A glow stick is a self-contained, short-term light-source. It consists of a translucent plastic tube containing isolated substances that, when combined, make light through chemiluminescence, so it does not require an external energy source; the light can only be used once. Glow sticks are used for recreation, but may be relied upon for light during military, fire, or EMS operations, they are used by military and police to mark ‘clear’ areas. Bisoxalate, trademarked "Cyalume", was invented in 1969 by Michael M. Rauhut and Laszlo J. Bollyky of American Cyanamid, based on work by Edwin A. Chandross of Bell Labs. Other early work on chemiluminescence was carried out at the same time, by researchers under Herbert Richter at China Lake Naval Weapons Center. Several US patents for "glow stick" type devices were received by various inventors. Bernard Dubrow and Eugene Daniel Guth patented a packaged chemiluminescent material in June 1965. In October 1973, Clarence W. Gilliam, David Iba Sr. and Thomas N. Hall were registered as inventors of the Chemical Lighting Device.
In June 1974, a patent for a Chemiluminescent Device was issued with Herbert P. Richter and Ruth E. Tedrick listed as the inventors. In January 1976, a patent was issued for the Chemiluminescent Signal Device, with Vincent J. Esposito, Steven M. Little, John H. Lyons listed as the inventors; this patent recommended a single glass ampoule, suspended in a second substance, that when broken and mixed together, provide the chemiluminescent light. The design included a stand for the signal device so it could be thrown from a moving vehicle and remain standing in an upright position on the road; the idea was this would replace traditional emergency roadside flares and would be superior, since it was not a fire hazard, would be easier and safer to deploy, would not be made ineffective if struck by passing vehicles. This design, with its single glass ampoule inside a plastic tube filled with a second substance that when bent breaks the glass and is shaken to mix the substances, most resembles the typical glow stick sold today.
In December 1977, a patent was issued for a Chemical Light Device with Richard Taylor Van Zandt as the inventor. This design alteration features a steel ball that shatters the glass ampoule when the glow stick is exposed to a predetermined level of shock. Glow sticks are waterproof, do not use batteries, generate negligible heat, are inexpensive, are reasonably disposable, they can tolerate high pressures, such as those found under water. They are used as light sources and light markers by military forces and recreational divers. Glowsticking is the use of glow sticks in dancing; this is one of their most known uses in popular culture, as they are used for entertainment at parties and dance clubs. They are used by marching band conductors for evening performances. Glow sticks serve multiple functions as toys visible night-time warnings to motorists, luminous markings that enable parents to keep track of their children, yet another use is for balloon-carried light effects. Glow sticks are used to create special effects in low light photography and film.
The Guinness Book of Records says. It was created using Plexiglass by KNIXS GmbH in Darmstadt Weiterstadt, Germany, on 29 June 2009. Glow sticks emit light; the reaction between the two chemicals is catalyzed by a base sodium salicylate. The sticks consist of a brittle container within a flexible outer container; each container holds a different solution. When the outer container is flexed, the inner container breaks, allowing the solutions to combine, causing the necessary chemical reaction. After breaking, the tube is shaken to mix the components; the glow stick contains two chemicals, a base catalyst, a suitable dye. This creates an exothermic reaction; the chemicals inside the plastic tube are a mixture of the dye, the base catalyst, diphenyl oxalate. The chemical in the glass vial is hydrogen peroxide. By mixing the peroxide with the phenyl oxalate ester, a chemical reaction takes place, yielding two moles of phenol and one mole of peroxyacid ester; the peroxyacid decomposes spontaneously to carbon dioxide, releasing energy that excites the dye, which relaxes by releasing a photon.
The wavelength of the photon—the color of the emitted light—depends on the structure of the dye. The reaction releases energy as light, with little heat; the reason for this is that the reverse photocycloadditions of 1,2-dioxetanedione is a forbidden transition and cannot proceed through a regular thermal mechanism. By adjusting the concentrations of the two chemicals and the base, manufacturers can produce glow sticks that either glow brightly for a short amount of time or more dimly for an extended length of time; this allows design of glow sticks that perform satisfactorily in hot or cold climates, by compensating for the temperature dependence of reaction. At maximum concentration, mixing the chemicals results in a furious reaction, producing large amounts of light for only a few seconds; the same effect can be achieved by adding copious amounts of sodium salicyate or other base
A foam party is a social event at which participants dance to music on a dance floor covered in several feet of suds or bubbles, dispensed from a foam machine. Foam parties can be dated back to A Rhapsody in Black and Blue, a 1932 short film directed by Aubrey Scotto, wherein Louis Armstrong dances and plays his trumpet in a large area of soap suds. Songs performed in the foam are "I'll Be Glad When You're Dead, You Rascal You" and "Shine". Another film featuring foam parties is The Party. Modern foam parties were developed in the early 1990s by club promoters in Ibiza. Machines were large, ceiling mounted foam generators, that created a large volume of foam that fell from the ceiling onto clubbers; the large water usage and subsequent cleanup required made this impractical for many venues. As Ibiza foam parties became more popular, the craze spread, the foam cannon was developed by Roy Barlow from The Entertainment Biz and Robin Wincup from Galaxy. In 1992, this was introduced into the UK, where these were the first machines to meet with all UK health and safety requirements.
In the 1990s, the foam parties were performed weekly at Amnesia in Ibiza. Lisa Flam, writing for TODAY, catalogued numerous hazards associated with foam parties, and Yael Levi, writing for Ynet News, reported: in 2008, three people were electrocuted and two others injured at a foam party at the Venezia Palace Hotel in Antalya, Turkey. Media related to Foam parties at Wikimedia Commons
The social season, or season, refers to the traditional annual period when it is customary for members of a social elite of society to hold balls, dinner parties and charity events. Until World War I, it was the appropriate time to be resident in the city rather than in the country in order to attend such events. In modern times in the United Kingdom, "the Season" is known to encompass various prestigious events that take place during the spring and summer. According to Sloaney Season, it starts with Cheltenham Festival, includes Grand National, Badminton Horse Trials, Chelsea Flower Show, Epsom Derby, Royal Ascot, Henley Royal Regatta, others; the London social season evolved in the 17th and 18th centuries, in its traditional form it peaked in the 19th century. In this era the British elite was dominated by landowning aristocratic and gentry families who regarded their country house as their main home, but spent several months of the year in the capital to socialise and to engage in politics.
The most exclusive events were held at the town mansions of leading members of the aristocracy. Exclusive public venues such as Almack's played a secondary role; the Season coincided with the sitting of parliament and began some time after Christmas and ran until midsummer late June. The social season played a role in the political life of the country: the members of the two Houses of Parliament were all participants in the season, but the Season provided an opportunity for the children of marriageable age of the nobility and gentry to be launched into society. Debutantes were formally introduced into society by presentation to the monarch at royal court during Queen Charlotte's Ball until the practice was abolished by Queen Elizabeth II in 1958. Debutantes are still presented at the ball but no longer in the presence of the British monarch; the traditional Season went into decline after the First World War, when many aristocratic families gave up their London mansions. From this time on an increasing number of society events took place at public venues, making it harder to maintain social exclusivity.
Many events that take place far from central London came to be regarded as part of the social season, including Royal Ascot and the Henley Royal Regatta. The events that now constitute the London social season are hosted or sponsored by large companies. Western dress codes still apply to certain events in the season where the Queen maintains an official role. According to the peerage guide Debrett's, the traditional social season runs from April to August. Glyndebourne Opera Festival The Proms Royal Academy Summer Exhibition West End theatre Chelsea Flower Show Royal Ascot Cheltenham Gold Cup Badminton Horse Trials Grand National Royal Windsor Horse Show Epsom Derby Glorious Goodwood Cartier Queen's Cup Trooping the Colour Garter Service of the Order of the Garter Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo Boat Race Henley Royal Regatta Guards Polo Club The Championships, Wimbledon Cowes Week Lord's Test cricket matchAlthough several of these events are not held in London, such as the Hurlingham Polo Association at Guards Polo Club, the organisers of most events attempt to avoid date clashes, so it is possible to visit all of them in the same year.
The traditional end of the London Season is the Glorious Twelfth of August, which marks the beginning of the shooting season. Society would retire to the country to shoot birds during the autumn and hunt foxes during the winter before coming back to London again with the spring. Many events of the season have traditional expectations with regard to Western dress codes. At Royal Ascot, for example, hats are compulsory in most enclosures, to be admitted to the Royal Enclosure for the first time one must either be a guest of a member or be sponsored for membership by two members who have attended for at least six years as a member; this continues to maintain a exclusive character to the Royal Enclosure. If permitted to enter, gentlemen are required to wear either black or grey morning dress with waistcoat and a top hat. A gentleman may remove his top hat within a restaurant, a private box, a private club or that facility's terrace, balcony or garden. Hats may be removed within any enclosed external seating area within the Royal Enclosure Garden.
Ladies must wear hats. In the Queen Anne Enclosure, gentlemen are required to wear lounge suits with ties and ladies must wear a hat. At Henley Royal Regatta, in the Stewards' Enclosure gentlemen must wear a lounge jacket and tie. Rowing club colours on a blazer or cap are encouraged. A lady's skirt hem must reach below the knee and is checked before entry by the Stewards' Officers and both ladies and gentlemen will be turned away if they fail to comply with the dress code, no matter their prestige in rowing or elsewhere. Hats are not required for ladies; when a student protested being denied entry to the Stewards' Enclosure for failing to meet the dress code, saying she had worn the dress "in the Royal Enclosure at Ascot and nobody said anything," a spokesman defended the dress code saying "The intention is to maintain the atmosphere of an English Garden party of the Edwardian period by wearing a more traditional dress." Members must display their enamel badges at all times. Anyone found using a mobile phone is asked to leave and their Stewards' Enclosure host, identified by the number on the guests badge, may have his membership withdrawn as a result.
At polo matches, it is usual for gentlemen to wear a blazer and always white trousers. Ladies should wear flat shoes, as the tradition of "treading in the divots" preclude
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
A crayfish party is a traditional summertime eating and drinking celebration in the Nordic countries. The tradition originated in Sweden; the tradition has spread to Finland via its Swedish-speaking population. A similar tradition exists in the Baltic countries in particular in Latvia. Crayfish parties are held during August, a tradition that began because the crayfish harvest in Sweden was, for most of the 20th century limited to the late summer. Nowadays, the kräftpremiär date in early August has no legal significance. Dining traditionally takes place outdoors, but in practice the party takes refuge indoors due to the bad weather or aggressive mosquitoes. Customary party accessories are novelty paper hats, paper tablecloths, paper lanterns, bibs. A rowdy atmosphere prevails amid noisy eating and traditional drinking songs. Alcohol consumption is high when compared to the amount of food consumed, it is considered customary to suck the juice out of the crayfish before shelling it. Akvavit and other kinds of snaps are served, as well as beer.
The crayfish are boiled in salt water and seasoned with fresh dill – preferably "crown dill" harvested after the plant has flowered – served cold and eaten with the fingers. Bread, mushroom pies, surströmming, strong Västerbotten cheese and other dishes are served buffet-style. For more than 40 years, the town of Herrera de Pisuerga has celebrated the Festival Nacional del Cangrejo de río; this is. Since 2011, the town includes a "Swedish dinner" in its celebrations, during which the residents practice the Swedish tradition of a street dinner with paper lanterns and candles in true kräftskiva-style. For the inaugural Swedish dinner, the festival was honoured by the presence of a special guest, the First Secretary and Chancellor of Spain, Eva Boix
A children's party or kids' party is a party for children such as a birthday party or tea party. Since medieval times, children have dressed specially for such occasions. Children's birthday parties originated in Germany as kinderfeste. Businesses that plan or arrange children's parties have become more common during the 2010s
A party hat is a playful conical hat made with a rolled up piece of thin cardboard with designs printed on the outside and a long string of elastic acting like a chinstrap, going from one side of the cone's bottom to another to secure the cone to the person's head. Its name originates with its use: Party hats are worn most at birthday parties by the guest of honor, with a significant minority being worn for New Year celebrations. In Britain the hat is made of paper and is the shape of a crown, is most worn during a Christmas dinner; the party hat has its origins in the dunce cap worn by misbehaving or poorly performing schoolchildren from the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, with its festive decoration and society's positive attitude toward the wearer indicating a relaxation, abrogation, or reversal of certain social norms: During the occasion in question, the wearer is permitted or encouraged to engage, rather than discouraged from engaging, in frivolous and foolish behavior for which the required wearing of the dunce cap would in other situations constitute a punishment.
Party hats have originated in England Non-conical hats worn to signify an occasion's informal and festive status include decorated top hats, hats made from balloons, the beer hat or "beer helmet", Mickey Mouse ears. In more extreme cases, partygoers may wear other objects such as lampshades or beer boxes, although the wearing of such objects meets with social disapproval. Pointed hat List of hats and headgearJackpot Harbin, Robert. Secrets of Origami: The Japanese Art of Paper Folding. Courier Dover Publications. P. 48. ISBN 0-486-29707-1. Child Party Hat, kid craft central.com Strap on Birthday Hats and Celebrate, birthday blueprints.com