Ferrara is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara. As of 2016 it had 132,009 inhabitants, it is situated 44 kilometres northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River, located 5 km north. The town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the Renaissance, when it hosted the court of the House of Este. For its beauty and cultural importance, it has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the first documented settlements in the area of the present-day Province of Ferrara date from the 6th century BC. The ruins of the Etruscan town of Spina, established along the lagoons at the ancient mouth of Po river, were lost until modern times, when drainage schemes in the Valli di Comacchio marshes in 1922 first revealed a necropolis with over 4,000 tombs, evidence of a population centre that in Antiquity must have played a major role. There is uncertainty among scholars about the proposed Roman origin of the settlement in its current location, for little is known of this period, but some archeologic evidence points to the hypothesis that Ferrara could have been originated from two small Byzantine settlements: a cluster of facilities around the Cathedral of St. George, on the right bank of the main branch of the Po, which ran much closer to the city than today, a castrum, a fortified complex built on the left bank of the river to defend against the Lombards.
Ferrara appears first in a document of the Lombard king Desiderius of 753 AD, when he captured the town from the Exarchate of Ravenna. The Franks, after routing the Lombards, presented Ferrara to the Papacy in 754 or 756. In 988 Ferrara was ceded by the Church to the House of Canossa, but at the death of Matilda of Tuscany in 1115 it became a free commune. During the 12th century the history of the town was marked by the wrestling for power between two preeminent families, the Guelph Adelardi and the Ghibelline Salinguerra. In 1264 Obizzo II of Este was thus proclaimed lifelong ruler of Ferrara, Lord of Modena in 1288 and of Reggio in 1289, his rule marked the end of the communal period in Ferrara and the beginning of the Este rule, which lasted until 1598. In 1452 Borso of Este was created duke of Modena and Reggio by Emperor Frederick III and in 1471 duke of Ferrara by Pope Paul II. Lionello and Ercole I were among the most important patrons of the arts in late 15th- and early 16th-century Italy.
During this time, Ferrara grew into an international cultural centre, renowned for its architecture, music and visual arts. The architecture of Ferrara benefited from the genius of Biagio Rossetti, requested in 1484 by Ercole I to draft a masterplan for the expansion of the town; the resulting "Erculean Addition" is considered one of the most important examples of Renaissance urban planning and contributed to the selection of Ferrara as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In spite of having entered its golden age, Ferrara was hit by a war against Venice fought and lost in 1482–84. Alfonso I married the notorious Lucrezia Borgia, he again fought Venice in the Italian Wars after joining the League of Cambrai. In 1509 he was excommunicated by Pope Julius II, but was able to overcome the Papal and Spanish armies in 1512 at the Battle of Ravenna; these successes were based on Ferrara's artillery, produced in his own foundry, the best of its time. At his death in 1534, Alfonso I was succeeded by his son Ercole II that in 1528 married Renée of France, the second daughter of Louis XII, thus bringing great prestige to the court of Ferrara.
Under his reign, the Duchy remained a cultural powerhouse. However, an earthquake struck the town in 1570, causing the economy to collapse, when Ercole II's son Alfonso II died without heirs, the House of Este lost Ferrara to the Papal States. Ferrara, a university city second only to Bologna, remained a part of the Papal States for 300 years, an era marked by a steady decline. In 1805–1814 it became part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, a client-state of the French Empire. After the 1815 Congress of Vienna, Ferrara was given back to the Pope, now guaranteed by the Empire of Austria. A bastion fort erected in the 1600s by Pope Paul V on the site of and old castle called "Castel Tedaldo", at the south-west angle of the town, was thus occupied by an Austrian garrison from 1832 until 1859. All of the fortress was dismantled following the birth of the Kingdom of Italy and the bricks used for new constructions all over the town. During the last decades of the 1800s and the early 1900s, Ferrara remained a modest trade centre for its large rural hinterland that relied on commercial crops such as sugar beet and industrial hemp.
Large land reclamation works were carried out for decades with the aim to expand the available arable land and eradicate malaria from the wetlands along the Po delta. Mass industrialisation came to Ferrara only at the end of the 1930s with the set-up of a chemical plant by the Fascist regime that should have supplied the regime with synthetic rubber. During the Second World War Ferrara was bombed by Allied warplanes that targeted and destroyed railway links and industrial facilities. After the war, the industrial area in Pontelagoscuro was expanded to become a giant petrochemical compound operated by Montecatini and other companies, tha
Monte Cimone is the highest mountain in the northern Apennines, of Italy. The mountain has an elevation of 2,165 m and is the highest point in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, it encompasses the comuni of Fiumalbo, Sestola and Riolunato in the province of Modena. Its interior houses a military structure. During World War II it was a German radar site and anti-aircraft gun battery, it was used as a communications relay site by the U. S. Air Force, until removed in 2008, it is a frequented winter ski resort. In the resort there are 31 ski trails for a total length of more than 50 km served by 26 lifts. Ski season starts at the beginning of December and ends in the middle of April; the resort is composed by six different area well-linked by lifts. Famous trails are the no. 9-Nord Funivia, no. 10-Direttissima, no. 17-Sette Fontane and no. 5-Delle Aquile. The resort is frequented by snowboarders as it hosts a large snowpark in Passo del Lupo's area, plus two minor snowparks in the areas of Lago Ninfa and Polle.
List of European ultra prominent peaks List of Italian regions by highest point Media related to Monte Cimone at Wikimedia Commons "Monte Cimone, Italy" on Peakbagger
Province of Modena
The Province of Modena is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Modena, it has an area of 2,689 square kilometres and a total population of about 701,000. There are 48 comuni in the province; the largest after Modena are Carpi, Sassuolo and Castelfranco Emilia. Modena is one of the most important industrial-economy poles in Europe: it is considered as capital of Supercars and SportCars industries lodging Ferrari, Maserati, De Tomaso and Pagani car manufacturers, international food industries like Grandi Salumifici, Cremonini Group, Fini Group, pottery manufacturers and pharmaceutical. World famous and iconic trading cards company Panini Group comes from Modena. Official website
Vignola is a city and comune in the province of Modena, Italy. Its economy is based on agriculture fruit farming, but there are mechanical industries and service companies; the city is known as the birthplace of the Renaissance architect Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola. Vignola, whose name derives from the Latin vineola is located near an ancient Etruscan road connecting Bologna to Parma; however it is mentioned in the Middle Ages as having been founded in 826 as, according to the legend, a castle to protect the lands of the nearby Abbey of Nonantola. Vignola was a possession of those bishops until 1247; this lasted until 1399. With the death of Ercole Contrari in 1557, Vignola was assigned to Giacomo Boncompagni, son of Pope Gregory XIII; the Boncompagni rule fell with the Napoleonic Conquest of Italy, after the Congress of Vienna of 1814, Vignola became part of the Duchy of Modena. Town Museum The Castle, built in the Carolingian era but known from 1178, it houses a chapel with late-Gothic frescoes, a hall with frescoes from the same age.
Palazzo dei Contrari Palazzo Boncompagni Torre Galvani Barbezieux-Saint-Hilaire, since 1982 Witzenhausen, since 1982 Angol, since 1998
Bondeno is a comune in the Province of Ferrara in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 45 kilometres north of Bologna and about 15 kilometres northwest of Ferrara. Bondeno borders the following municipalities: Cento, Ficarolo, Finale Emilia, Sermide e Felonica, Terre del Reno, Vigarano Mainarda, its territory is crossed by the Panaro river. In the 1463, in the city of Bondeno was printed the first movable character book of the whole Italian history, a Bible, using the printing press method. Dillingen an der Donau, Germany Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina Official website
Pievepelago is a comune in the Province of Modena in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna in the heart of the northern Apennine Mountains. Situated on the Scoltenna river, in a mountain valley, it is a tourist resort crossed by the "Via Vandelli", it is about 70 kilometres southwest of Bologna, about 60 kilometres southwest of Modena, about 60 kilometres north of Lucca and about 70 kilometres northwest of Florence. It has a population of about 2200 inhabitants, spread among the main town and its frazioni Sant'Annapelago, Sant'Andreapelago and Tagliole. Pievepelago is of medieval origins; the first document which attests the presence of a village in the valley belongs to the 10th century. The name of the village came from the presence of the pieve of Santa Maria Assunta since its early years. In the 18th century, two roads, Via Vandelli and Giardini, were built in order to join Tuscany to the north of Italy by cutting across the Apennines; that development increased trade a lot in the valley, brought the town greater prestige and population.
During World War II Pievepelago was on the Gothic line, many inhabitants fought as partisans to free the valley. A monument celebrating the victims of the war is located in the center of town. Pievepelago is a local mountain outdoor activity centre. In winter the most practised sport is skiing, in the ski resort of Sant'Annapelago or in the larger ones of Abetone and Monte Cimone. In summer trekking can be performed in the Frignano Wild Park; the excursions starts at the glacial lakes in Tagliole Valley up to the peaks of Monte Riolunato and Monte Giovo, the second highest mountain in the region. This territory contains a variety of fauna like, such as golden eagles. Near Pievepelago there is the Santo Lake, an area of naturalistic interest and a starting point for excursions. In 2010 some mummified. Today the local castle houses the Museo delle Mummie. Palmiro Serafini, ski mountaineer and cross-country skier