King William County, Virginia
King William County is a county located in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,935, its county seat is King William. King William County is located in the Middle Peninsula and is included in the Greater Richmond Region. For thousands of years before European contact, indigenous peoples of North America lived in the Tidewater area of present-day Virginia. At the time of the founding of Jamestown, 30 Virginia Native American tribes comprised the Powhatan paramountcy, numbering 14,000-21,000 people; the Algonquian-speaking Mattaponi Indian Tribe and Upper Mattaponi tribe, among the 11 tribes recognized by the state of Virginia, are located in the county. The Mattaponi are one of two Virginia Indian tribes who still occupy reservation land first allocated by the English under treaty in the 17th century. One prominent family during Colonial Virginia times was that of William Aylett; the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730 established a tobacco inspection warehouse at Aylett's.
Aylett's daughters intermarried with other Northern Neck families. English colonists formed King William County in 1702 out of Queen County; the county is named for William of King of England. The Courthouse, built in 1725, is the oldest courthouse in continuous use in the United States. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 286 square miles, of which 274 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. King William County is bounded by the Mattaponi River to the north and the Pamunkey River to the south; the two rivers combine to form the York River, at the county's largest town. Caroline County - northwest King and Queen County - northeast New Kent County - south Hanover County - southwest US 360 SR 30 SR 33 SR 296 SR 298 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 15,935 people residing in the county. 77.2% were White, 17.7% Black or African American, 1.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.6% of some other race and 2.3% of two or more races. 2.0 % were Latino.
18.6 % were of 16.5 % American, 8.7 % German and 7.6 % Irish ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,146 people, 4,846 households, 3,784 families residing in the county; the population density was 48 people per square mile. There were 5,189 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 73.81% White, 22.81% Black or African American, 1.54% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.33% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. 0.91 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 4,846 households out of which 36.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.90% were married couples living together, 10.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.90% were non-families. 18.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 5.90% from 18 to 24, 31.50% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $49,876, the median income for a family was $54,037. Males had a median income of $34,616 versus $25,578 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,928. About 4.40% of families and 5.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.00% of those under age 18 and 9.00% of those age 65 or over. Two Indian reservations exist in the county, they are the only ones in the Commonwealth of Virginia First District: William L. Hodges Second District: Travis J. Moskalski Third District: Stephen K. Greenwood Fourth District: David E. Hansen Fifth District: Robert W. Ehrhart Clerk of the Circuit Court: Patricia M. Norman Commissioner of the Revenue: Sally W. Pearson Commonwealth's Attorney: Matthew R. Kite Sheriff: J. S. "Jeff" Walton Treasurer: Harry L. Whitt King William is represented by Republican Thomas K. "Tommy" Norment, Jr. in the Virginia Senate, Republicans Christopher K. "Chris" Peace and M. Keith Hodges in the Virginia House of Delegates, Republican Robert J.
"Rob" Wittman. West Point Central Garage King William King William County Sheriff’s Office National Register of Historic Places listings in King William County, Virginia
Ashland is a town located 16 miles north of Richmond along Interstate 95 and U. S. Route 1 in Hanover County, United States; as of the 2010 census it had a population of 7,225, up from 6,619 at the 2000 census. Ashland is named after the Lexington, Kentucky estate of Hanover County native and statesman Henry Clay, it is the only incorporated town in Hanover County. Although comprising only one square mile when incorporated in 1858, today Ashland has grown through several annexations to a size of 7.16 square miles, one of Virginia's larger towns in terms of land area. The Richmond and Potomac Railroad developed the town in the 1840s as a mineral springs resort with a racetrack; the town was named "Ashland" after native son Henry Clay's estate in Kentucky and was incorporated on February 19, 1858. The area had been known as "The Slashes", sometimes translated as "swamp", but which reflected the small ravines that formed in the sandy clay soil after hard rains. Confederate troops trained on the former racetrack early in the American Civil War, but the war and its aftermath devastated Ashland.
Randolph–Macon College moved to Ashland in 1868 and began using buildings of the bankrupt hotel as well as building additional structures. The railroad lines rebuilt and the town continued to expand. Before the war, the railroad began offering monthly passes to Richmond to people buying lots and building houses in Ashland; when tycoon Jay Gould established a streetcar line between Ashland and Richmond in 1908, the town became an early streetcar suburb of Richmond. Construction of U. S. Route 1 on the former Washington Road, I-95, further shaped the town character and development. One of Virginia's oldest churches is 5 miles southeast of Ashland: Slash Church, built as the Upper Church of St. Paul's Parish in 1729 remains a house of worship, though now used by the Disciples of Christ. Ashland itself had a Free Church, shared by various Protestant denominations. Several denominations built churches shortly after the Civil War, but many were torn down in modern times; the town's current Episcopal church is St. James the Less, on the other side of the railway line from Slash Church and whose congregation received monthly clergy visitations in the 1850s, which in 1958 sold its 1866-consecrated and once-moved building as well as the old rectory in order to build a larger one on the town's outskirts.
The Disciples of Christ had a historic church on Center Street, replaced in 1985. Historic churches still within the town's boundaries include Ashland Baptist Church. Gwathmey Baptist Church is a mile nearer Richmond and, within 50 feet of the railroad tracks; the town now has an Eastern Orthodox congregation, St. Andrew's, a messianic Jewish congregation. Major Payne was filmed at the Ashland train station, which now acts as a tourist information office and no longer sells rail tickets. Bloomberg Business in 2009 named Ashland "Best Place to Raise your Kids" in Virginia. In 2014, Movoto.com named Ashland one of America's 10 best small towns. On October 19, 2002, Ashland made national news as the site of one of the D. C. sniper attacks. 37-year-old Jeffrey Hopper was shot at 8:00 pm in the parking lot of a Ponderosa Steakhouse as he and his wife left the restaurant. Ashland is located near the center of Hanover County at 37°45′34″N 77°28′38″W. U. S. Route 1 passes through the east side of the center of town, leading north 8 miles to Doswell and south 16 miles to Richmond.
Interstate 95 passes through the town limits further to the east, with access from Exit 92. I-95 leads north 38 miles to Fredericksburg and 90 miles to Washington, D. C. while to the south it leads 16 miles to 40 miles to Petersburg. Virginia State Route 54 goes through the center of Ashland as England Street and Thompson Street, leading east 6 miles to U. S. Route 301 at Hanover, the county seat, northwest 13 miles to Montpelier. According to the United States Census Bureau, Ashland has a total area of 7.2 square miles, of which 0.03 square miles, or 0.43%, are water. Ashland is drained to the north by tributaries of the South Anna River, part of the Pamunkey and York River watershed, to the south by tributaries of the Chickahominy River, part of the James River watershed; as of the census of 2010, there were 7225 people with 2,863 households in the town. The racial makeup of the town was 71.1% White, 22.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.68% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.7% of the population. The median income for a household in the town was $46,474; the per capita income for the town was $23,569. About 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line. Ashland is governed by a five-member town council, day-to-day activities are run by a town manager. Hanover County handles stormwater pollutant filtration; the town's library is part of the multi-county Pamunkey Regional Library System, although additional libraries are at the courthouse and Randolph Macon College. The Ashland Volunteer Fire Company, formed in 1890, is located on 501 Archie Canon Drive; the Ashland Police Department has 25 sworn full-time officers and is Law Enforcement A
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Hanover County, Virginia
Hanover County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 106,374, its county seat is Hanover Courthouse. Hanover County is included in the Greater Richmond Region. Located in the western Tidewater region of Virginia, Hanover County was created on November 26, 1719, from the area of New Kent County called St. Paul's Parish, it was named for the Electorate of Hanover in Germany, because King George I of Great Britain was Elector of Hanover at the time. The county was developed by planters moving west from the Virginia tidewater, where soils had been exhausted by tobacco monoculture. Hanover County was the home of noted American statesman Patrick Henry, he married Sarah Shelton in the parlor of her family's house, Rural Plains known as Shelton House. At the Hanover Courthouse, Henry argued the case of the Parson's Cause in 1763, attacking the British Crown's attempt to set the salaries of clergy in the colony regardless of conditions in the local economy.
The historic Hanover Courthouse is pictured in the county seal. Hanover County was the birthplace of Henry Clay, who became known as a politician in Kentucky, author of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, Secretary of State; the Chickahominy River forms the border of the county in the Mechanicsville area. During the American Civil War and the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, the Union Army approached the river and could hear the bells of Richmond's churches, but they learned. Union General George B. McClellan failed in his attempt to get all his troops across it, intending to overwhelm the outnumbered Confederate forces defending Richmond, his failure to take Richmond has been said to have prolonged the war by 3 years. Hanover County was the site of Civil War battles due to its location between Richmond and northern Virginia, including the Seven Days Battles of the Peninsula Campaign and Battle of Cold Harbor in 1864; the incorporated town of Ashland is located within Hanover County. Ashland is the current home of Randolph-Macon College.
In 1953, Barksdale Theatre was founded at the historic Hanover Tavern. It was the nation's first dinner theater and central Virginia's first professional theatre organization; the Barksdale company continues to produce live theatre at the Tavern, as well as at several locations in Richmond. It is recognized today as Central Virginia's leading professional theatre. Kings Dominion amusement park added to the county's economy. In January 2007, America's Promise named Hanover County as one of the top 100 communities for youth. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 474 square miles, of which 469 square miles is land and 5 square miles is water. Hanover County is about 90 miles south of Washington, D. C. and about 12 miles north of Richmond, Virginia. Caroline County Goochland County Henrico County King William County Louisa County New Kent County Spotsylvania County I-95 I-295 US 1 US 33 US 301 US 360 SR 2 SR 30 SR 54 SR 326 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 99,863 people residing in the county.
86.7% were White, 9.3% Black or African American, 1.4% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 0.8% of some other race and 1.5% of two or more races. As of the census of 2000, there were 86,320 people, 31,121 households, 24,461 families residing in the county; the population density was 183 people per square mile. There were 32,196 housing units at an average density of 68 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.32% White, 9.34% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.79% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from other races, 0.83% from two or more races. 0.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 31,121 households out of which 39.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.40% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.40% were non-families. The average household size was 2.71, the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.10% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 30.70% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, 10.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $77,550, the median income for a family was $90,812; the median income was $32,662 for females. The per capita income for the county was $34,241. About 3.54% of families and 5.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.90% of those under age 18 and 5.80% of those age 65 or over. Ashland District: Faye O. Prichard Beaverdam District: Aubrey M. "Bucky" Stanley Chickahominy District: Angela C. Kelly-Wiecek Cold Harbor District: Scott A. Wyatt. Henry District: Sean M. Davis Mechanicsville District: W. Canova Peterson South Anna District: Wayne T. Hazzard Clerk of the Circuit Court: Frank D. Hargrove, Jr. Commissioner of the Revenue: T. Scott Harris Commonwealth's Attorney: R. E. "Trip" Chalkley, III Sheriff: David R. Hines Treasurer: M. Scott Miller Hanover is represented by Republicans Ryan T. McDougle and Siobhan Dunnavant and Democrat Jennifer McClellan in the Virginia Senate, Republican Buddy Fowler and Christopher K.
Peace in the Virginia House of Delegates and Republican Rob Wittman in the U. S. House of
West Point, Virginia
West Point is an incorporated town in King William County, United States. The population was 3,306 at the 2010 census. West Point is located at 37°32′37″N 76°48′19″W; the York River is formed at West Point by the confluence of the Pamunkey rivers. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 6.7 square miles, of which, 5.2 square miles of it is land and 1.5 square miles of it is water. Much of the downtown is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the West Point Historic District; the current site of West Point was once the site of Cinquoteck, a Native American village of the local Mattaponi, an Algonquian-speaking tribe affiliated with the Powhatan Confederacy. During the first half of the 17th century, the Confederacy and the English colonists who established their first permanent settlement at Jamestown in 1607 were in conflict. By mid-century, the Natives had been overcome, including the area of Cinquoteck, by the ever-expanding Colony of Virginia.
By treaty, the colonial government established reservations for the Mattaponi and Pamunkey in this area. More than 350 years Pamunkey and Mattaponi tribal members continue to occupy the reservations, located a few miles north of modern-day West Point. Both are state-recognized tribes. In 1655, Port Richmond West Plantation, the home of John West, was developed to incorporate the former site of Cinquetock. West was a Governor of Virginia from 1635 to 1637. After the West family sold off parts of the plantation, a settlement started at what became called West Point, which had access to the York River. In 1691, the Virginia General Assembly directed that West Point be chartered as a port of entry on the York. In 1705 the House of Burgesses authorized the town to qualify as a "free borough", renamed it "Delaware" in honor of former Royal Governor Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, he was John West's elder brother, an early settler of Jamestown, an earlier colonial governor. When the Richmond and York River Railroad was built and completed in 1861 to the port community, just before the onset of the American Civil War, the city took back its former name of "West Point".
The railroad was a key strategic goal of Union General George B. McClellan's failed Peninsula Campaign in 1862 to capture Richmond. Massively damaged during the War, the railroad was rebuilt, it became part of the Danville Railroad system. In 1870, West Point became an incorporated town. Linked to Richmond by rail, it became a major shipping point for freight traffic, it was convenient for travel to Baltimore and points north via the York River and the Chesapeake Bay. Much of the Richmond and Danville Railroad became part of the Southern Railway in the 1890s during a financial reorganization; until the early 20th century, West Point was a thriving commercial resort destination. However, the port status declined with the completion of more railroads to the ocean harbor area of Hampton Roads, notably including the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway at Newport News and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad at Portsmouth. Tourists began to frequent newer destinations closer to the ocean. After the decline of both shipping and tourism, a shipyard built in 1917 and a 1918 pulp paper mill are credited with bringing new jobs to the town.
In the 1980s, the railroad was acquired by the Norfolk Southern Railway system in continued restructuring of the industry. It has continued to serve the town's paper mill into the early 21st century. West Point is one of two towns in Virginia to have a school division, independent from the school division of the county in which it is located; the West Point school systems are recognized among the top rated public schools in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,866 people, 1,068 households, 809 families residing in the town; the population density was 559.2 people per square mile. There were 1,151 housing units at an average density of 224.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 80.32% White, 16.92% African American, 0.45% Native American, 1.05% Asian, 0.35% from other races, 0.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.74% of the population. There were 1,068 households out of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.2% were non-families.
21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 89.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $49,655, the median income for a family was $56,932. Males had a median income of $40,071 versus $24,702 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,232. About 1.7% of families and 2.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
York River (Virginia)
The York River is a navigable estuary 34 miles long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. It ranges in width from 1 mile at its head to 2.5 miles near its mouth on the west side of Chesapeake Bay. Its watershed drains an area of the coastal plain of Virginia east of Richmond, its banks were inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. In 2003 evidence was found of the site of Werowocomoco, one of two capitals used by the paramount chief Powhatan before 1609; the site was inhabited since 1200 as a major village. Enormously important in U. S. history, the river was the scene of early settlements of the Virginia Colony. It was the site of significant events and battles in both the American Revolutionary War and the American Civil War; the York River is formed at West Point 35 miles east of Richmond, by the confluence of the Mattaponi and Pamunkey rivers. It drains into the Chesapeake Bay towards the southeast, entering the bay 5 miles east of Yorktown, which sits along its southern shore.
U. S. Highway 17 crosses the estuary from Yorktown to Gloucester Point on the George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge; the York River was known as the Pamunkey River by the Native Americans. Colonists of the Virginia Company in the 17th century first called it the Charles River. On the north bank, in what is now Gloucester County, the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy maintained Werowocomoco, one of two capitals of the paramount chiefdom at the time of European contact before 1609. In 2002-2003, archeological evidence was found of an extensive ancient settlement on the York River at Purtan Bay. With excavations since researchers have concluded this is the site of Werowocomoco, they have found evidence of a large residential village inhabited since 1200 CE, with major earthworks constructed in 1400 CE, more than 200 years prior to the English colonists. In 2006 the Werowocomoco Archeological Site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Excavations continue by a team from the College of William and Mary, the Virginia Department of Natural History and representatives of Virginia descendant tribes of the Powhatan.
The peninsula formed by the York and the James rivers just to the south became the scene of the end campaign of the American Revolutionary War in October 1781. The British Army under Cornwallis at Yorktown found itself cornered by the Americans under George Washington on land and by the French fleet at sea; the ensuing American victory at the Battle of Yorktown forced the surrender of Cornwallis and the end of the war in the east. During the American Civil War, the same area became the theater of the Peninsular Campaign of 1862. In the third millennium, York River State Park is located along the southern shore northwest of Yorktown in James City County. On the south shore are several large military reservations, including Camp Peary and the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown of the U. S. Navy. Large areas of preserved wetlands and forest are considered ecologically important to migratory waterfowl; the National Park Service's Colonial Parkway provides a bucolic passage through a portion of this natural area between Williamsburg and Yorktown.
The only vehicular crossing of the York River is the George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge, a swing-type drawbridge which carries U. S. Highway 17 between Yorktown and Gloucester Point; the toll bridge, rebuilt and expanded in the mid-1990s, collects a $2 toll for automobile traffic. The bridge has been one of the sites of a special program to establish and encourage nesting locations for the peregrine falcon population of Virginia. Tue Marshes Light List of Virginia rivers York River State Park York River Watershed U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: York River