It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters and Ancient Greek use different diacritics. In standard Modern Greek spelling, orthography has been simplified to the monotonic system, examples In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the letters of the Greek alphabet have fairly stable and consistent symbol-to-sound mappings, making pronunciation of words largely predictable. Ancient Greek spelling was generally near-phonemic, among consonant letters, all letters that denoted voiced plosive consonants and aspirated plosives in Ancient Greek stand for corresponding fricative sounds in Modern Greek. This leads to groups of vowel letters denoting identical sounds today. Modern Greek orthography remains true to the spellings in most of these cases. The following vowel letters and digraphs are involved in the mergers, Modern Greek speakers typically use the same, modern, in other countries, students of Ancient Greek may use a variety of conventional approximations of the historical sound system in pronouncing Ancient Greek.
Several letter combinations have special conventional sound values different from those of their single components, among them are several digraphs of vowel letters that formerly represented diphthongs but are now monophthongized. In addition to the three mentioned above, there is ⟨ου⟩, pronounced /u/, the Ancient Greek diphthongs ⟨αυ⟩, ⟨ευ⟩ and ⟨ηυ⟩ are pronounced, and respectively in voicing environments in Modern Greek. The Modern Greek consonant combinations ⟨μπ⟩ and ⟨ντ⟩ stand for and respectively, ⟨τζ⟩ stands for, in addition, both in Ancient and Modern Greek, the letter ⟨γ⟩, before another velar consonant, stands for the velar nasal, thus ⟨γγ⟩ and ⟨γκ⟩ are pronounced like English ⟨ng⟩. There are the combinations ⟨γχ⟩ and ⟨γξ⟩ and these signs were originally designed to mark different forms of the phonological pitch accent in Ancient Greek. The letter rho, although not a vowel, carries a rough breathing in word-initial position, if a rho was geminated within a word, the first ρ always had the smooth breathing and the second the rough breathing leading to the transiliteration rrh.
The vowel letters ⟨α, η, ω⟩ carry an additional diacritic in certain words, the iota subscript. This iota represents the former offglide of what were originally long diphthongs, ⟨ᾱι, ηι, ωι⟩, another diacritic used in Greek is the diaeresis, indicating a hiatus. In 1982, a new, simplified orthography, known as monotonic, was adopted for use in Modern Greek by the Greek state. Although it is not a diacritic, the comma has a function as a silent letter in a handful of Greek words, principally distinguishing ό. There are many different methods of rendering Greek text or Greek names in the Latin script, the form in which classical Greek names are conventionally rendered in English goes back to the way Greek loanwords were incorporated into Latin in antiquity. In this system, ⟨κ⟩ is replaced with ⟨c⟩, the diphthongs ⟨αι⟩ and ⟨οι⟩ are rendered as ⟨ae⟩ and ⟨oe⟩ respectively, and ⟨ει⟩ and ⟨ου⟩ are simplified to ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩ respectively
Thunnus is a genus of ocean-dwelling ray-finned bony fish from the Scombridae family. More specifically, Thunnus is one of five genera which make up the Thunnini tribe – a tribe that is known as the tunas. Also called the true tunas or real tunas, Thunnus consists of eight species of tuna, the word Thunnus is the Middle Latin form of the Ancient Greek, θύννος tunny-fish – which is in turn derived from θύνω, to rush, to dart. The first written use of the word was by Homer and their coloring, metallic blue on top and shimmering silver-white on the bottom, helps camouflage them from above and below. Atlantic bluefin tuna, the largest member of genus, can grow to 15 feet long. All tunas are extremely strong swimmers, and the Yellowfin tuna is known to reach speeds of up to 50 miles per hour when pursuing prey. As with all tunas, members of this genus are warm-blooded, which is a rare trait among fish, this enables them to tolerate cold waters. Bluefin tunas, for example, are found in Newfoundland and Iceland, and in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea.
Due to overfishing, the range of this genus has declined significantly, having been effectively expirated from the Black Sea and this genus has eight species in two subgenera, Subgenus Thunnus, Albacore, T. alalunga. Subgenus Thunnus, Yellowfin tuna, T. albacares, until recently, it was thought that there were seven Thunnus species, and that Atlantic bluefin tuna and Pacific bluefin tuna were subspecies of a single species. In 1999 Collette established that based on molecular and morphological considerations, they are in fact distinct species. The genus Thunnus is further classified into two subgenera and Thunnus, International agreements and conventions are good faith agreements and are difficult to monitor or enforce. On December 30,2012, a 222-kilogram bluefin tuna caught off northeastern Japan, was sold at the Tsukiji fish market in Tokyo for a record 155.4 million yen – a unit price of JP¥1.274 million/kg. The End of the Line, How Overfishing Is Changing the World, molly E. Lutcavage, Tony J.
Pitcher. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Gulf of Maine, I, Estimation of Seasonal Abundance Accounting for Movement, froese and Daniel Pauly, eds. Nutritional benefits of tunadead link] The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas
Modern Greek refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era. Varieties of Modern Greek include several varieties, including Demotic, Pontic, Mariupolitan, Southern Italian, Demotic Greek comprises various regional varieties with minor linguistic differences, mainly in phonology and vocabulary. Due to the degree of mutual intelligibility of these varieties, Greek linguists refer to them as idioms of a wider Demotic dialect. Most English-speaking linguists however refer to them as dialects, emphasising degrees of variation only when necessary, Demotic Greek varieties are divided into two main groups and Southern. The main distinguishing feature common to Northern variants is a set of standard phonological shifts in unaccented vowel phonemes, becomes and and are dropped. The dropped vowels existence is implicit, and may affect surrounding phonemes, for example, Southern variants do not exhibit these phonological shifts. Examples of Northern dialects are Rumelian, Thessalian, Thracian, Demotic Greek has officially been taught in monotonic Greek script since 1982.
Polytonic script remains popular in intellectual circles, Katharevousa is a semi-artificial sociolect promoted in the 19th century at the foundation of the modern Greek state, as a compromise between Classical Greek and modern Demotic. It was the language of modern Greece until 1976. Katharevousa is written in polytonic Greek script, while Demotic Greek contains loanwords from Turkish, Italian and other languages, these have for the most part been purged from Katharevousa. It hails from Hellenistic and Medieval Koine and preserves characteristics of Ionic due to ancient colonizations of the region, Pontic evolved as a separate dialect from Demotic Greek as a result of the regions isolation from the Greek mainstream after the Fourth Crusade fragmented the Byzantine Empire into separate kingdoms. Rumeíka or Mariupolitan Greek is a dialect spoken in about 17 villages around the northern coast of the Sea of Azov in southern Ukraine, the Crimean Greek state continued to exist as the independent Greek Principality of Theodoro.
The Greek-speaking inhabitants of Crimea were invited by Catherine the Great to resettle in the new city of Mariupol after the Russo-Turkish War to escape the Muslim-dominated Crimea, mariupolitans main features have certain similarities with both Pontic and the northern varieties of the core dialects. Southern Italian or Italiot comprises both Calabrian and Griko varieties, spoken by around 15 villages in the regions of Calabria and Apulia, the Southern Italian dialect is the last living trace of Hellenic elements in Southern Italy that once formed Magna Graecia. Its origins can be traced to the Dorian Greek settlers who colonised the area from Sparta and Demotic are mutually intelligible to some extent, but the former shares some common characteristics with Tsakonian. Yevanic is an extinct language of Romaniote Jews. The language was already in decline for centuries until most of its speakers were killed in the Holocaust, the language was mostly kept by remaining Romaniote emigrants to Israel, where it was displaced by modern Hebrew.
Tsakonian evolved directly from Laconian and therefore descends from the Doric branch of the Greek language and it has limited input from Hellenistic Koine and is significantly different from and not mutually intelligible with other Greek varieties
Anatolia, in geography known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea to the Armenian Highlands, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Armenian, Laz and Greek. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea.
This traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary, under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, and the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria, the first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. As the name of Asia came to be extended to areas east of the Mediterranean. The name Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more literally “sunrise”, the precise reference of this term has varied over time, perhaps originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western, the modern Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή.
The Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin, in English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. It is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, which was used by the Europeans to define the Seljuk controlled parts of Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Human habitation in Anatolia dates back to the Paleolithic, neolithic Anatolia has been proposed as the homeland of the Indo-European language family, although linguists tend to favour a origin in the steppes north of the Black Sea. However, it is clear that the Anatolian languages, the oldest branch of Indo-European, have spoken in Anatolia since at least the 19th century BC. The earliest historical records of Anatolia stem from the southeast of the region and are from the Mesopotamian-based Akkadian Empire during the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BC, scholars generally believe the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians. The region was famous for exporting raw materials, and areas of Hattian-, one of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh, uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines.
They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language, originating from Nesa, they conquered Hattusa in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the most widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland, the Hittites adopted the cuneiform script, invented in Mesopotamia
Felidae is the family of cats. A member of family is called a felid. They are sometimes referred to as hypercarnivores because of the large proportion of protein they require in their diet. Of the 13 terrestrial families in the order Carnivora, they are the strictest carnivores, the first cats emerged during the Oligocene, about 25 million years ago. In prehistoric times, there was a subfamily, the Machairodontinae. Other superficially cat-like mammals, such as the metatherians Thylacosmilus and Thylacoleo, the 42 known cat species in the world today are all descended from a common ancestor. Cats originated in Asia and spread across continents by crossing land bridges, about 60% of the modern cat species are estimated to have developed within the last million years. Felidaes closest relatives are thought to be the Asiatic linsangs, together with the Viverridae, hyenas and Madagascar carnivores, they form the suborder Feliformia. Most cat species share a genetic anomaly that prevents them from tasting sweetness, most cat species have a haploid number of 18 or 19.
New World cats have a number of 18, possibly due to the combination of two smaller chromosomes into a larger one. Domestic cats may either have a long or short tail, at one point, biologists had to consider whether the short tail found in the lynx was the ancestral or derived trait. Without looking at the record, researchers were able to look at the character states found in their outgroups. Because all animals belonging to Felidae’s sister taxa, have long tails, some domestic cats display a rosette pattern on their coats. This character state, however, is not related to the rosettes found on big cats, domestic cats and big cats underwent convergent evolution for this trait. The most common ancestor to all cats had a flecked coat, the jaguarundi lost this character state secondarily. The most common recent ancestor of snow leopards, jaguars, lions and lions, however, do not display rosettes as adults. They both have lost this character state over time. Adult tigers actually display elongated rosettes that now appear as stripes, adult lions seem to lack any distinctive markings altogether
Doric or Dorian was an Ancient Greek dialect. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the Western group of classical Greek dialects and it is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of Epirus and Macedonia, northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all regions during the Dorian invasion. The presence of a Doric state in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, local epigraphical evidence is restricted to the decrees of the Epirote League and the Pella curse tablet, as well to the Doric eponym Machatas first attested in Macedonia. Where the Doric dialect group fits in the classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under Greek dialects, the prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek. Some use the terms Northern Greek or Northwest Greek instead, the geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed, all of Doric was spoken south of Southern Greek or Southeastern Greek.
Be that as it may, Northern Greek is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north, when the distinction began is not known. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects, tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric, is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, the dialects of the Doric Group are as follows, Laconian was spoken by the population of Laconia in the southern Peloponnese and by its colonies and Herakleia in Magna Graecia. Sparta was the seat of ancient Laconia, Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the seventh century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the quarter of the seventh century. Tarentum was founded in 706 and its founders must already have spoken Laconic, many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived.
Homer calls it hollow Lacedaemon, though he refers to a pre-Dorian period, the seventh century Spartan poet, used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect, argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnese at, for example, Mycenae, Troezen, and as close to Athens as the island of Aegina. As Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this region in the Bronze Age. The Dorians went on from Argos to Crete and Rhodes, ample inscriptional material of a legal and religious content exists from at least the sixth century BC. Corinthian was spoken first in the region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Greece, that is, the Isthmus of Corinth
Mentha is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae. It is estimated that 13 to 18 species exist, and the distinction between species is still unclear. Hybridization between some of the species occur naturally, many other hybrids, as well as numerous cultivars, are known. The genus has a distribution across Europe, Asia, Australia. Mints are aromatic, almost exclusively perennial, rarely annual herbs and they have wide-spreading underground and overground stolons and erect, branched stems. The leaves are arranged in pairs, from oblong to lanceolate, often downy. Leaf colors range from green and gray-green to purple, blue. The flowers are white to purple and produced in whorls called verticillasters. The corolla is two-lipped with four lobes, the upper lobe usually the largest. The fruit is a nutlet, containing one to four seeds, while the species that make up the Mentha genus are widely distributed and can be found in many environments, most grow best in wet environments and moist soils. Mints will grow 10–120 cm tall and can spread over an indeterminate area, due to their tendency to spread unchecked, some mints are considered invasive.
The list below all of the taxa recognized as species in recent works on Mentha. No author has recognized all of them, as with all biological classifications of plants, this list can go out of date at a moments notice. Common names are given for species that have them. Synonyms, along with cultivars and varieties, are given in articles on the species, Mentha is a member of the tribe Mentheae in the subfamily Nepetoideae. The tribe contains about 65 genera, and relationships within it remain obscure, authors have disagreed on the circumscription of Mentha. Some authors have excluded M. cervina from the genus, M. cunninghamii has been excluded by some authors, even in some recent treatments of the genus. In 2004, a phylogenetic study indicated both of these species should be included in Mentha
An isogloss, called a heterogloss, is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some syntactic feature. However, an individual isogloss may or may not have any coincidence with a language border, for example, the front-rounding of /y/ cuts across France and Germany, while the /y/ is absent from Italian and Spanish words that are cognates with the /y/-containing French words. One of the most well-known isoglosses is the centum-satem isogloss, similar to an isogloss, an isograph is a distinguishing feature of a writing system. Both concepts are used in historical linguistics. The centum-satem isogloss of the Indo-European language family relates to the different evolution of the consonants of Proto-Indo-European. They are known as branches, named after the Latin word for hundred. In other branches, the merged with the velars, PIE *keup- became Vedic Sanskrit kopáyati shaken. They are known as branches, after the Avestan word for hundred.
A feature of the ancient Northwest Semitic languages is w becoming y at the beginning of a word, thus, in Proto-Semitic and subsequent non-Northwest Semitic languages and dialects, the root letters for a word for child were w-l-d. However, in the ancient Northwest Semitic languages, the word was y-l-d, Proto-Semitic ā becomes ō in the Canaanite dialects of Northwest Semitic. Within the Aramaic languages and dialects of Northwest Semitic, the historic ā is preserved, thus, an ancient Northwest Semitic language whose historic ā became ō can be classed as part of the Canaanite branch of Northwest Semitic. Such features can be used as data of fundamental importance for the purposes of linguistic classification, just as there are distinguishing features of related languages, there are distinguishing features of related scripts. For example, a feature of the Iron Age Old Hebrew script is that the letters bet, dalet and resh do not have an open head. Similarly, the bet of Old Hebrew has a distinctive stance, the term isogloss is inspired by contour lines, or isopleths, such as isobars.
However, the isogloss separates rather than connects points, consequently, it has been proposed for the term heterogloss to be used instead. Dialect Dialectology Dialect continuum Cultural boundary Joret line Uerdingen line Chambers, the Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Worlds Ancient Languages. An example of an isogloss in Southern England, beyond the Isogloss, The Isograph in Dialect Topography, A discussion of the shortcomings and oversimplifications of using isoglosses. On Some Acoustic Correlates of Isoglossy, A humorous analysis of Russian isoglossy
In Greek mythology, son of Thestor, was an Argive seer, with a gift for interpreting the flight of birds that he received of Apollo, as an augur, Calchas had no rival in the camp. He interpreted the entrails of the enemy during the tide of battle, the episode was related at length in the lost Cypria, of the Epic Cycle. He states that Troy will be sacked on the year of the war. In Sophocles Ajax, Calchas delivers a prophecy to Teucer suggesting that the protagonist will die if he leaves his tent before the day is out, Calchas plays a role in Quintus of Smyrnas Posthomerica. Calchas said that if they were brief, they could convince Achilles to fight and it is he rather than Helenus that predicts that Troy will only fall once the Argives are able to recruit Philoctetes. It is by his advice that they halt the battle, even though Neoptolemus is slaughtering the Trojans and he tells the Argives that the city is more easily taken by strategy than by force. He endorses Odysseus suggestion that the Trojan Horse will effectively infiltrate the Trojans and he foresees that Aeneas will survive the battle and found the city, and tells the Argives that they will not kill him.
He did not join the Argives when they boarded the ships and it is said that Calchas died of laughter when the day that was to be his death day arrived and the prediction didnt seem to materialize. In medieval and versions of the myth, Calchas is portrayed as a Trojan defector and the father of Chryseis, now called Cressida
Digamma, waw, or wau is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet. It originally stood for the sound /w/ but it has remained in use as a Greek numeral for 6. Digamma or wau was part of the original archaic Greek alphabet as initially adopted from Phoenician, like its model, Phoenician waw, it represented the voiced labial-velar approximant /w/ and stood in the 6th position in the alphabet between epsilon and zeta. It is the doublet of the vowel letter upsilon, which was derived from waw but was placed at the end of the Greek alphabet. Digamma or wau is in turn the ancestor of the Latin letter F, as an alphabetic letter, it is attested in archaic and dialectal ancient Greek inscriptions until the classical period. The shape of the letter went through a development from through, to or, in modern Greek, this is often replaced by the digraph στ. The sound /w/ existed in Mycenean Greek, as attested in Linear B and it is confirmed by the Hittite name of Troy, corresponding to the Greek name *Wilion.
The /w/ sound was lost at times in various dialects. In Ionic, /w/ had probably disappeared before Homers epics were written down, further evidence coupled with cognate-analysis shows that οἶνος was earlier ϝοῖνος /wóînos/. Aeolian was the dialect that kept the sound /w/ longest, in discussions by ancient Greek grammarians of the Hellenistic era, the letter is therefore often described as a characteristic Aeolian feature. Loanwords that entered Greek before the loss of /w-/ lost that sound when Greek did, for instance, Oscan Viteliu gave rise to the Greek word Italia. The Adriatic tribe of the Veneti was called in Ancient Greek, in loanwords that entered the Greek language after the drop of /w/, the phoneme was once again registered, compare for example the spelling of Οὐάτεις for vates. In some local alphabets, a variant glyph of the letter digamma existed that resembled modern Cyrillic И, in one local alphabet, that of Pamphylia, this variant form existed side by side with standard digamma as two distinct letters.
It has been surmised that in this dialect the sound /w/ may have changed to labiodental /v/ in some environments, the F-shaped letter may have stood for the new /v/ sound, while the special И-shaped form signified those positions where the old /w/ sound was preserved. Digamma/wau remained in use in the system of Greek numerals attributed to Miletus and it was one of three letters that were kept in this way in addition to the 24 letters of the classical alphabet, the other two being koppa for 90, and sampi for 900. During their history in handwriting in late antiquity and the Byzantine era and it has remained in use as a numeral in Greek to the present day, in contexts such as enumerating chapters in a book or other items in a set. Digamma was derived from Phoenician waw, which was shaped roughly like an Y, of the two Greek reflexes of waw, digamma retained the alphabetic position, but had its shape modified to, while the upsilon retained the original shape but was placed in a new alphabetic position.
Early Crete had a form of digamma somewhat closer to the original Phoenician
Temple indicates the side of the head behind the eyes. The bone beneath is the bone as well as part of the sphenoid bone. The brain has a lobe called the temporal lobe, the word temple as used in anatomy has a separate etymology from the word temple, meaning place of worship. Due to the source with the word for time, the adjective for both is temporal. Regarding the temporalis muscle, in English, this name is the time muscle. The word temporalis comes from the Latin word tempus meaning “time. ”The muscle covers the temporal bone, or time bone, this region is the first to show the effects of aging
The language is preserved in inscriptions in Linear B, a script first attested on Crete before the 14th century. Most inscriptions are on tablets found in Knossos, in central Crete, as well as in Pylos. Other tablets have found at Mycenae itself and Thebes and at Chania. The language is named after Mycenae, one of the centres of Mycenaean Greece. The tablets long remained undeciphered, and many languages were suggested for them, the texts on the tablets are mostly lists and inventories. No prose narrative survives, much less myth or poetry, much may be glimpsed from these records about the people who produced them and about Mycenaean Greece, the period before the so-called Greek Dark Ages. The Mycenaean language is preserved in Linear B writing, which consists of about 200 syllabic signs, since Linear B was derived from Linear A, the script of an undeciphered Minoan language probably unrelated to Greek, it does not reflect fully the phonetics of Mycenaean. In essence, a number of syllabic signs must represent a much greater number of produced syllables.
Orthographic simplifications therefore had to be made, There is no disambiguation for the Greek categories of voice and aspiration except the dentals d, t,