Echion known as Aetion, was a celebrated Greek painter spoken of by Lucian, who gives a description of one of his pictures, representing the marriage of Alexander and Roxana. This painting excited such admiration when exhibited at the Olympic Games, that Proxenidas, one of the judges, gave the artist his daughter in marriage. Echion seems to have excelled in the art of mixing and laying on his colors, it has been supposed that he lived in the time of Alexander the Great. Aloys Hirt supposes that the name of the painter of Alexander's marriage, whom Lucian praises so as Aetion, is a corruption of Echion. Sandro Botticelli drew on Lucian's ekphrasis in his Mars and Venus, borrowing the amoretti playing with Alexander's armour during the ceremony, two carrying his lance and one who has crawled inside his breastplate. List of ancient Greeks List of painters This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
Timomachus of Byzantium was an influential painter of the first century BCE. Pliny the Elder, in his Naturalis Historia, records that Julius Caesar had acquired two paintings by Timomachus, an Ajax and a Medea, which cost him the considerable sum of 80 talents. Scholars have connected these works with the carrying away of a Medea and Ajax from Cyzicus, an ancient port of Anatolia, mentioned in Cicero's In Verrem, propose that Caesar acquired them there, shortly after his victory at Pharsalus; the paintings, "a pair linked to each other by their rage", were installed in front of the Temple of Venus Genetrix, remained there until their destruction by fire in 80 CE. The Anthology of Planudes preserves a number of epigrams on the Medea, which note its incomplete state, praise its emotional intensity and verisimilitude. Scholars believe that two well-known depictions of Medea preserved at Pompeii were composed under the influence of Timomachus' work
Phidias or Pheidias was a Greek sculptor and architect. His statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Phidias designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena Parthenos inside the Parthenon, the Athena Promachos, a colossal bronze which stood between it and the Propylaea, a monumental gateway that served as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens. Phidias was the son of Charmides of Athens; the ancients believed that his masters were Ageladas. Plutarch discusses Phidias' friendship with the Greek statesman Pericles, recording that enemies of Pericles tried to attack him through Phidias –, accused of stealing gold intended for the Parthenon's statue of Athena, of impiously portraying himself and Pericles on the shield of the statue; the historical value of this account, as well as the legend about accusations against the'Periclean circle', including Aspasia and Anaxagoras, is debatable, but Aristophanes mentions an incident with Phidias around that time.
Phidias is credited as the main instigator of the Classical Greek sculptural design. Today, most historians consider him one of the greatest of all ancient Greek sculptors. Although no original works exist that can be attributed to Phidias with certainty, numerous Roman copies of varying degrees of fidelity are known to exist; this is not uncommon. All classical Greek paintings and sculptures have been destroyed, only Roman copies or notes of them exist, like the passages of Plato that ascribe Phidias' works to him; the ancient Romans copied and further developed Greek art. In antiquity Phidias was celebrated for his statues in his chryselephantine works. In the Hippias Major, Plato claims that Phidias if executed works in marble, though many of the sculptures of his time were executed in marble. Plutarch writes. Ancient critics take a high view of the merits of Phidias. What they praise is the ethos or permanent moral level of his works as compared with those of the so called "pathetic" school.
Both Pausanias and Plutarch mention works of his depicting the warlike Athena Areia. Demetrius calls his statues sublime, at the same time precise. Of his life we know little apart from his works, his first commission created a group of national heroes with Miltiades as a central figure. In 447 BC, the Athenian statesman Pericles commissioned several sculptures for Athens from Phidias to celebrate the Greek victory against the Persians at the Battle of Marathon during the Greco-Persian Wars. Pericles used some of the money from the maritime League of Delos, to rebuild and decorate Athens to celebrate this victory. Inscriptions prove that the marble blocks intended for the pedimental statues of the Parthenon were not brought to Athens until 434 BC, after the death of Phidias, it is therefore possible that most of sculptural decoration of the Parthenon was the work of Phidias' workshop including pupils of Phidias, such as Alcamenes and Agoracritus. The golden ratio has been represented by the Greek letter φ, after Phidias, said to have employed it.
The golden ratio is the irrational number 1 + √5/2 equal to 1.618, which has special mathematical properties. The earliest of the works of Phidias were dedications in memory of Marathon, celebrating the Greek victory. At Delphi he created a great group in bronze including the figures of Greek gods Apollo and Athena, several Attic heroes, General Miltiades the Younger. On the Acropolis of Athens Phidias constructed a colossal bronze statue of Athena, the Athena Promachos, visible far out at sea. Athena was the protector of Athens. At Pellene in Achaea, at Plataea Phidias made two other statues of Athena, as well as a statue of the goddess Aphrodite in ivory and gold for the people of Elis. For the ancient Greeks, two works of Phidias far outshone all others, the colossal chryselephantine Statue of Zeus, erected in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia and the Athena Parthenos, a sculpture of the Greek virgin goddess Athena, housed in the Parthenon in Athens. Both sculptures belong to about the middle of the 5th century BC.
A number of replicas and works inspired by it, both ancient and modern, have been made. Upon completing the Athena Parthenos sculpture, Phidias was accused of embezzlement, he was charged with shortchanging the amount of gold, supposed to be used in the statue and keeping the extra for himself. Plutarch writes that Phidias was died in jail. Philochorus, says that Phidias went to Elis, where he worked on the colossal Statue of Zeus at Olympia, it seems. From the late 5th century BC, small copies of the statue of Zeus found on coins from Elis, which give a general notion of the pose and the character of the head; the god was seated on a throne, every part of, used for sculptural decoration. His body was of his robe of gold, his head was of somewhat archaic type: the bust of Zeus found at Otricoli, which used to be regarded as a copy of the head of the Olympian statue, is more than a century in style. According to geographer Pausanias, the original bronze Athena Lemnia was created by Phidias for Athenians living on Lemnos.
He described it as "the best of all Pheidias's works to see". Adolf Furtwängl
Timarete, was an ancient Greek painter. She was the daughter of the painter Micon the Younger of Athens. According to Pliny the Elder, she "scorned the duties of women and practised her father's art." At the time of Archelaus I of Macedon she was best known for a panel painting of the goddess of Diana, kept at Ephesus. Ephesus had a particular reverence for the goddess Diana. While it is no longer extant, it was kept at Ephesus for many years. One of the six female artists of antiquity mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Natural History in A. D. 77: Timarete, Calypso, Iaia, Olympias. They are mentioned in Boccaccio's De mulieribus claris. Pliny the Elder Naturalis historia xxxv.35.59, 40.147. Chadwick, Whitney. Women and Society. Thames and Hudson, London, 1990. Harris, Anne Sutherland and Linda Nochlin. Women Artists: 1550–1950. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, New York, 1976
Ancient Greek art
Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which nude male figures were the focus of innovation. The rate of stylistic development between about 750 and 300 BC was remarkable by ancient standards, in surviving works is best seen in sculpture. There were important innovations in painting, which have to be reconstructed due to the lack of original survivals of quality, other than the distinct field of painted pottery. Greek architecture, technically simple, established a harmonious style with numerous detailed conventions that were adopted by Roman architecture and are still followed in some modern buildings, it used a vocabulary of ornament, shared with pottery and other media, had an enormous influence on Eurasian art after Buddhism carried it beyond the expanded Greek world created by Alexander the Great. The social context of Greek art included radical political developments and a great increase in prosperity.
The earliest art by Greeks is excluded from "ancient Greek art", instead known as Aegean art. The art of ancient Greece is divided stylistically into four periods: the Geometric, Archaic and Hellenistic; the Geometric age is dated from about 1000 BC, although in reality little is known about art in Greece during the preceding 200 years, traditionally known as the Greek Dark Ages. The 7th century BC witnessed the slow development of the Archaic style as exemplified by the black-figure style of vase painting. Around 500 BC, shortly before the onset of the Persian Wars, is taken as the dividing line between the Archaic and the Classical periods, the reign of Alexander the Great is taken as separating the Classical from the Hellenistic periods. From some point in the 1st century BC onwards "Greco-Roman" is used, or more local terms for the Eastern Greek world. In reality, there was no sharp transition from one period to another. Forms of art developed at different speeds in different parts of the Greek world, as in any age some artists worked in more innovative styles than others.
Strong local traditions, the requirements of local cults, enable historians to locate the origins of works of art found far from their place of origin. Greek art of various kinds was exported; the whole period saw a steady increase in prosperity and trading links within the Greek world and with neighbouring cultures. The survival rate of Greek art differs starkly between media. We have huge quantities of pottery and coins, much stone sculpture, though more Roman copies, a few large bronze sculptures. Missing are painting, fine metal vessels, anything in perishable materials including wood; the stone shell of a number of temples and theatres has survived, but little of their extensive decoration. By convention, finely painted vessels of all shapes are called "vases", there are over 100,000 complete surviving pieces, giving unparalleled insights into many aspects of Greek life. Sculptural or architectural pottery very painted, are referred to as terracottas, survive in large quantities. In much of the literature, "pottery" means only painted vessels, or "vases".
Pottery was the main form of grave goods deposited in tombs as "funerary urns" containing the cremated ashes, was exported. The famous and distinctive style of Greek vase-painting with figures depicted with strong outlines, with thin lines within the outlines, reached its peak from about 600 to 350 BC, divides into the two main styles reversals of each other, of black-figure and red-figure painting, the other colour forming the background in each case. Other colours were limited to small areas of white and larger ones of a different purplish-red. Within the restrictions of these techniques and other strong conventions, vase-painters achieved remarkable results, combining refinement and powerful expression. White ground technique allowed more freedom in depiction, but did not wear well and was made for burial. Conventionally, the ancient Greeks are said to have made most pottery vessels for everyday use, not for display. Exceptions are the large Archaic monumental vases made as grave-markers, trophies won at games, such as the Panathenaic Amphorae filled with olive oil, pieces made to be left in graves.
In recent decades many scholars have questioned this, seeing much more production than was thought as made to be placed in graves, as a cheaper substitute for metalware in both Greece and Etruria. Most surviving pottery consists of vessels for storing, serving or drinking liquids such as amphorae, hydria, libation bowls and perfume bottles for the toilet and cups. Painted vessels for serving and eating food are much less common. Painted pottery was affordable by ordinary people, a piece "decently decorated with about five or six figures cost about two or three days' wages". Miniatures were produced in large numbers for use as offerings at temples. In the Hellenistic period a wider range of pottery was produced, but most of it is of little artistic importance. In earlier periods quite small Greek cities produced pottery for their own locale. These
Battle of Marathon
The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece. It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes; the battle was the culmination of the first attempt by Persia, under King Darius I, to subjugate Greece. The Greek army decisively defeated the more numerous Persians, marking a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars; the first Persian invasion was a response to Athenian involvement in the Ionian Revolt, when Athens and Eretria had sent a force to support the cities of Ionia in their attempt to overthrow Persian rule. The Athenians and Eretrians had succeeded in capturing and burning Sardis, but they were forced to retreat with heavy losses. In response to this raid, Darius swore to burn down Eretria. According to Herodotus, Darius had his bow brought to him and shot an arrow "upwards towards heaven", saying as he did so: "Zeus, that it may be granted me to take vengeance upon the Athenians!".
Herodotus further writes that Darius charged one of his servants to say "Master, remember the Athenians" three times before dinner each day. At the time of the battle and Athens were the two largest city-states in Greece. Once the Ionian revolt was crushed by the Persian victory at the Battle of Lade in 494 BC, Darius began plans to subjugate Greece. In 490 BC, he sent a naval task force under Datis and Artaphernes across the Aegean, to subjugate the Cyclades, to make punitive attacks on Athens and Eretria. Reaching Euboea in mid-summer after a successful campaign in the Aegean, the Persians proceeded to besiege and capture Eretria; the Persian force sailed for Attica, landing in the bay near the town of Marathon. The Athenians, joined by a small force from Plataea, marched to Marathon, succeeded in blocking the two exits from the plain of Marathon; the Athenians sent a message asking for support to the Spartans. When the messenger arrived in Sparta, the Spartans were involved in a religious festival and gave this as a reason for not coming to aid of the Athenians.
The Athenians and their allies chose a location for the battle, with marshes and mountainous terrain, that prevented the Persian cavalry from joining the Persian infantry. Miltiades, the Athenian general, ordered a general attack against the Persian forces, composed of missile troops, he reinforced his flanks. The inward wheeling flanks enveloped the Persians; the Persian army broke in panic towards their ships, large numbers were slaughtered. The defeat at Marathon marked the end of the first Persian invasion of Greece, the Persian force retreated to Asia. Darius began raising a huge new army with which he meant to subjugate Greece. After Darius died, his son Xerxes I restarted the preparations for a second invasion of Greece, which began in 480 BC; the Battle of Marathon was a watershed in the Greco-Persian wars, showing the Greeks that the Persians could be beaten. The battle showed the Greeks that they were able to win battles without the Spartans, as they had relied on Sparta previously; this victory was due to the Athenians, Marathon raised Greek esteem of them.
Since the following two hundred years saw the rise of the Classical Greek civilization, enduringly influential in western society, the Battle of Marathon is seen as a pivotal moment in Mediterranean and European history. The main source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus. Herodotus, called the "Father of History", was born in 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor, he wrote his Enquiries around 440–430 BC, trying to trace the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, which would still have been recent history. Herodotus's approach was novel, at least in Western society, he does seem to have invented "history" as we know it; as Holland has it: "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally." Some subsequent ancient historians, despite following in his footsteps, criticised Herodotus, starting with Thucydides.
Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off, may therefore have felt that Herodotus's history was accurate enough not to need re-writing or correcting. Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay On the malice of Herodotus, describing Herodotus as "Philobarbaros", for not being pro-Greek enough, which suggests that Herodotus might have done a reasonable job of being even-handed. A negative view of Herodotus was passed on to Renaissance Europe. However, since the 19th century his reputation has been rehabilitated by archaeological finds which have confirmed his version of events; the prevailing modern view is that Herodotus did a remarkable job in his Historiai, but that some of his specific details should be viewed with skepticism. There are still some historians who believe Herodotus made up much of his story; the Sicilian historian Diodorus Siculus, writing in the 1st century BC in his Bibliotheca Historica provides an
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012