Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower, native to southern Brazil through Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is cultivated commercially in tropical and subtropical areas for its sweet, seedy fruit called passion fruit; the fruit is a pepo, a type of berry, round to oval, either yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds. The fruit is both eaten or juiced, the juice added to other fruit juices to enhance aroma; the passion fruit is so called because it is one of the many species of passion flower, the English translation of the Latin genus name, Passiflora. Around 1700, the name was given by missionaries in Brazil as an educational aid while trying to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity. P. edulis is a perennial vine. There are two main varieties: a purple-fruited type, P. edulis f. edulis, the yellow-fruited P. edulis f. flavicarpa. The vine produces a single flower 5–7.5 cm wide at each node. The flower has green sepals and 5 white petals.
The sepals and petals form a fringe. The base of the flower is a rich purple with 5 stamens, an ovary, a branched style; the styles bend backward and the anthers, which are located on top of the styles, have a distinct head. The fruit produced is fleshy, is spherical to ovoid; the outside color of the berry ranges from dark-purple with fine white specks to light yellow. The fruit is 4—7.5 cm in diameter. The smooth, leathery rind is 9–13 mm thick, including a thick layer of pith. Within the berry, there are 250 black seeds, each 2.4 mm in length. Each seed is surrounded by a membranous sac filled with pulpy juice; the flavor of the juice is acidic and musky. The passion fruit's flavor can be compared to that of the guava fruit. Several distinct varieties of passion fruit with differing exterior appearances exist; the bright yellow flavicarpa variety known as yellow or golden passionfruit, can grow up to the size of a grapefruit, has a smooth, glossy and airy rind, has been used as a rootstock for purple passionfruit in Australia.
The dark purple edulis variety is smaller than a lemon, though it is less acidic than yellow passionfruit, has a richer aroma and flavour. Passion fruit has a variety of uses juice. In Australia and New Zealand, it is fresh and tinned, it is added to fruit salads, fresh fruit pulp or passion fruit sauce is used in desserts, including as a topping for pavlova and ice cream, a flavouring for cheesecake, in the icing of vanilla slices. A passionfruit-flavored soft drink called Passiona has been manufactured in Australia since the 1920s, it can be used in some alcoholic cocktails. In Brazil, the term maracujá applies to passion granadillo. Passion fruit mousse is a common dessert, passion fruit pulp is used to decorate the tops of cakes. Passion fruit juice, ice pops and more soft drinks are popular; when making caipirinha, one may use passion fruit instead of lime. In Colombia, it is one of the most important fruits for juices and desserts, it is available all over the country and three kinds of "maracuyá" fruit may be found.
In the Dominican Republic, where it is locally called chinola, it is used to make juice and Fruit preserves. Passion fruit-flavored syrup is used on shaved ice, the fruit is eaten raw, sprinkled with sugar. In East Africa, passion fruit is used to make fruit juice and is eaten as a whole fruit. In Hawaii, where it is known as liliko'i, passion fruit can be cut in half and the seeds scooped out with a spoon. Lilikoi-flavoured syrup is a popular topping for shave ice, it is used as a dessert flavouring for malasadas, cookies, ice cream and mochi. Passion fruit is favoured as a jam or jelly, as well as a butter. Lilikoi syrup can be used to glaze or to marinate meat and vegetables. In India, the government of Andhra Pradesh started growing passion fruit vines in the Chintapalli forests to make fruit available within the region; the fruit is eaten raw, sprinkled with sugar and is used to make juice. In Indonesia, there are two types of white flesh and yellow flesh; the white one is eaten straight as a fruit, while the yellow variety is strained to obtain its juice, cooked with sugar to make thick syrup.
In Mexico, passion fruit is eaten raw with chilli powder and lime. In Paraguay, passion fruit is used principally for its juice, to prepare desserts such as passion fruit mousse, ice cream, to flavour yogurts and cocktails. In Peru, passion fruit has long been a staple in homemade ice pops called "marciano" or "chupetes". Passion fruit is used in several desserts mousses and cheesecakes. Passion fruit juice is drunk on its own and is used in ceviche variations and in cocktails, including the Maracuyá sour, a variation of the Pisco sour. Can be eaten raw. In the Philippines, passion fruit is sold in public markets and in public schools; some vendors sell the fruit with a straw to enable sucking out the juices inside. In Portugal the Azores
A flan, in English and other cuisines, is a dish with an open, rimmed pastry or sponge base containing a sweet or savory filling. Examples are the quiche lorraine, custard tart, leche flan, the South African melktert. Flan is known in Roman cuisine, it was a savory dish, as in "eel flan". In the Middle Ages, both sweet and savory flans were popular in Europe during Lent, when meat was forbidden; the English word "flan", the earlier forms "flaune" and "flawn", come from the Old French flaon, in turn from the early Medieval Latin fladōn-em, derived from the Old High German flado, a sort of flat cake from an Indo-European root for "flat" or "broad". Flaons List of pies and flans Quiche
Ceviche cebiche, seviche or sebiche, is a seafood dish made from fresh raw fish cured in citrus juices, such as lemon or lime, spiced with ají, chili peppers or other seasonings including chopped onions and cilantro. Because the dish is not cooked with heat, it must be prepared and consumed fresh to minimize the risk of food poisoning. Ceviche is accompanied by side dishes that complement its flavors, such as sweet potato, corn, avocado or plantain; the dish is popular in the Pacific coastal regions of Latin America. Though the origin of ceviche is hotly debated, in Peru it is considered a national dish. Though archeological records suggest that something resembling ceviche may have been consumed in Peru nearly two thousand years ago, some historians believe the predecessor to the dish was brought to Peru by Moorish women from Granada, who accompanied the Spanish conquistadors and colonizers, this dish evolved into what is now considered ceviche. Peruvian chef Gastón Acurio further explains that the dominant position Lima held through four centuries as the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru allowed for popular dishes such as ceviche to be brought to other Spanish colonies in the region, in time they became a part of local cuisine by incorporating regional flavors and styles.
Ceviche is now a popular international dish prepared in a variety of ways throughout the Americas, reaching the United States in the 1980s. The greatest variety of ceviches are found in Ecuador, Colombia and Peru; the origin of the name of the dish is disputed. One hypothesis suggests the common Spanish word for the dish, has its origin in the Latin word cibus, which translates to English as "food" Another hypothesis, supported by the Royal Spanish Academy, is that "ceviche" has the same etymology as "escabeche", which derives from Mozarabic izkebêch, in turn descending from Andalusian Arabic assukkabáǧ, which derives from Classical Arabic sakbāj, meaning meat cooked in vinegar), it is from the unattested Middle Persian *sikbāg, from sik and *bāg, which yielded the Persian word sekbā. Further hypotheses base the origin of the term on escabeche, Spanish for pickle, or it is a variation of the word siwichi, the traditional Quechua name for the dish; the name of the dish may be spelled variously as cebiche, seviche or sebiche, but the more common spelling in Peru is ceviche with "v”, an alternative spelling accepted by the Royal Spanish Academy, the official institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language in Spain.
Despite this, other local terms, such as cerbiche and serviche, are still used as variations to name the dish. In regard to its origin, various explanations are given. According to some historic sources from Peru, ceviche would have originated among the Moche, a coastal civilization that began to flourish in the area of current-day northern Peru nearly 2000 years ago; the Moche used the fermented juice from the local banana passionfruit. Recent investigations further show, during the Inca Empire, fish were marinated with the use of chicha, an Andean fermented beverage. Different chronicles report, along the Peruvian coast prior to the arrival of Europeans, fish was consumed with salt and ají. Furthermore, this theory proposes the natives switched to the citrus fruits brought by the Spanish colonists, but the main concepts of the plate remain the same; the invention of the dish is attributed to places ranging from Central America to the Polynesian islands in the South Pacific. In Ecuador, it could have had its origins with its coastal civilizations, as both Peru and Ecuador have shared cultural heritages and a large variety of fish and shellfish.
Ceviche is not native to Mexico, despite the fact that the dish has been a part of traditional Mexican coastal cuisine for centuries. The Spanish, who brought from Europe citrus fruits such as lime, could have originated the dish in Spain with roots in Moorish cuisine. Most historians agree ceviche originated during colonial times in the area of present-day Peru, they propose the predecessor to the dish was brought to Peru by Moorish women from Granada who accompanied the Spaniards, this dish evolved into what nowadays is considered ceviche. Peruvian chef Gastón Acurio further explains the dominant position that Lima held through four centuries as the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru allowed for popular dishes such as ceviche to be brought to other Spanish colonies in the region, in time they became a part of local cuisine by incorporating regional flavors and styles. Other notable chefs who support the Peruvian origin of the plate include Chilean Christopher Carpentier and Spaniard Ferran Adrià, who in an interview stated, "Cebiche was born in Peru, so the authentic and genuine is Peruvian."
Ceviche is marinated in a citrus-based mixture, with lemons and limes being the most used. In addition to adding flavor, the citric acid causes the proteins in the seafood to become denatured, appearing to be cooked. Traditional-style ceviche was marinated for about three hours. Modern-style ceviche, popularized in the 1970s has a short marinating period. With the appropriate fish, it can marinate in the time it takes to mix the ingredients and carry the ceviche to the table. Most Latin American countries have given ceviche its own t
Achiote is a shrub or small tree originating from the tropical region of the Americas. North and South American natives used the seeds to make red body paint and lipstick, as well as a spice. For this reason, the achiote is sometimes called the lipstick tree; the tree is best known as the source of annatto, a natural orange-red condiment obtained from the waxy arils that cover its seeds. The ground seeds are used in traditional dishes in Central and South America and the Caribbean, such as cochinita pibil, chicken in achiote and caldo de olla. Annatto and its extracts are used as an industrial food coloring to add yellow or orange color to many products such as butter, sausages and popcorn; the species name was given by Linnaeus after the Spanish conquistador Francisco de Orellana, an early explorer of the Amazon River. The name achiote derives from the Nahuatl word for the shrub, āchiotl, it may be referred to as aploppas, or by its original Tupi name uruku, urucu or urucum, used for the body paint prepared from its seeds.
Bixa orellana is a tall shrub to small evergreen tree 6–10 m high. It bears clusters of 5 cm bright white to pink flowers, resembling single wild roses, appearing at the tips of the branches; the fruits are in clusters: spiky looking red-brown seed pods covered in soft spines. Each pod contains many seeds covered with a thin waxy blood-red aril; when mature, the pod dries and splits open, exposing the seeds. The red color of the seed coats is due to the carotenoid pigments and norbixin. Although the exact origin of B. orellana is unknown, it is native to the American tropics: "it is said to be indigenous by Seemann on the northwest coast of Mexico and Panama, by Triana in New Granada, by Meyer in Dutch Guiana, by Piso and Claussen in Brazil”. B. orellana is found in substantial wild and cultivated acreages from Mexico to Ecuador and Bolivia. During the 16th and 17th centuries, annatto was distributed to Southeast Asia, the Caribbean and southeastern North America in tropical and subtropical regions.
It became cultivated in tropical regions of Asia, such as India, Sri Lanka, Java for the dye which the seeds yield. Bixa orellana is grown and in frost-free regions, from subtropical to tropical climates, sheltered from cool winds, it prefers year-round moisture, good drainage, moderately fertile soil in full sun or partial shade. It can be propagated from seed and cuttings. Cutting-grown plants flower at a younger age than seedlings; the main commercial producers of B. orellana are countries in Latin America which constitute 60% of total world production followed by Africa and Asia. Production statistics are not available, would not provide a reliable guide to international trade since many of the producing countries use significant quantities domestically. Annual world production of dried annatto seed at the beginning of the 21st century was estimated at about 10,000 tons, of which 7,000 tons enter international trade. Peru is the largest exporter of annatto seed, annually about 4,000 tons. Kenya exports annually about 1,500 tons annatto seed and extracts and is the second-largest exporter, after Peru.
Côte d'Ivoire and Angola are exporters. Before synthetic dyes revolutionized industry, the tree was planted commercially for the pigment, extracted by solvent or boiling the seeds in oil, used to color cheese, chocolate and paints. Annatto oil is rich in tocotrienols, beta-carotene, essential oil and unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin C; the seeds are collected from wild-growing bushes or from plantations in Latin America and Asia. Ground B. orellana seeds are mixed with other seeds or spices to form a paste or powder for culinary use in Latin American, Jamaican and Filipino cuisines. The seeds are heated in oil or lard to extract its dye and flavor for use in dishes and processed foods such as cheese, soup, sauces, cured meats, other items; the seeds impart a yellow to reddish-orange color to food. The seeds are used to flavor rice instead of the much more expensive saffron. In Brazil, a powder known as colorau or colorífico is made from the ground seeds combined with filler seeds like maize.
This powder sometimes replaces paprika. The Yucatecan condiment called recado rojo or "achiote paste" is made from ground seeds combined with other spices, it is a mainstay of the Belizean cuisines. A condiment called sazón is used in Spanish, Latin American, Caribbean cuisine for meats and fish. Sazón is made from achiote seeds, coriander seeds and garlic powder; the Spanish word sazón means "season" or "seasoning". The tree has been used in folk medicine practices of India, where different parts of the plant are thought to be useful as therapy. Achiote has long been used by American Indians to make a bright red paint for the hair. Body-painting with urucu remains an important tradition of many Brazilian native tribes, it was used for body paint among the native Taínos in Borinquen, Puerto Rico. The use of achiote hair dye by men of the Tsáchila of Ecuador is the origin of their Spanish name, the Colorados; the Aztec people of Mexico used achiote seeds as source of a red ink for manuscript painting in the 16th century.
The plant is valued for its stem
Demographics of Panama
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Panama, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Panama's population was 4,034,119 people in 2016, compared to 860,000 in 1950; the proportion of the population aged below 15 in 2010 was 29%. 64.5% of the population were aged between 15 and 65, with 6.6% of the population being 65 years or older. Structure of the population: More than half the population lives in the Panama City-Colón metropolitan corridor; the culture and language of Panama are predominantly Caribbean Spanish. In 2010 the population was 65% Mestizo, 9.2% Black, 6.8% mulattoes, 13% White and 6% Native Americans. Caucasian ethnic groups in Panama include Spanish and Irish, French, Italians, Poles, Russians or Ukrainians and Americans. Panama has a considerable population of Arabs and Asians: in particular Chinese, Palestinians, South Asians and Syrians; the first Chinese immigrated to Panama from southern China in the 19th century to help build the Panama Railroad.
There followed several waves of immigrants after the 1970s, when the ensuing decades saw up to 80,000 immigrants from all over China. At least 50,000 Panamanians are ethnic Chinese, though some estimates count as many as 135,000. Most of the Chinese population reside in the province of Chiriquí; some studies suggest that 1 million Panamanians have at least one Chinese ancestor. Afro-Panamanians first arrived during the colonial era, they are intermixed in the general population or live in small Afro-Panamanian communities along the Atlantic Coast and in villages within the Darién jungle. Most of the people in Darien are fishermen or small-scale farmers growing crops such as bananas and coffee as well as raising livestock. Other Afro-Panamanians descend from migrants from the Caribbean who came to work on railroad-construction projects, commercial agricultural enterprises, the canal. Important Afro-Caribbean community areas include towns and cities such as Colón, Cristobal and Balboa, in the former Canal Zone, as well as the Río Abajo area of Panama City.
Another region with a large Afro-Caribbean population is the province of Bocas del Toro on the Caribbean coast just south of Costa Rica. Most of the Panamanian population of West Indian descent owe their presence in the country to the monumental efforts to build the Panama Canal in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Three-quarters of the 50,000 workers who built the canal were Afro Caribbean migrants from the British West Indies. Thousands of Afro-Caribbean workers were recruited from Jamaica and Trinidad. Many languages, including seven indigenous languages, are spoken in Panama, although Spanish is the official and dominant language; the local variant is Panamanian Spanish. English is sometimes spoken by many professionals and those working in the business or governmental sectors of society. Indigenous languages include Guaymí, Northern Embera and Teribe. Bocas del Toro Creole is spoken; the majority of Panamanians are Christian. Other faiths exist in Panama by the country's tolerance and freedom of religion, there are large Protestant, Bahá'í, Muslim and Hindu religious groups in Panama.
Registration of vital events is in Panama not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. Panama Ethnic groups in Central America This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
The beetroot is the taproot portion of a beet plant known in North America as the beet, known as the table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet. It is one of several cultivated varieties of Beta vulgaris grown for their edible taproots and leaves. Vulgaris'Conditiva' Group. Besides being used as a food, beets have uses as a medicinal plant. Many beet products are made from other Beta vulgaris varieties sugar beet. Beta is the ancient Latin name for beets of Celtic origin, becoming bete in Old English around 1400. Root derives from the late Old English rōt, itself from Old Norse rót. From the Middle Ages, beetroot was used as a treatment for a variety of conditions illnesses relating to digestion and the blood. Bartolomeo Platina recommended taking beetroot with garlic to nullify the effects of "garlic-breath". During the middle of the 19th century, wine was coloured with beetroot juice. Below is a list of several available cultivars of beets. 55 to 65 days are needed from germination to harvest of the root.
All cultivars can be harvested earlier for use as greens. Unless otherwise noted, the root colours are shades of red and dark red with different degrees of zoning noticeable in slices; the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted, or raw, either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish. In Indian cuisine, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a small scale for home consumption; the green, leafy portion of the beet is edible. The young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the mature leaves are most served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach; those greens selected should be from bulbs that are unmarked, instead of those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, both of which are signs of dehydration. The domestication of beets can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot.
Beetroot can be boiled or steamed and eaten warm with or without butter as a delicacy. Pickled beets are a traditional food in many countries. A traditional Pennsylvania Dutch dish is pickled beet egg. Hard-boiled eggs are refrigerated in the liquid left over from pickling beets and allowed to marinate until the eggs turn a deep pink-red colour. In Poland and Ukraine, beet is combined with horseradish to form popular ćwikła or бурачки, traditionally used with cold cuts and sandwiches, but also added to a meal consisting of meat and potatoes. In Serbia where the popular cvekla is used as winter salad, seasoned with salt and vinegar, with meat dishes; as an addition to horseradish, it is used to produce the "red" variety of chrain, a popular condiment in Ashkenazi Jewish, Polish, Lithuanian and Ukrainian cuisine. Popular in Australian hamburgers, a slice of pickled beetroot is combined with other condiments on a beef patty to make an Aussie burger. In Northern Germany, beetroot is added as its side order.
When beet juice is used, it is most stable in foods with a low water content, such as frozen novelties and fruit fillings. Betanins, obtained from the roots, are used industrially as red food colourants, e.g. to intensify the colour of tomato paste, desserts and jellies, ice cream and breakfast cereals. Beetroot can be used to make wine. A moderate amount of chopped beetroot is sometimes added to the Japanese pickle fukujinzuke for color. Food shortages in Europe following World War I caused great hardships, including cases of mangelwurzel disease, as relief workers called it, it was symptomatic of eating only beets. Beetroot as food Raw beetroot is 88% water, 10% carbohydrates, 2% protein, less than 1% fat. In a 100-gram amount providing 43 calories, raw beetroot is a rich source of folate and a moderate source of manganese, with other nutrients having insignificant content. In preliminary research, beetroot juice reduced blood pressure in hypertensive people. Tentative evidence has found that dietary nitrate supplementation, such as from beets and other vegetables, results in a small improvement in endurance exercise performance.
Betanin, obtained from the roots, is used industrially as red food colorant, to improve the color and flavor of tomato paste, desserts and jellies, ice cream and breakfast cereals, among other applications. The chemical adipic acid occurs in nature, but happens to occur in beetroot; the red colour compound betanin is not broken down in the body, in higher concentrations may temporarily cause urine or stools to assume a reddish colour, in the case of urine a condition called beeturia. Although harmless, this effect may cause initial concern due to the visual similarity to what appears to be blood in the stool, hematochezia or hematuria. Nitrosamine formation in beet juice can reliably be prevented by adding ascorbic acid. List of Lepidoptera that feed on beets Media related to Beetroot at Wikimedia Commons
Manihot esculenta called cassava, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Though it is called yuca in Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to yucca, a shrub in the family Asparagaceae. Cassava, when dried to a powdery extract, is called tapioca. Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after maize. Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people, it is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of dried cassava. Cassava is classified as either bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain antinutritional factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication and ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource in times of famine or food insecurity in some places. Farmers prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests and thieves; the cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick and brown on the outside. Commercial cultivars can be 5 to 10 cm in diameter at the top, around 15 to 30 cm long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's axis; the flesh can be yellowish. Cassava roots are rich in starch and contain small amounts of calcium and vitamin C. However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein, but deficient in the amino acid methionine and tryptophan. Wild populations of M. esculenta subspecies flabellifolia, shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was first domesticated no more than 10,000 years BP.
Forms of the modern domesticated species can be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc pollen appears in the Gulf of Mexico lowlands, at the San Andrés archaeological site; the oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old Maya site, Joya de Cerén, in El Salvador. With its high food potential, it had become a staple food of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Cassava was a staple food of pre-Columbian peoples in the Americas and is portrayed in indigenous art; the Moche people depicted yuca in their ceramics. Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial and not nutritious, they much preferred foods from Spain wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, meat, considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans. For these Christians in the New World, cassava was not suitable for communion since it could not undergo transubstantiation and become the body of Christ.
"Wheat flour was the symbol of Christianity itself" and colonial-era catechisms stated explicitly that only wheat flour could be used. The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Mass production of cassava bread became the first Cuban industry established by the Spanish, Ships departing to Europe from Cuban ports such as Havana, Santiago and Baracoa carried goods to Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage; the Spanish needed to replenish their boats with dried meat, water and large amounts of cassava bread. Sailors complained. Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as as regular bread. Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Around the same period, it was introduced to Asia through Columbian Exchange by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Eastern Indonesia and the Philippines. Maize and cassava are now important staple foods.
Cassava has become an important staple in Asia, extensively cultivated in Indonesia and Vietnam. Cassava is sometimes described as the "bread of the tropics" but should not be confused with the tropical and equatorial bread tree, the breadfruit or the African breadfruit. In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million tonnes, with Nigeria as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total. Other major growers were Thailand and Indonesia. Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be grown on marginal soils, gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2,000 m above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls from 50 mm to 5 m annually, to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline; these conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and So