The tomato is the edible fruit of Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant, which belongs to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The species originated in Central and South America, the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato originates. Numerous varieties of tomato are widely grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing its production throughout the year, the plants typically grow to 1–3 meters in height and have a weak stem that often sprawls over the ground and vines over other plants. It is a perennial in its habitat, and grown as an annual in temperate climates. An average common tomato weighs approximately 100 grams and its use as a food originated in Mexico, and spread throughout the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Tomato is consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in dishes, salads. While tomatoes are botanically fruits, they are considered culinary vegetables.
The word tomato comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl and it first appeared in print in 1595. The native Mexican tomatillo is tomate, meaning fat water or fat thing), when Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit and red, they called the new species xitomatl. It first appeared in print in 1595, the scientific species epithet lycopersicum means wolf peach, and comes from German werewolf myths. The Italian word, pomodoro was borrowed into Polish, and via Russian, the usual pronunciations of tomato are /təˈmeɪtoʊ/ and /təˈmɑːtoʊ/. The words dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwins 1937 song Lets Call the Whole Thing Off and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes. In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term. Or Its all the same to me, botanically, a tomato is a fruit, a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato has a lower sugar content than other edible fruits.
Typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal, rather than at dessert, it is, in the US, considered a culinary vegetable. One exception is that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices, they are acidic enough to process in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as vegetables require. Tomatoes are not the food source with this ambiguity, bell peppers, green beans, avocados
The Serer-Ndut or Ndut spelt are an ethnic group in Senegal numbering 38600 They are part of the Serer people who collectively make up the third largest ethnic group in Senegal. The Serer-Ndut live mostly in central Senegal in the district of Mont-Roland and their language Ndut, is one of the Cangin languages, closely related to Palor. Like the other Cangin languages, the speakers are ethnically Serers and their language is not a dialect of Serer-Sine. The people are agriculturalists and lake fishermen, Serer-Ndut people traditionally and still practice the Serer religion which involves honouring the ancestors covering all dimensions of life, cosmology etc. Their name for the Supreme Deity is Kopé Tiatie Cac -, the Ndut initiation rite, a rite of passage in Serer religion takes its name from the Ndut language. The main Catholic mission is at the town of Tiin, the Serer people to which they are a sub-group of are the oldest inhabitants of Senegambia along with the Jola people. Their ancestors were dispersed throughout the Senegambia Region and it is suggest that they built the Senegambian stone circles although other sources suggest it was probably the Jola, the Ndut were the original founders of Biffeche as well as the Mt Rolland.
During the colonial period of Senegal, both the French administration and the Muslim communities of Senegal tried to annihilate the Serer-Ndut people and they failed to achieve their objectives. Ou linitiation des garcons Seereer, IFAN Cheikh Anta Diop Gravrand, Henry, La Civilisation Sereer - Pangool, vol.1, pp. & Salmon, the Wolof, with notes on the Serer and Lebou, San Francisco
The Kingdom of Cayor was the largest and most powerful kingdom that split off from the Empire of Jolof, in what is now Senegal. Cayor was located in north and central Senegal, southeast of Waalo, west of the kingdom of Jolof and north of Baol, in 1549, the king, or Damel, Detie Fu Ndiogu, became independent from Jolof. After the French conquered Waalo, governor Louis Faidherbe annexed Cayor in 1868 and it was defeated and annexed again in 1879 and ceased to be a sovereign state. The kingdom was extinguished in its entirety October 6,1886, in addition to Cayor, the Damels ruled over the Lebou area at Cap-Vert, and they became the Teignes of the neighboring kingdom of Baol. A great hero in Senegal history, for his defiance and battles against the French, was Lat Dyor Diop He was defeated at the battle of Dekheule and he converted to Islam around 1861. The 30th and last Damel of Cayor was Samba Laobe Fall, killed at Tivaouane, Jolof Empire History of Senegal Ise Bige
For particular sacred groves, and for other meanings, see Sacred grove. A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove of trees that are of religious importance to a particular culture. Sacred groves feature in various cultures throughout the world, examples of sacred groves include the Greco-Roman temenos, the Norse hörgr, and the Celtic nemeton, which was largely but not exclusively associated with Druidic practice. During the Northern Crusades, there was a practice of building churches on the sites of sacred groves. The Lakota and various other North American tribes consider particular forests or other landmarks to be sacred. Ancient holy trees still exist in the English and Estonian countryside and are mentioned often in folklore, there are two mentions on this tradition in the Bible, Abraham planted a grove in Beersheba, and called there the name of God. —Genesis 21,33 and where the women wove hangings for the grove, —II Kings 23,7 Excavations at Labraunda have revealed a large shrine assumed to be that of Zeus Stratios mentioned by Herodotus as a large sacred grove of plane trees sacred to Carians.
In Syria, there was a sacred to Adonis at Afqa. The most famous sacred groves in mainland Greece was the oak grove at Dodona, outside the walls of Athens, the site of the Academy was a sacred grove of olive trees, still recalled in the phrase the groves of Academe. In central Italy, the town of Nemi recalls the Latin nemus Aricinum, or grove of Ariccia, a small town a quarter of the way around the lake. A sacred grove behind the House of the Vestal Virgins on the edge of the Roman Forum lingered until its last vestiges were burnt in the Great Fire of Rome in 64 CE. The Bosco Sacro in the garden of Bomarzo, lends its associations to the uncanny atmosphere, lucus Pisaurensis, the Sacred Grove of Pesaro, Italy was discovered by Patrician Annibale degli Abati Olivieri in 1737 on property he owned along the Forbidden Road, just outside Pesaro. This Sacred Grove is the site of the Votive Stones of Pesaro and was dedicated to Salus, the city of Massilia, a Greek colony, had a sacred grove so close by it that Julius Caesar had it cut down to facilitate his siege.
Sacred groves have survived in the Baltic states longer than in parts of Europe. The main Baltic Prussian sanctuary, which is considered a sacred grove was Romowe. An important wave of destruction of sacred groves was carried out in the lands of present-day Lithuania after its Christianization in 1387, some groves, such as in Šventybrastis, still survive in Lithuania. A sacred grove is known as alka in Lithuanian and svētbirzs in Latvian, conversely, in Estonia numerous sacred groves have survived to the present day and have recently been protected by the government of the country. Sacred groves feature prominently in Scandinavia, the most famous sacred grove of Northern Europe was at the Temple at Uppsala in Old Uppsala, where every tree was considered sacred - described by Adam of Bremen
The prehistoric and ancient history of the Serer people of modern-day Senegambia has been extensively studied and documented over the years. Much of it comes from archaeological discoveries and Serer tradition rooted in the Serer religion, Some of these Serer relics included gold and metals. The known objects found in Serer countries, are divided into two types,1 and these are the traces left by the proto-populations with which the Sereer were in contact when they came from the Fuuta. Laterite megaliths carved planted in circular structures with stones directed towards the east are found only in parts of the ancient Serer kingdom of Saloum. The sand tumulus, on the hand which resembles ancestral tombs still built by Serers are observed everywhere including the Kingdom of Sine, Jegem. The following table lists the sites in some of the Serer countries with their densities. Note, Some of these are now regions with their cities and villages, Shell mounds are found in the islands. In the provinces of the Gandun, Numi and south-western Sine around Joal,139 sites have been identified and these relics are very numerous and imposing.
The graves of the ancestors were very often sanctified as Fangool. Such relics associated with the ancestors are often venerated relics, for example, the relics evoking memories of migration or foundation of states are sometimes sacralised. The family relics in other Serer countries which are brought from Takrur or Kaabu by the founders were noted in places of worship of the village or province history. This may be stone, musical instruments, ceremonial objects used by the Saltigue or Yaal Pangool and these relics kept by families since ancient times remain largely unknown. There are two types of Serer relics relating to two lineages that come into play in the organisation of the Serer people, kucarla - which means paternal lineage or paternal inheritance. ƭeen yaay - which means maternal lineage or maternal inheritance
Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earths total surface area and 20.4 % of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the human population. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos and it contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africas population is the youngest amongst all the continents, the age in 2012 was 19.7. Algeria is Africas largest country by area, and Nigeria by population, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas, it is the continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa, Africa varies greatly with regard to environments, historical ties and government systems.
However, most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century, afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean. This name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe. The name is connected with Hebrew or Phoenician ʿafar dust. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa Proconsularis, which included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land, the Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya, modern-day Tunisia, preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while Asia was used to refer to Anatolia, as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge. 25,4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya, isidore of Seville in Etymologiae XIV.5.2.
Suggests Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning sunny, massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning to turn toward the opening of the Ka. The Ka is the double of every person and the opening of the Ka refers to a womb or birthplace
Timeline of Serer history
This is a timeline of the history and development of Serer religion and the Serer people of Senegal, The Gambia and Mauritania. This timeline merely gives an overview of their history, consisting of calibrated archaeological discoveries in Serer countries, Serer religion, royalty, dates are given according to the Common Era. For a background to these events, see Roog, Serer religion, Serer creation myth, Serer prehistory, States headed by Serer Lamanes, Serer history, the Takrur period represents the prehistory of the Serer people. The Senegalese and Waalo period inaugurates Serer history,800 AD, John Trimingham lists states on the Senegal,800 States on the Senegal, Takrur and Galam. Many of the Serer village and town names they have founded still survives today,850 AD, A state centered around Tekrur may have developed at this time, either as an influx of Fulani from the east settled in the Senegal valley. Or according to John Donnelly Fage formed through the interaction of Berbers from the Sahara, early 11th century, According to Serer tradition Lamane Jegan Joof founded Tukar.
1030, War Jabi usurped the throne of Tekrur following a revolution, from this point to 1042, the Serers of Tekrur became the subject of persecution and jihads by the African converts to Islam such as the Fula and Toucouleurs with their Almoravid allies. The Serers defeated the Muslim coalition army forcing them to refuge in Mauritania. This era marks the exodus of the Serers of Tekrur and those who survived the wars and refused to convert migrated southwards to what became known as the Serer Kingdoms of Sine and previously Baol, rather than convert to Islam. In the south, they were granted asylum by their distant Serer relatives, endorsed by the Great Council of Lamanes, Trimingham notes that, Tekrur was the first in the region to adopt Islam but lost completely its Serer identity. War Jabi died in 1040 and was succeeded by his son Leb, Leb is reported to have been fighting for the Almoravids in 1056 probably as a result of the subjugation of Tekrur by the Almoravids in 1042 and a well enforced Sharia law.
Economically, the Kingdom of Tekrur benefit with the introduction of Islam and it created political ties with the North. Many Fulanis/Toucouleurs were part of the Almoravid army that conquered parts of Europe,1235, Mansa Jolofing ransacked the caravan of gold sent by Sundiata Keita for the purchase of horses in Jolof. After this, Mansa Sundiata sent his general and cousin Tiramakhan Traore to Jolof to assassinate the Mansa Jolofing, 1285/7, Lamane Jaw on the throne of Jolof. During his reign, Mansa Sakoura launched an expedition in Senegal, conquered Jolof,1290, Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof, ancestor of the Joof dynasty of Sine and Saloum succeeded to the throne of Laah in Baol. 1350–1400, The Kingdom of Sine renamed, the Guelowar period starts from 1350. Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh elected first Guelowar king to rule in one of the Serer countries. Nominated and elected by the Serers of Sine and the Great Council of Lamanes whose Council he served as adviser for 15 years and gave his sisters
Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the tropics of Asia and Africa. The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, millets are indigenous to many parts of the world. The most widely grown millet is pearl millet, which is an important crop in India, Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are important crop species. Millets have been important food staples in human history, particularly in Asia and they have been in cultivation in East Asia for the last 10,000 years. Consumption of the minor millets has been practiced since the beginning of the ancient civilizations of the world, the millets are small-grained, warm-weather cereals belonging to grass family. They are highly tolerant of extreme conditions such as drought and are nutritious compared to the major cereals such as rice. They contain low phytic acid and are rich in fiber, calcium.
Moreover, these millets release sugar slowly in the blood and diminish the glucose absorption, major millets are the most widely cultivated species. Eragrostideae tribe, Eleusine coracana, Finger millet - the fourth-most cultivated millet, paniceae tribe, Panicum miliaceum, Proso millet - the third-most cultivated millet. Pennisetum glaucum, Pearl millet - the most cultivated millet, setaria italica, Foxtail millet - the second-most cultivated millet. Jobs tears - of minor importance as a crop, eragrostideae tribe, Eragrostis tef, Teff - often not considered to be a millet. White fonio, Black fonio, Polish millet - of minor importance as a crop, Japanese barnyard millet, Indian barnyard millet, Burgu millet, Common barnyard grass. Collectively, the members of this genus are called barnyard grasses or barnyard millets, other common names to identify these seeds include Jhangora, Samo seeds or Morio / Mario / Moraiaya seeds. Panicum sumatrense, Little millet Paspalum scrobiculatum, Kodo millet Urochloa ramosa, guinea millet Foxtail Millet is known to have been the first domesticated millet.
Chinese legends attribute the domestication of millet to Shennong, the legendary Emperor of China, millets formed important parts of the prehistoric diet in Indian, Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumun societies. Broomcorn and foxtail millet were important crops beginning in the Early Neolithic of China, for example, some of the earliest evidence of millet cultivation in China was found at Cishan. Evidence at Cishan for foxtail millet dates back to around 6500 BC, a 4, 000-year-old well-preserved bowl containing well-preserved noodles made from foxtail millet and broomcorn millet was found at the Lajia archaeological site in China
Manihot esculenta is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is extensively cultivated as a crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root. Though it is often called yuca in Spanish and in the United States, it differs from the yucca, when dried to a powdery extract, is called tapioca, its fermented, flaky version is named garri. Cassava is the third-largest source of carbohydrates in the tropics, after rice. Cassava is a staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people. It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils, Nigeria is the worlds largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of dried cassava. Cassava is classified as sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain antinutritional factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts, the more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.
Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, the cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick and brown on the outside. Commercial cultivars can be 5 to 10 cm in diameter at the top, a woody vascular bundle runs along the roots axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish, Cassava roots are very rich in starch and contain small amounts of calcium and vitamin C. However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients, in contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein, but deficient in the amino acid methionine and possibly tryptophan. Forms of the domesticated species can be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc pollen appears in the Gulf of Mexico lowlands, the oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1, 400-year-old Maya site, Joya de Cerén, in El Salvador. With its high potential, it had become a staple food of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica.
Cassava was a food of pre-Columbian peoples in the Americas and is often portrayed in indigenous art. The Moche people often depicted yuca in their ceramics, spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial and not nutritious. They much preferred foods from Spain, specifically wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, and meat, for these Christians in the New World, cassava was not suitable for communion since it could not undergo transubstantiation and become the body of Christ
The Almoravid dynasty was a Berber imperial dynasty of Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb, founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin, the Almoravid capital was Marrakesh, a city they founded in 1062. The dynasty originated among the Lamtuna and the Gudala, nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara and this enabled them to control an empire that stretched 3,000 kilometers north to south. However, the rule of the dynasty was relatively short-lived, the Almoravids fell—at the height of their power—when they failed to quell the Masmuda-led rebellion initiated by Ibn Tumart. As a result, their last king Ishaq ibn Ali was killed in Marrakesh in April 1147 by the Almohad Caliphate, who replaced them as a ruling dynasty both in Morocco and Al-Andalus. The term Almoravid comes from the Arabic al-Murabitun, which is the form of al-Murabit—literally meaning one who is tying. The term is related to the notion of Ribat, a frontier monastery-fortress, another theory states that the name Almoravid comes from a school of Malikite law called Dar al-Murabitin founded in Sus al-Aksa, modern day Morocco, by a certain scholar named Waggag Ibn Zallu.
Ibn Zallu sent his student Abdallah ibn Yasin to preach Malikite Islam to the Sanhaja Berbers of the Adrar, the name of the Almoravids comes from the followers of the Dar al-Murabitin, the house of those who were bound together in the cause of God. It is uncertain exactly when or why the Almoravids acquired that appellation, al-Bakri, writing in 1068, before their apex, already calls them the al-Murabitun, but does not clarify the reasons for it. Ibn Idhari wrote that the name was suggested by Ibn Yasin in the persevering in the fight sense,1054, in which they had taken many losses. Whichever explanation is true, it seems certain the appellation was chosen by the Almoravids for themselves, the name might be related to the ribat of Waggag ibn Zallu in the village of Aglu, where the future Almoravid spiritual leader Abdallah ibn Yasin got his initial training. Contemporaries frequently referred to them as the al-mulathimun, the Almoravids veiled themselves below the eyes with a tagelmust, a custom they adapted from southern Sanhaja Berbers.
Although practical for the desert dust, the Almoravids insisted on wearing the veil everywhere, as a badge of foreignness in urban settings and it served as the uniform of the Almoravids. Under their rule, sumptuary laws forbade anybody else from wearing the veil, in turn, the succeeding Almohads made a point of mocking the Almoravid veil as symbolic of effeminacy and decadence. The western Sanhaja had been converted to Islam some time in the 9th century and they were subsequently united in the 10th century and, with the zeal of neophyte converts, launched several campaigns against the Sudanese. Under their king Tinbarutan ibn Usfayshar, the Sanhaja Lamtuna erected the citadel of Awdaghust, after the collapse of the Sanhaja union, Awdagust passed over to the Ghana empire, and the trans-Saharan routes were taken over by the Zenata Maghrawa of Sijilmassa. The Maghrawa exploited this disunion to dislodge the Sanhaja Gazzula and Lamta out of their pasturelands in the Sous, around 1035, the Lamtuna chieftain Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Tifat, tried to reunite the Sanhaja desert tribes, but his reign lasted less than three years.
Around 1040, Yahya ibn Ibrahim, a chieftain of the Gudala, on his return, he stopped by Kairouan in Ifriqiya, where he met Abu Imran al-Fasi, a native of Fes and a jurist and scholar of the Sunni Maliki school
Islam in Senegal
Islam is the predominant religion in Senegal. 92 percent of the population is estimated to be Muslim. Islam has had a presence in Senegal since the 11th century, Sufi brotherhoods expanded with French colonization, as people turned to religious authority rather than the colonial administration. The main Sufi orders are the Tijaniyyah, the Muridiyyah or Mourides, and to an extent, the pan-Islamic Qadiriyyah. Approximately 1% of the Muslims follow the Ahmadiyya thought, for nearly a millennium, there has been an Islamic presence in Senegal. Islam’s influence in the area began with the conversion of King of Takrur, War Jabi in 1040, the King attempted to convert his subjects, who are now referred to as Tukulors or the Toucouleur people, in the first attempt to convert an entire region in this area. Other empires, such as the Jolof empire, were resistant to Islam in favor of their traditional religion. Even in areas where an Islamic presence was found, many continued traditional animist practices, during the 17th and 18th centuries, Islam was used as a structure of power and militarism.
In the 17th century, Islam became the religion of the elite, in 1776, the Tukulors overthrew the Denianke Dynasty and constructed a theocratic ogliarchy. Influenced by other Islamic movements throughout West Africa, they worked militaristically to convert pagan regions and this expansion ceased temporarily when the Tukulors failed to convert the pagan state of Serer. One such movement from Western Sudan was the Qadiriyya Sufi brotherhood and this movement was eclipsed by the Tijaniyyah brotherhood. During the 18th century, the French began to colonize the nation, Senegalese Muslims took a variety of responses to French colonization. Especially in the countryside, the Senegalese joined Sufi brotherhoods to unite against colonization, the popularity of the Tijaniyyah brotherhood marks this shift, Islam became “a rallying point for African resistance to the French. El Hadj Umar Tall first created a Tijani brotherhood in West Africa after he was initiated into the Tijaniyya during his hajj to Mecca, in his attempt to create a Tijani Islamic empire in Senegal, Tall is described as the “most eminent of the Muslim clerical warriors.
The marabouts and sources of guidance in Sufi brotherhoods, the Mouride brotherhood would serve this same role of resistance for the Senegalese. Many Mourides were former political authorities who lost their positions as the French took over, the French felt threatened and targeted the leaders of these movements. The founder of the Mourides, Cheikh Amadou Bamba was arrested twice by the colonial administration and this injustice only furthered his popularity and the Mourides’ extreme veneration of their leader. To this day, Cheikh Bamba is honored as an important leader of resistance in Senegal, other Muslims chose to cooperate with the French, and even gain positions of power within the French government
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city in the Old World as well as on the African mainland. The city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,030,594, the area around Dakar was settled in the 15th century. The Portuguese established a presence on the island of Gorée off the coast of Cap-Vert, France took over the island in 1677. Following the abolition of the trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port. In 1902, Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa, from 1959 to 1960, Dakar was the capital of the short-lived Mali Federation. In 1960, it became the capital of the independent Republic of Senegal, Dakar is home to multiple national and regional banks as well as numerous international organizations. From 1978 to 2007, it was the finishing point of the Dakar Rally. The Cap-Vert peninsula was settled no than the 15th century, by the Lebou people, the original villages, Ngor and Hann, still constitute distinctively Lebou neighborhoods of the city today.
In 1444, the Portuguese reached the Bay of Dakar, initially as slave-raiders, peaceful contact was finally opened in 1456 by Diogo Gomes, and the bay was subsequently referred to as the Angra de Bezeguiche. The Portuguese eventually founded a settlement on the island of Gorée, the mainland of Cap-Vert, was under control of the Jolof Empire, as part of the western province of Cayor which seceded from Jolof in its own right in 1549. A new Lebou village, called Ndakaaru, was established directly across from Gorée in the 17th century to service the European trading factory with food, Gorée was captured by the United Netherlands in 1588, which gave it its present name. The island was to switch hands between the Portuguese and Dutch several more times before falling to the English under Admiral Robert Holmes on January 23,1664, and finally to the French in 1677. Though under continuous French administration since, métis families, descended from Dutch and French traders and African wives, the infamous House of Slaves was built at Gorée in 1776.
In 1795 the Lebou of Cape Verde revolted against Cayor rule, a new theocratic state, subsequently called the Lebou Republic by the French, was established under the leadership of the Diop, a Muslim clerical family originally from Koki in Cayor. The capital of the republic was established at Ndakaaru, in 1857 the French established a military post at Ndakaaru and annexed the Lebou Republic, though its institutions continued to function nominally. The Serigne of Ndakaaru is still recognized as the political authority of the Lebou by the Senegalese State today. The slave trade was abolished by France in February 1794, Napoleon reinstated it in May 1802, finally abolished it permanently in March 1815