots may, at their discretion, disregard; the pilot in command is the final authority for the safe operation of the aircraft and may, in an emergency, deviate from ATC instructions to the extent required to maintain safe operation of their aircraft.
Pursuant to requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ATC operations are conducted either in the English language or the language used by the station on the ground. In practice, the native language for a region is used. In 1920, Croydon Airport, London was the first airport in the world to introduce air traffic control. In the United States, air traffic control developed three divisions; the first of air mail radio stations was created in 1922 after World War I when the U. S. Post Office began using techniques developed by the Army to direct and track the movements of reconnaissance aircraft. Over time, the AMRS morphed into flight service stations. Today's flight service stations do not issue control instructions, but provide pilots with many other flight related informational services, they do relay control instructions from ATC in areas where flight service is the only facility with radio or phone coverage. The first airport traffic control tower, regulating arrivals and surface movement of aircraft at a specific airport, opened in Cleveland in 1930.
Approach/departure control facilities were created after adoption of radar in the 1950s to monitor and control the busy airspace around larger airports. The first air route traffic control center, which directs the movement of aircraft between departure and destination was opened in Newark, NJ in 1935, followed in 1936 by Chicago and Cleveland; the primary method of controlling the immediate airport environment is visual observation from the airport control tower. The tower is a windowed structure located on the airport grounds. Air traffic controllers are responsible for the separation and efficient movement of aircraft and vehicles operating on the taxiways and runways of the airport itself, aircraft in the air near the airport 5 to 10 nautical miles depending on the airport procedures. Surveillance displays are available to controllers at larger airports to assist with controlling air traffic. Controllers may use a radar system called secondary surveillance radar for airborne traffic approaching and departing.
These displays include a map of the area, the position of various aircraft, data tags that include aircraft identification, speed and other information described in local procedures. In adverse weather conditions the tower controllers may use surface movement radar, surface movement guidance and control systems or advanced SMGCS to control traffic on the manoeuvring area; the areas of responsibility for tower controllers fall into three general operational disciplines: local control or air control, ground control, flight data / clearance delivery—other categories, such as Apron control or ground movement planner, may exist at busy airports. While each tower may have unique airport-specific procedures, such as multiple teams of controllers at major or complex airports with multiple runways, the following provides a general concept of the delegation of responsibilities within the tower environment. Remote and virtual tower is a system based on air traffic controllers being located somewhere other than at the local airport tower and still able to provide air traffic control services.
Displays for the air traffic controllers may be live video, synthetic images based on surveillance sensor data, or both. Ground control is responsible for the airport "movement" areas, as well as areas not released to the airlines or other users; this includes all taxiways, inactive runways, holding areas, some transitional aprons or intersections where aircraft arrive, having vacated the runway or departure gate. Exact areas and control responsibilities are defined in local documents and agreements at each airport. Any aircraft, vehicle, or person walking or working in these areas is required to have clearance from ground control; this is done via VHF/UHF radio, but there may be special cases where other procedures are used. Aircraft or vehicles without radios must respond to ATC instructions via aviation light signals or else be led by vehicles with radios. People working on the airport surface have a communications link through which they can communicate with ground control either by handheld radio or cell phone.
Ground control is vital to the smooth operation of the airport, because this position impacts th
The world's navigable airspace is divided into three-dimensional segments, each of, assigned to a specific class. Most nations adhere to the classification specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization and described below, though they might use only some of the classes defined below, alter the exact rules and requirements. Individual nations may designate special use airspace with further rules for reasons of national security or safety. On March 12, 1990, ICAO adopted the current airspace classification scheme; the classes are fundamentally defined in terms of flight rules and interactions between aircraft and air traffic control. Speaking, the ICAO airspaces allocate the responsibility for avoiding other aircraft, namely either to ATC or to the aircraft commander; some key concepts are: Separation: Maintaining a specific minimum distance between an aircraft and another aircraft or terrain to avoid collisions by requiring aircraft to fly at set levels or level bands, on set routes or in certain directions, or by controlling an aircraft's speed.
Clearance: Permission given by ATC for an aircraft to proceed under certain conditions contained within the clearance. Traffic Information: Information given by ATC on the position and, if known, intentions of other aircraft to pose a hazard to flight. Flight Rules: Aircraft can operate under visual flight rules or instrument flight rules. There is an intermediate form, special visual flight rules. Note: These are the ICAO definitions. Country-specific adaptations are discussed in the sections below. Class A: All operations must be conducted under IFR. All aircraft are subject to ATC clearance. All flights are separated from each other by ATC. Class B: Operations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR, or VFR. All aircraft are subject to ATC clearance. All flights are separated from each other by ATC. Class C: Operations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR, or VFR. All aircraft are subject to ATC clearance. Aircraft operating under IFR and SVFR are separated from each other and from flights operating under VFR, but VFR flights are not separated from each other.
Flights operating under VFR are given traffic information in respect of other VFR flights. Class D: Operations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR, or VFR. All flights are subject to ATC clearance. Aircraft operating under IFR and SVFR are separated from each other, are given traffic information in respect of VFR flights. Flights operating under VFR are given traffic information in respect of all other flights. Class E: Operations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR, or VFR. Aircraft operating under IFR and SVFR are separated from each other, are subject to ATC clearance. Flights under VFR are not subject to ATC clearance; as far as is practical, traffic information is given to all flights in respect of VFR flights. Class F: Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. ATC separation will be provided, so far as practical, to aircraft operating under IFR. Traffic Information may be given as far. Class G: Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. ATC has no authority but VFR minimums are to be known by pilots.
Traffic Information may be given as far. Special Airspace: these may limit pilot operation in certain areas; these consist of Prohibited areas, Restricted areas, Warning Areas, MOAs, Alert areas and Controlled firing areas, all of which can be found on the flight charts. Classes A–E are referred to as controlled airspace. Classes F and G are uncontrolled airspace; the table below provides an overview of the above classes, the specifications for each. Each national aviation authority determines how it uses the ICAO classifications in its airspace design. In some countries, the rules are modified to fit the airspace rules and air traffic services that existed before the ICAO standardisation. Australia has adopted a civil airspace system based on the United States National Airspace System: Class A is used above FL 180 along the populated coastal areas, above FL 245 elsewhere. Class B is not used. Class C is used in a 360° funnel shape in the Terminal Control Zones of the major international airports, extending up to the base of the Class A at FL 180 over these airports.
It overlays Class D airspace at smaller airports. Class D is used for the Terminal Control Zones of medium-sized airports, extending from the surface up to 2,500 feet AGL. Above this, Class C airspace is used, although only in a sector, not 360° around the airport. Class E is used along the populated coastal areas, from 8,500 feet to the base of the overlying Class A or Class C airspace. Class F is not used. Class G is used wherever other classes are not—almost always from the surface to the base of the overlying Class A, C, D or E airspace. Australia used to have a non-standard class of airspace for use at the capital city general aviation airports, called a General Aviation Airport Procedures Zone. A control tower provided procedural clearances for all aircraft inside the zone. Additionally, any aircraft operating within 5 nmi of the zone must obtain a clearance. VFR aircraft arrive and depart using standard arrival and departure routes, while instrument arrival and departure procedures are published for IFR operations.
During visual meteorological conditions, IFR aircraft are not provided with full IFR services. During instrument meteorologic
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus. Hares are classified in the same family as rabbits, they are similar in size and form to rabbits and have similar herbivorous diets, but have longer ears and live solitarily or in pairs. Unlike rabbits, their young are able to fend for themselves shortly after birth rather than emerging blind and helpless. Most are fast runners. Hare species are native to Africa, North America, the Japanese archipelago. Five leporid species with "hare" in their common names are not considered true hares: the hispid hare, four species known as red rock hares. Conversely, jackrabbits are hares, rather than rabbits. A hare less than one year old is called a leveret. A group of hares is called a "drove". Hares are swift animals: The European hare can run up to 56 km/h; the five species of jackrabbits found in central and western North America are able to run at 64 km/h, can leap up to 3 m at a time. A shy animal, the European brown hare changes its behavior in spring, when they can be seen in daytime chasing one another.
This appears to be competition between males to attain dominance for breeding. During this spring frenzy, animals of both sexes can be seen "boxing", one hare striking another with its paws; this notable behavior gives rise to the idiom, mad as a March hare. This is present not only in intermale competition, but among females toward males to prevent copulation. Hares do not bear their young below ground in a burrow as do other leporids, but rather in a shallow depression or flattened nest of grass called a form. Young hares are adapted to the lack of physical protection, relative to that afforded by a burrow, by being born furred and with eyes open, they are hence precocial, are able to fend for themselves soon after birth. By contrast, rabbits are altricial, having young that are born hairless. All rabbits live underground in burrows or warrens, while hares live in simple nests above the ground, do not live in groups. Hares are larger than rabbits, with longer ears, have black markings on their fur.
Hares have not been domesticated, while rabbits are kept as house pets. The domestic pet known as the "Belgian Hare" is a rabbit, selectively bred to resemble a hare. Hares have jointed, or kinetic, unique among mammals, they have 48 chromosomes while rabbits have 44. The 32 species listed are: Genus LepusSubgenus Macrotolagus Antelope jackrabbit, Lepus alleni Subgenus Poecilolagus Snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus Subgenus Lepus Arctic hare, Lepus arcticus Alaskan hare, Lepus othus Mountain hare, Lepus timidus Subgenus Proeulagus Black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus White-sided jackrabbit, Lepus callotis Cape hare, Lepus capensis Tehuantepec jackrabbit, Lepus flavigularis Black jackrabbit, Lepus insularis Scrub hare, Lepus saxatilis Desert hare, Lepus tibetanus Tolai hare, Lepus tolai Subgenus Eulagos Broom hare, Lepus castroviejoi Yunnan hare, Lepus comus Korean hare, Lepus coreanus Corsican hare, Lepus corsicanus European hare, Lepus europaeus Granada hare, Lepus granatensis Manchurian hare, Lepus mandschuricus Woolly hare, Lepus oiostolus Ethiopian highland hare, Lepus starcki White-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus townsendii Subgenus Sabanalagus Ethiopian hare, Lepus fagani African savanna hare, Lepus microtis Subgenus Indolagus Hainan hare, Lepus hainanus Indian hare, Lepus nigricollis Burmese hare, Lepus peguensis Subgenus Sinolagus Chinese hare, Lepus sinensis Subgenus Tarimolagus Yarkand hare, Lepus yarkandensis Incertae sedis Japanese hare, Lepus brachyurus Abyssinian hare, Lepus habessinicus Hares and rabbits are plentiful in many areas, adapt to a wide variety of conditions, reproduce so hunting is less regulated than for other varieties of game.
In rural areas of North America and in pioneer times, they were a common source of meat. Because of their low fat content, they are a poor choice as a survival food. Hares can be prepared in the same manner as rabbits — roasted or parted for breading and frying. Hasenpfeffer is a traditional German stew made from marinated hare. Pfeffer here means not only the obvious spicing with pepper and other spices, but means a dish in which the animal's blood is used as a thickening agent for the sauce. Wine or vinegar is a prominent ingredient, to lend a sourness to the recipe. Lagos Stifado — hare stew with pearl onions, red wine and cinnamon — is a much-prized dish enjoyed in Greece and Cyprus and communities in the diaspora in Australia where the hare is hunted as a feral pest. Jugged hare, known as civet de lièvre in France, is a whole hare, cut into pieces and cooked with red wine and juniper berries in a tall jug that stands in a pan of water, it traditionally is served with the hare's port wine.
Jugged hare is described in the influential 18th-century cookbook, The Art of Cookery by Hannah Glasse, with a recipe titled, "A Jugged Hare", that begins, "Cut it into little pieces, lard them here and there..." The recipe goes on to describe cooking the pieces of hare in water in a jug set within a bath of boiling water to cook for three hours. Beginning in the 19th century, Glasse has been credited with having started the recipe with the words "First, catch your hare," as in this citation; this attribution is apocryphal. Having a freshly caught hare enables one to obtain its blood. A freshly killed hare is prepared for jugging by removing its entrails and hanging it in a l
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
Aerial photography is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, balloons and dirigibles, pigeons, parachutes, stand-alone telescoping and vehicle-mounted poles. Mounted cameras may be triggered automatically. Aerial photography should not be confused with air-to-air photography, where one or more aircraft are used as chase planes that "chase" and photograph other aircraft in flight. Aerial photography was first practiced by the French photographer and balloonist Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, known as "Nadar", in 1858 over Paris, France. However, the photographs he produced no longer exist and therefore the earliest surviving aerial photograph is titled'Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It.' Taken by James Wallace Black and Samuel Archer King on October 13, 1860, it depicts Boston from a height of 630m. Kite aerial photography was pioneered by British meteorologist E. D. Archibald in 1882.
He used an explosive charge on a timer to take photographs from the air. Frenchman Arthur Batut began using kites for photography in 1888, wrote a book on his methods in 1890. Samuel Franklin Cody developed his advanced'Man-lifter War Kite' and succeeded in interesting the British War Office with its capabilities; the first use of a motion picture camera mounted to a heavier-than-air aircraft took place on April 24, 1909, over Rome in the 3:28 silent film short, Wilbur Wright und seine Flugmaschine. The use of aerial photography matured during the war, as reconnaissance aircraft were equipped with cameras to record enemy movements and defences. At the start of the conflict, the usefulness of aerial photography was not appreciated, with reconnaissance being accomplished with map sketching from the air. Germany adopted the first aerial camera, a Görz, in 1913; the French began the war with several squadrons of Blériot observation aircraft equipped with cameras for reconnaissance. The French Army developed procedures for getting prints into the hands of field commanders in record time.
Frederick Charles Victor Laws started aerial photography experiments in 1912 with No.1 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps, taking photographs from the British dirigible Beta. He discovered that vertical photos taken with 60% overlap could be used to create a stereoscopic effect when viewed in a stereoscope, thus creating a perception of depth that could aid in cartography and in intelligence derived from aerial images; the Royal Flying Corps recon pilots began to use cameras for recording their observations in 1914 and by the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in 1915, the entire system of German trenches was being photographed. In 1916 the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy made vertical camera axis aerial photos above Italy for map-making; the first purpose-built and practical aerial camera was invented by Captain John Moore-Brabazon in 1915 with the help of the Thornton-Pickard company enhancing the efficiency of aerial photography. The camera was inserted into the floor of the aircraft and could be triggered by the pilot at intervals.
Moore-Brabazon pioneered the incorporation of stereoscopic techniques into aerial photography, allowing the height of objects on the landscape to be discerned by comparing photographs taken at different angles. By the end of the war aerial cameras had increased in size and focal power and were used frequently as they proved their pivotal military worth. In January 1918, General Allenby used five Australian pilots from No. 1 Squadron AFC to photograph a 624 square miles area in Palestine as an aid to correcting and improving maps of the Turkish front. This was a pioneering use of aerial photography as an aid for cartography. Lieutenants Leonard Taplin, Allan Runciman Brown, H. L. Fraser, Edward Patrick Kenny, L. W. Rogers photographed a block of land stretching from the Turkish front lines 32 miles deep into their rear areas. Beginning 5 January, they flew with a fighter escort to ward off enemy fighters. Using Royal Aircraft Factory BE.12 and Martinsyde airplanes, they not only overcame enemy air attacks, but had to contend with 65 mph winds, antiaircraft fire, malfunctioning equipment to complete their task.
The first commercial aerial photography company in the UK was Aerofilms Ltd, founded by World War I veterans Francis Wills and Claude Graham White in 1919. The company soon expanded into a business with major contracts in Africa and Asia as well as in the UK. Operations began from the Stag Lane Aerodrome at Edgware, using the aircraft of the London Flying School. Subsequently, the Aircraft Manufacturing Company, hired an Airco DH.9 along with pilot entrepreneur Alan Cobham. From 1921, Aerofilms carried out vertical photography for mapping purposes. During the 1930s, the company pioneered the science of photogrammetry, with the Ordnance Survey amongst the company's clients. In 1920, the Australian Milton Kent started using a half-plate oblique aero camera purchased from Carl Zeiss AG in his aerial photographic business. Another successful pioneer of the commercial use of aerial photography was the American Sherman Fairchild who started his own aircraft firm Fairchild Aircraft to develop and build specialized aircraft for high altitude aerial survey missions.
One Fairchild aerial survey aircraft in 1935 carried unit that combined two synchronized cameras, each camera having five six inch le