Panasonic Corporation known as Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Japan. The company was founded in 1918 as a producer of lightbulb sockets and has grown to become one of the largest Japanese electronics producers alongside Sony, Toshiba and Canon Inc. In addition to electronics, it offers non-electronic products and services such as home renovation services. Panasonic is the world's fourth-largest television manufacturer by 2012 market share. Panasonic has a primary listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices, it has a secondary listing on the Nagoya Stock Exchange. From 1935 to October 1, 2008, the company name was "Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd." On January 10, 2008, the company announced that it would change its name to "Panasonic Corporation", in effect on October 1, 2008, to conform with its global brand name "Panasonic". The name change was approved at a shareholders' meeting on June 26, 2008 after consultation with the Matsushita family.
Panasonic was founded in 1918 by Kōnosuke Matsushita as a vendor of duplex lamp sockets. In the 1920's Matsushita began launching products. In 1927, he produced a line of bicycle lamps that were the first to be marketed with the "National" brand name. During World War II the company operated factories in Japan and other parts of Asia which produced electrical components and appliances such as light fixtures, electric irons, wireless equipment and its first vacuum tubes. After the war, Panasonic regrouped as a Keiretsu and began to supply the post-war boom in Japan with radios and appliances, as well as bicycles. Matsushita's brother-in-law, Toshio Iue, founded Sanyo as a subcontractor for components after World War II. Sanyo grew to become a competitor to Panasonic, but was acquired by Panasonic in December 2009. In 1961, Matsushita met American dealers; the company began producing television sets for the U. S. market under the Panasonic brand name, expanded the use of the brand to Europe in 1979.
The company used the National brand outside North America from the 1950s to the 1970s. The inability to use the National brand name led to the creation of the Panasonic brand in the United States. Over the next several decades Panasonic released additional products, including black and white TV's, electrical blenders, rice cookers, color TV's and microwave ovens; the company debuted a hi-fidelity audio speaker in Japan in 1965 with the brand Technics. This line of high quality stereo components became worldwide favorites, the most famous products being its turntables, such as the SL-1200 record player, known for its high performance and durability. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, Panasonic continued to produce high-quality specialized electronics for niche markets such as shortwave radios, developed its successful line of stereo receivers, CD players and other components. In 1973, Matsushita established "Anam National", joint venture with Anam Group in South Korea. In 1983, Matsushita launched the Panasonic Senior Partner, the first IBM PC compatible Japanese-made computer.
In November 1990, Matsushita agreed to acquire the American media company MCA Inc. for US$6.59 billion. Matsushita subsequently sold 80% of MCA to Seagram Company for US$7 billion in April 1995. In 1998, Matsushita sold Anam National to Anam Electronics. On May 2, 2002, Panasonic Canada marked its 35th anniversary in that country by giving $5 million to help build a "music city" on Toronto's waterfront. On January 19, 2006, Panasonic announced that it would stop producing analog televisions from the next month, in order to concentrate on digital televisions. In 2008, all models of electric shavers from the Panasonic factory were called Panasonic shavers, they dropped Matsushita and National from their name, regardless of worldwide or Japanese markets. On November 3, 2008, Panasonic and Sanyo announced that they were holding merger talks, which resulted in the acquisition of Sanyo by Panasonic; the merger was completed in December 2009, resulted in a corporation with revenues of over ¥11.2 trillion.
With the announcement that Pioneer would exit the production of its Kuro plasma HDTV displays, Panasonic purchased many of the patents and incorporated these technologies into its own plasma displays. In April 2011, it was announced that Panasonic would cut its work force by 40,000 by the end of fiscal 2012 in a bid to streamline overlapping operations; the curtailment is about 10 percent of its group work force. In October 2011, Panasonic announced that it would trim its money-losing TV business by ceasing production of Plasma TVs at its plant in Amagasaki, Hyogo Prefecture by March 2012, cutting 1,000 jobs in the process. In January 2012, Panasonic announced that it had struck a deal with Myspace on its new venture, Myspace TV. Myspace TV will allow users to watch live television while chatting with other users on a laptop, tablet or the television itself. With the partnership, Myspace TV will be integrated into Panasonic Viera televisions. On May 11, 2012, Panasonic announced plans to acquire a 76.2% stake in FirePro Systems, an India-based company in infrastructure protection and security solutions such as fire alarm, fire suppression, video surveillance and building management.
In line with company prediction of a net loss of 765 billion yen, on November 5, 2012, the shares fell to the lowest level since February 1975 to 388 yen. In 2012, the sh
Eneloop is a brand of 1.2-volt low self-discharge nickel–metal hydride rechargeable batteries and accessories developed by Sanyo, introduced in 2005. Eneloop cells lose their charge much more than the 0.5–4% per day loss by older-technology NiMH batteries, retaining about 85% of their charge for a year after charging. This allows them to be sold ready for use, unlike older types; because they can replace a large number of alkaline batteries over their life cycle, they are marketed as being eco-friendly. Sanyo was acquired by Panasonic in 2009 and sold its NiMH battery business to Fujitsu subsidiary FDK; the original Eneloop batteries were introduced in AA and AAA size, with capacities of 2,000 mAh and 800 mAh. They could be held up to 75 % of their charge after one year; the part numbers for first generation generation cells are HR-3UTG and HR-4UTG. The second generation of Eneloop AA and AAA batteries was introduced in 2010, it endured 1,500 recharge cycles and held 85% of the charge after one year and 75% after three years.
The part numbers for second generation generation cells are HR-3UTGA and HR-4UTGA. Sanyo introduced C- and D-sized Eneloop batteries with a minimum capacity of 2,700 mAh and 3,000 mAh in 2009, along with a new universal charger; as these sizes were only available in Japan and Singapore, Sanyo offered adapter sleeves to fit AA batteries in devices that take C or D batteries. In October 2011 the batteries were again improved to retain up to 90% of their capacity after one year, 80% after three years and 70% after five years; the batteries can be recharged up to 1,800 times, rather than the 1,500 times of the previous revision. The part numbers for third generation cells are HR-3UTGB and HR-4UTGB. At the same time, the C- and D-sized Eneloop batteries' stated minimum capacities were increased to 3,000 mAh and 5,700 mAh respectively, they were available in Japan from November 2011. European models went on sale from the beginning of October 2012. Following the acquisition of Sanyo by Panasonic, a fourth generation was introduced in April 2013.
The number of charges per cell was increased from 1800 to 2100 cycles for both AAA models. In some countries the batteries are branded as Panasonic; the Eneloop Lite line was released in Japan in June 2010. They addressed two downsides of alkaline and other NiMH batteries: the initial cost and the long charging time—both achieved by reducing the capacity of the battery; the batteries find suitable applications in low-drain devices such as remote control devices and alarms, where high capacity is not an issue. The AAs have 1,000 mAh of capacity. Due to reduction of the capacity compared to the regular Eneloop cells, the charging time is halved for the AA and reduced by 25% for the AAA. On the other hand, they can be recharged 3,000 times; the reduction in capacity reduced the production cost, which decreased the initial investment for rechargeable batteries. They weigh 30% less; the product numbers are HR-3UQ and HR-4UQ. Along with the upgrade of the regular Eneloop cells in April 2013, the Lite version was upgraded.
According to Panasonic, it can now be recharged up to 3,000 times. The upgraded batteries retain 90% of the charge after one year like the regular Eneloop cells; the Eneloop Pro series was introduced in 2011. At that time, no AAA version was produced, they have a higher capacity than regular Eneloop cells, 2,500 mAh for AA. However, they retain only 75% of their initial charge after one year, can only be recharged 500 times; the product numbers are HR-3UWX and HR-3UWXA. In January 2013, Sanyo announced the second generation of Eneloop XX, along with a slight renaming. Eneloop Pro appears instead of the "Eneloop XX" brand in batteries; the new generation has a 50 mAh higher capacity, the self-discharge rate was decreased. They introduced an AAA version of the Eneloop XX boasting a nominal capacity of 950 mAh. After the acquisition by Panasonic, they were renamed Eneloop Pro in Europe and the Americas. Eneloop Plus cells have a PTC thermistor built-in that cuts the power in case the batteries are overheating.
This makes them suitable for toys and devices that generate an increased amount of heat. Other specifications are identical to the second-generation Eneloop batteries; the product number is HR-3UPT, the battery was released in Japan in December 2011. Official website Eneloop encyclopedia
Panasonic Avionics Corporation
Panasonic Avionics Corporation designs, manufactures and installs customized in-flight entertainment and communications solutions to airlines worldwide. Panasonic Avionics Corporation is a subsidiary of Panasonic Corporation of North America, the principal North American subsidiary of Panasonic Corporation. Panasonic Avionics Corporation is headquartered in Lake Forest and has major business functions in Bothell, WA. Panasonic Avionics Corporation traces its roots to Matsushita Avionics Systems Corporation, founded in 1979. PAC is a supplier of in-flight entertainment equipment, including music, video on demand, in-flight shopping, phone service, video games, GPS flight location display. PAC supplies equipment to Boeing and Bombardier, Competitors in the IFE market include Thales Group, Rockwell Collins, Zodiac In-Flight Innovations and LiveTV. In late 2009, Lufthansa announced that starting mid-2010 they will re-launch their'FlyNet' service with Panasonic Avionics' satellite-based broadband technology offering passengers in-flight Internet and cellphone connections.
Lufthansa will make use of their existing onboard hardware, installed in 2003 by Connexion by Boeing, the now defunct provider of the airline's previous onboard connectivity system. The product engineering and development departments are located in Lake Forest, CA. Other offices and repair facilities are located worldwide, with major offices in Toulouse, London, Dallas and Singapore. Panasonic Avionics Corporation is AS9100, ISO 14001, ISO 27000 certified. In 2017, Panasonic Avionics decided to cancel planned investment in geostationary satellites, in the wake of development in low earth orbit satellite constellations; this decision could be due to potential future competition from the Starlink and OneWeb satellite constellations. One of the key technical differences is that low earth orbit satellites provide shorter latencies, because the signal doesn't have to travel 35,786 km back and forth to the geostationary orbit. In March 2013, it was reported that American authorities were investigating the subsidiary for bribery.
In February 2017, Panasonic said that PAC was being investigated by the DOJ and the SEC under the FCPA. AeroMobile Aircell Row 44 FlyNet Panasonic Avionics Corporation official website
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
A liquid-crystal display is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly, instead using a backlight or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images or fixed images with low information content, which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words and seven-segment displays, as in a digital clock, they use the same basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of small pixels, while other displays have larger elements. LCDs can either be on or off, depending on the polarizer arrangement. For example, a character positive LCD with a backlight will have black lettering on a background, the color of the backlight, a character negative LCD will have a black background with the letters being of the same color as the backlight. Optical filters are added to white on blue LCDs to give them their characteristic appearance.
LCDs are used in a wide range of applications, including LCD televisions, computer monitors, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, indoor and outdoor signage. Small LCD screens are common in portable consumer devices such as digital cameras, watches and mobile telephones, including smartphones. LCD screens are used on consumer electronics products such as DVD players, video game devices and clocks. LCD screens have replaced bulky cathode ray tube displays in nearly all applications. LCD screens are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, with LCD screens available in sizes ranging from tiny digital watches to large television receivers. LCDs are being replaced by OLEDs, which can be made into different shapes, have a lower response time, wider color gamut infinite color contrast and viewing angles, lower weight for a given display size and a slimmer profile and lower power consumption. OLEDs, are more expensive for a given display size due to the expensive electroluminescent materials or phosphors that they use.
Due to the use of phosphors, OLEDs suffer from screen burn-in and there is no way to recycle OLED displays, whereas LCD panels can be recycled, although the technology required to recycle LCDs is not yet widespread. Attempts to increase the lifespan of LCDs are quantum dot displays, which offer similar performance as an OLED display, but the Quantum dot sheet that gives these displays their characteristics can not yet be recycled. Since LCD screens do not use phosphors, they suffer image burn-in when a static image is displayed on a screen for a long time, e.g. the table frame for an airline flight schedule on an indoor sign. LCDs are, susceptible to image persistence; the LCD screen can be disposed of more safely than a CRT can. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment more efficiently than CRTs can be. By 2008, annual sales of televisions with LCD screens exceeded sales of CRT units worldwide, the CRT became obsolete for most purposes.
Each pixel of an LCD consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, two polarizing filters, the axes of transmission of which are perpendicular to each other. Without the liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second polarizer. Before an electric field is applied, the orientation of the liquid-crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. In a twisted nematic device, the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other, so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist; this induces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, the device appears gray. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer; this light will be polarized perpendicular to the second filter, thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black.
By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts thus constituting different levels of gray. Color LCD systems use the same technique, with color filters used to generate red and blue pixels; the optical effect of a TN device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent on variations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state. Because of this, TN displays with low information content and no backlighting are operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage; as most of 2010-era LCDs are used in television sets and smartphones, they have high-resolution matrix arrays of pixels to display arbitrary images using backlighting with a dark background. When no image is displayed, different arrangements are used. For this purpose, TN LCDs are operated between parallel polarizers, whereas IPS LCDs feature crossed polarizers. In many applications IPS LCDs have replaced TN LCDs, in particular in smartphones su