Pan American World Airways founded as Pan American Airways and known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier and unofficial flag carrier of the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991. It was founded in 1927 as a scheduled air mail and passenger service operating between Key West and Havana, Cuba; the airline is credited for many innovations that shaped the international airline industry, including the widespread use of jet aircraft, jumbo jets, computerized reservation systems. It was a founding member of the International Air Transport Association, the global airline industry association. Identified by its blue globe logo, the use of the word "Clipper" in its aircraft names and call signs, the white uniform caps of its pilots, the airline was a cultural icon of the 20th century. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority government-owned, it was the unofficial overseas flag carrier of the United States. During most of the jet era, Pan Am's flagship terminal was the Worldport located at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City.
Pan American Airways, Incorporated was founded as a shell company on March 14, 1927 by Air Corps Majors Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, Carl A. Spaatz, John H. Jouett as a counterbalance to the German-owned Colombian carrier SCADTA, operating in Colombia since 1920. SCADTA lobbied hard for landing rights in the Panama Canal Zone, ostensibly to survey air routes for a connection to the United States, which the Air Corps viewed as a precursor to a possible German aerial threat to the canal. Arnold and Spaatz drew up the prospectus for Pan American when SCADTA hired a company in Delaware to obtain air mail contracts from the US government. Pan American was able to obtain the US mail delivery contract to Cuba, but lacked any aircraft to perform the job and did not have landing rights in Cuba. Juan Trippe formed the Aviation Corporation of the Americas on June 2, 1927, with the backing of powerful and politically connected financiers who included Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney and W. Averell Harriman, raised $250,000 in startup capital from the sale of stock.
Their operation had the all-important landing rights for Havana, having acquired American International Airways, a small airline established in 1926 by John K. Montgomery and Richard B. Bevier as a seaplane service from Key West, Florida, to Havana. ACA met its deadline of having an air mail service operating by October 19, 1927 by chartering a Fairchild FC-2 floatplane from a small Dominican Republic carrier, West Indian Aerial Express; the Atlantic and Caribbean Airways company was established on October 11, 1927 by New York City investment banker Richard Hoyt, who served as president. This company merged with PAA and ACA on June 23, 1928. Richard Hoyt was named as president of the new Aviation Corporation of the Americas, but Trippe and his partners held 40% of the equity and Whitney was made president. Trippe became operational head of Pan American Airways, the new company's principal operating subsidiary; the US government approved the original Pan Am's mail delivery contract with little objection, out of fears that SCADTA would have no competition in bidding for routes between Latin America and the United States.
The government further helped Pan Am by insulating it from its US competitors, seeing the airline as the "chosen instrument" for US-based international air routes. The airline expanded internationally. Trippe and his associates planned to extend Pan Am's network through all of Central and South America. During the late 1920s and early 1930s, Pan Am purchased a number of ailing or defunct airlines in Central and South America and negotiated with postal officials to win most of the government's airmail contracts to the region. In September 1929 Trippe toured Latin America with Charles Lindbergh to negotiate landing rights in a number of countries, including Barranquilla on SCADTA's home turf of Colombia, as well as Maracaibo and Caracas in Venezuela. By the end of the year, Pan Am offered flights along the west coast of South America to Peru; the following year, Pan Am purchased the New York and Buenos Aires Line, giving it a seaplane route along the east coast of South America to Buenos Aires and westbound to Santiago, Chile.
Its Brazilian subsidiary NYRBA do Brasil was renamed as Panair do Brasil. Pan Am partnered with Grace Shipping Company in 1929 to form Pan American-Grace Airways, better known as Panagra, to gain a foothold to destinations in South America. In the same year, Pan Am acquired a controlling stake in Mexicana de Aviación and took over Mexicana's Ford Trimotor route between Brownsville and Mexico City, extending this service to the Yucatan Peninsula to connect with Pan Am's Caribbean route network. Pan Am's holding company, the Aviation Corporation of the Americas, was one of the most sought after stocks on the New York Curb Exchange in 1929, flurries of speculation surrounded each of its new route awards. In April 1929 Trippe and his associates reached an agreement with United Aircraft and Transport Corporation to segregate Pan Am operations to south of the Mexico – United States border, in exchange for UATC taking a large shareholder stake; the Aviation Corporation of the Americas changed its name to Pan American Airways Corporation in 1931.
Critical to Pan Am's success as an airline was the proficiency of its flight crews, who were rigorously trained in long-distance flight, seaplane anchorage and berthing operations, over-water navigation, radio procedure, aircraft repair, marine tides. During the day, use of the c
Theodor Christoph Heinrich Rehbock was a German hydraulics engineer, professor at the University of Karlsruhe. Theodor Rehbock's father was an overseas merchant. Rehbock studied at the Technical University Munich and Berlin Institute of Technology during 1884–90, receiving his MSc degree in 1892. Rehbock performed studies on hydraulic engineering in many countries. Further, he built a hydroelectric power station in the Murg river in Baden. In 1899, Rehbock became professor of hydraulics at the University of Karlsruhe. Where he started a hydraulics laboratory, in 1901, of which he was the director until 1934; the hydraulics aspects of most large projects in Germany – as well as in many other countries in the world – were tested here. For instance the Afsluitdijk for the separation of the Zuiderzee from the Wadden Sea in the Netherlands. After his retirement, the laboratory has been named the "Theodor Rehbock Laboratory". Rehbock was rector of the University of Karlsruhe three times: in 1907–08, 1917–18 and 1925–26.
In 1935, an initiative of Theodor Rehbock, Wolmar Fellenius and Rudolf Seifert lead to the establishment of the International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research. In 1901 Rehbock married Margarete Küster, she gave birth to one daughter. Rehbock weir – a device to measure the discharge in open channel flows. Rehbock dentated sill – for kinetic energy dissipation at the end of a stilling basin, into which the spillway of a large dam ends. This, in order to prevent or reduce scour. Theodor Rehbock Medal – of the Deutsche Vereinigung für Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser und Abfall, to honour members who made outstanding innovations within the fields covered by the association; this award has been established in 2007. Honorary doctorates from the Technical University Munich and the Palatine Joseph University of Technology and Economics in Budapest. Honorary member of the Dutch Royal Institution of Engineers in The Hague. A street in Karlsruhe has been named after him. Ettema, R. Hydraulic modeling concepts and practice, ASCE, p. 16, ISBN 978-0-7844-0415-7 Vierhaus, Rudolf, ed.
Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie, 8, K. G. Saur, p. 247, ISBN 978-3-598-25038-5 Hofmann, Karl-Heinz, "Rehbock, Theodor", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 21, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 278–279, ISBN 3-428-00181-8 Larsen, Rehbock, Landeskunde entdecken online – Baden-Württemberg, retrieved 2013-03-06 "Institut für Wasser und Gewässerentwicklung, Bereich Wasserwirtschaft und Kulturtechnik" with the Theodor Rehbock Wasserbaulaboratorium at the University of Karlsruhe Theodor Rehbock in the German National Library catalogue
Stanislavs Ladusãns was a Latvian-Brazilian professor of philosophy, a member of the Brazilian Academy of Philosophy, a Jesuit priest who arrived in Brazil on 17 February 1947. He lived in Poland and Italy. Ladusãns earned his PhD from the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. In 1970, he founded the Brazilian Society of Catholic Philosophers and the Center for Philosophical Research in São Paulo. From 1953 onwards, Ladusãns took over the direction of the Library of the Center for Higher Studies of the Society of Jesus, specializing in Philosophy and Theology. With a post-doctorate degree, Ladusãns was not able to return to Latvia because of the Soviet occupation, he hid his identity from the security organs, since, at the time, Latvians were forcibly repatriated to the Soviet Union. His ideas emerge from the thirteenth century and synthesize Thomism from the standpoint of modern philosophy and phenomenology, he was a scholar of the Prussian philosopher Immanuel Kant, to whom he devoted his doctoral thesis.
He was one of the first to divulge the concrete philosophy of Mário Ferreira dos Santos. During a scientific research on the situation of Brazilian philosophical thought, he came into contact with Mário's philosophy with whom he began to have frequent personal contacts. Stanislavs Ladusãns organized four congresses of philosophy, he was a member of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas and President of the Inter-American Catholic Association of Philosophy. He was professor of the philosopher, journalist and essayist Olavo de Carvalho in the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. Humanismo pluridimensional, Loyola, 1974, v. 2, 1037 p. Rumos da filosofia atual no Brasil. Il. Pensamento parcial e total, Loyola, 1977, 294 p. Criatividade filosófico-cristã hoje, Presença, 1982, 27 p.. Gnosiologia pluridimensional. Originalidade cristã da filosofia, Presença, 1984, 24 p.. Verdade e certeza, Presença, 1986, 50 p. A análise social filosófico-cristã, Presença, 1988, 361 p. Questões atuais de bioética, Loyola, 1990, 361 p
Heightened Senses is an online story written by Sharat Chinnapa. It was started on May 6, 2012, it is a dystopian and borderline science fiction story set 30 years into the future. The story is updated every Saturday. In this alternate future, genetic experimentation has caused an infectious genetic mutation known as "Gene-X" to run rampant. A Gene-X mutation, caused by the virus Hithalmia Azitas, is a infectious condition that causes the afflicted to react to a single certain "trigger"; the reaction to this trigger results in a heightening of the senses of the afflicted - a condition known as a "Heightening". Most of the main characters in Heightened Senses are infected, have Heightenings. Gene-X went viral thirty years ago and the world went out of control. There were massacres of infected people and those who wanted to escape the infection built settlements called "Stations" that were cut off from the outside world; the population of the world dropped drastically and people regressed to a life with limited resources.
Outside the Stations, people grouped together under powerful leaders. And an organisation called; the origins of the Country are uncertain, but they are the primary organisation that battles the Stations in the vicinity of the story. The plot begins in a city now called Haven; the old name of the city is forgotten. The follows two characters and Reide, they are fighters for hire in the city of Haven, where they accept jobs for payment in cash or kind to keep themselves supplied. An informant, Terrai Hanswitch, approaches them with a case regarding a missing child - and they accept; the case leads them to the doorstep of the one, rules the city, Shadow. Shadow has, in fact, constructed this case to bring Reide to him - and make them an offer. A third party, Erin Iyelsviel - the Ace of Diamonds - joins their meeting, things turn hostile. Shadow makes his proposition, after Erin leaves, he wants the pair to infiltrate the Country and bring back information regarding research the Country is doing on multiple Heightenings.
He reveals that this boy he has kidnapped, Jared - the one Lance and Reide are supposed to recover - is an example of a person with two Heightenings. Lance and Reide decide to accept the offer - despite the danger involved in dealing with the Country, they return to their base of operations and are met by the Jack of Clubs, who identifies herself as a double agent, reporting to Shadow from the Country. They are welcomed into the House of Clubs. Inside, Reide is taken to meet the King of Clubs, Cloud - while Lance is dismissed to a room upstairs. Inside, he is met by the Queen of Eleanor. Cloud offers to teach Reide to "transcend" on the condition that he joins the Country, Reide accepts. Meanwhile Eleanor makes a similar proposition to Lance - she suggests that since they have similar abilities, they might be able to learn each other's - proving that Heightenings are not as limited as they are believed to be, he accepts as well and they begin "practice" immediately. Terrai Hanswitch attempts to sneak into the Spire - Shadow's stronghold - and spy on a meeting between the top executives in Shadows organisation.
She is caught. However, Jared pleads for her life and Shadow decides not to kill her. Instead, both Jared and Terrai are sent on a mission to a Station identified as Station "Aris"; the next day, Lance is accosted by some members of the House of Clubs and is forced to defend himself. The fight is interrupted by Jay, the Jack, who declares that Lance be put in solitary confinement for his actions, she escorts him out, explains that this is a ruse to give him greater freedom of movement in the Country. His task is now to fulfill Shadow's assignment. Meanwhile, Reide begins his training with Cloud - and is kept apart from Lance, he believes his friend to be in solitary confinement. Jay leaves Lance at the house of Spades where over a few days he befriends the Three of Spades and steals one of her access cards. With these he is granted access to the computers and he finds information he believes Shadow might be interested in - and transfers it onto a drive that Jay gave him, he leaves the House of Spades and goes to the House of Diamonds.
Six days into his week of solitary confinement, Lance incapacitates the Four of Diamonds and takes his access card - attempting to use the same trick he used at Spades. But while attempting to steal data from the House of Diamonds, he sets of an alarm. Before he can escape, he is confronted again by Erin Iylesviel and captured - but during the battle, he catches a glimpse of Jay leaving the facility. Within Station Aris, an order is given for people to be sent out of the Station to capture "specimens" from the outside to test the effectiveness of a drug that the Stations have developed to Counter Gene-X. In the Country, a meeting of the royalty is called - and Cloud finds that Eleanor has disappeared, he takes Reide along instead. At the meeting, the possibility of the Stations mobilizing again is discussed, and at the end, Erin Iyelsviel announces. The punishment decided. Meanwhile, Eleanor breaks into the House of Diamonds and rescues Lance and they attempt to escape the facility; the Country is an organisation formed 30 years prior to the start of the story.
Their primary objective is to combat the Stations - and prevent them from massacring people from the Outside as was done 30 years ago. The Country is divided i
The Time Apprentice is a fantasy fiction novel by Val Tyler, published in 2006. When Old Father Time, Greenwich's Guardian of time feels a wobble in the earth's floor he isn't overly concerned - time has slight wibbles now and then, he has allowed for this. But two events occur in this magical invisible world that cause quakes so massive that human and Guardian time are shaken out of alignment, causing our worlds to drift further and further apart... Old Father Time and the Guardians decided that the only way to stop this happening is to search for and repair the Gemetbur - a thing of legends and before time, set up to govern time before Guardians existed, but when Tid and Sofi discover in a dusty old children's book that their grandfather, Old Father Time, is in grave danger should he reach this legendary thing, they set out after him and everyone is in a race against time to save each other as well our worlds
Miracles Happen is a song by American singer Myra. It was the second single from her 2001 self-titled album Myra; the song was used as the promotional track for the 2001 Disney film The Princess Diaries. In 2002, it received an ALMA Award nomination for "Outstanding Song in a Motion Picture Soundtrack"; the song was remixed and released on a remix EP by Grammy-nominated Italian composer and producer, Marco Marinangeli. The remix EP saw only promotional use. In 2002, a Spanish version of the song called "Siempre Hay Milagros" was released to promote the singer and film to the Spanish-speaking market; the new lyrics were co-written by Marinangeli. The music video directed by Scott Marshall was released to promote Myra as well as the film, it was shot at The Shoppes at Buckland Hills mall in Connecticut and features Myra and some girls going to Limited Too for a fashion and shopping spree and to meet with boys and the cute and adorable dog. It was choreographed by Darrin Henson and featured four background dancers whom accompanied Myra in her live concert and television performances.
In 2002, another music video was released for the Spanish version, "Siempre Hay Milagros." The new music video was produced by Braddon Mendelson. The 2002 version borrowed clips from its original English version