Indian Army Corps of Engineers
The Corps of Engineers of the Indian Army has a long history dating back to the mid-18th century. The earliest existing subunit of the Corps dates back to 1777 while the Corps recognises its birth as 1780 when the senior most group of the Corps, the Madras Sappers were raised; the Corps consists of three groups of combat engineers, namely the Madras Sappers, the Bengal Sappers and the Bombay Sappers. A group is analogous to a regiment of Indian infantry, each group consisting of a number of engineer regiments; the engineer regiment is the basic combat engineer unit, analogous to an infantry battalion. Besides the combat engineers, the Corps mans and operates major engineering organisations such as the Military Engineer Services, the Border Roads Organisation, the Married Accommodation Project and the Survey of India; the Corps of Engineers is one of the oldest arms of the Indian Army. The origin of the Corps dates back to 1780 when the two regular pioneer companies were raised in the Madras Presidency Army.
Subsequently, the Group of Madras and Bombay Sappers were formed in their respective presidencies. These Groups came together when the British Indian Army was formed after 1857 and were merged on 18 November 1932 to form the Corps of Indian Engineers. Engineer Groups consisted of field companies. Till 1911, the Sappers had the duty of passing battlefield messages. Between 1911 and 1920, they handed this task to a batch of their own kinsmen who formed the Corps of Signals; the Sappers contributed the first batch of airmen when the Indian Air Force was raised in 1932. From 1942-1945 officers of the Indian Railways were recruited into this Corps to participate in Britain's Burma Campaign. In war, Combat Engineers provide mobility to own forces by constructing bridges and helipads; the need for accurate survey arose before combat engineering. Vast holdings had to be delineated and mapped out, to plan the correct form of commercial extraction. By 1780, serious attention began to be given to the art of mining.
Forts abound in the subcontinent, to the forts the main defences withdrew for a protracted stand. On being invested, the siege artillery including trench mortars or bombards went at it; the real work, not for the faint-hearted, went to the sappers who had to do mining. Sapping is the technique of digging trenches covered or zigzag, to cover one's approach to the point of assault. Corps of Engineers played a important Role on "OP Vijay" the Kargil war; the major Engineer Regiments which were actively took part were 108 Engineer Regiment as a part of 08 Mountain Division, 02 Engineer Regiment as a part of 03 Mountain Division, 106 Engineer Regiment as a part of 15 Corps and 112 Engineer as a part of 92 Mountain Brigade during operation than subsequently became the part of newly raised 14 Corps. The action areas and the commanding officers of these Engineer Regiments are appended below:- 1. 108 Engr. Regt. Commanded by Col. Rohit Mohan Chowdhary, the Regt. Operated in Drass sector under 08 Mtn. Div.
The unit was awarded theatre Honour 2. 02 Engr. Regt. Commanded by Col. Krishnan, operated in Drass sector than Chor Batala and Siachin sector under 03 Mtn. Div; the unit was awarded theatre honour 3. 106 Engr. Regt. Commanded by Col. I. P. S. Ahuja and operated in Drass & Kargil sector under 16 Corps HQ; the unit was awarded COAS UNit citation of war 4. 112 Engr. Regt. Commanded by Col. N. B. Saxena and operated in Ganasak sector under 92 Mtn. Bde. as brought in for operations from 33 Corps located from Sukhna. The unit was awarded COAS Unit Citation of war Main Article - Military Engineer Services The Military Engineer Services, or the MES, are responsible for the design and maintenance of all works, airfields, dock installations, etc. together with accessory services such as military roads and electricity supply, refrigeration, required by the Army, Air Force & Coast Guard in India. It is one of largest construction and maintenance agencies in India with a total annual budget to the tune of ₹ 13,000 crores.
It has a large number of units and sub units spread across the entire country to provide engineering support to various formations of Army, Air Force, Navy and DRDO. MES is an inter services organisation under Min of Defence and has both Army and Civilian component of officers and other subordinate staff; the Border Roads Organisation consists of Border Roads Development Board and GREF. BRDB is headed by the Defence Minister of India as its Chairman and Chief of Army and Air Staff and Defence Secretary as its members and there are other members and GREF is headed by Lt General of Corps of Engineers known as DGBR. BRO has made its own contribution to the nation by constructing national highways, airfields and bridges; the Border Roads, by constructing a large number of roads in once inaccessible areas of the Himalayas and North East States have contributed to their economic development. Lt Gen PS Bhagat of the Corps remains the first Indian Officer to have won the Victoria Cross in the Second World War.
Another first in the same war, Subedar Subramaniam was awarded the George Cross. During operations in Kashmir soon after Independence, Major Rama Raghoba Rane was awarded the Param Vir Chakra for making a passage through enemy mine fields while crawling in front of a tank. Engineer units have been deployed abroad as part of UN Missions; the Corps of Engineers has to its credit one Param Vir Cha
A drainage divide, water divide, ridgeline, water parting or height of land is elevated terrain that separates neighbouring drainage basins. On rugged land, the divide lies along topographical ridges, may be in the form of a single range of hills or mountains, known as a dividing range. On flat terrain where the ground is marshy, the divide may be harder to discern. A triple divide is a point a summit, where two drainage divides intersect. A valley floor divide is a low drainage divide that runs across a valley, sometimes created by deposition or stream capture. Major divides separating rivers that drain to different seas or oceans are called continental divides; the term height of land is a phrase used in Canada and the United States to refer to the divide between two drainage basins. Height of land is used in border descriptions, which are set according to the "doctrine of natural boundaries". In glaciated areas it refers to a low point on a divide where it is possible to portage a canoe from one river system to another.
Drainage divides can be divided into three types: Continental divide in which waters on each side flow to different oceans, such as the Congo-Nile Divide. Every continent except Antarctica has one or more continental divides. Major drainage divide in which waters on each side of the divide never meet but flow into the same ocean, such as the divide between the Yellow River basin and the Yangtze. Another, more subtle, example is the Schuylkill-Lehigh divide at Pisgah Mountain in Pennsylvania in which two minor creeks divide to flow and grow east and west joining the Lehigh River and Delaware River or the Susquehanna River and Potomac River, with each tributary complex having separate outlets into the Atlantic. Minor drainage divide in which waters part but rejoin at a river confluence, such as the Mississippi River and the Missouri River drainage divides. A valley-floor divide occurs on the bottom of a valley and arises as a result of subsequent depositions, such as scree, in a valley through which a river flowed continuously.
Examples include the Kartitsch Saddle in the Gail valley in East Tyrol, which forms the watershed between the Drau and the Gail, the divides in the Toblacher Feld between Innichen and Toblach in Italy, where the Drau empties into the Black Sea and the Rienz into the Adriatic. Settlements are built on valley-floor divides in the Alps. Examples are Eben im Kirchberg in Tirol and Waidring. Low divides with heights of less than two metres are found on the North German Plain within the Urstromtäler, for example, between Havel and Finow in the Eberswalde Urstromtal. In marsh deltas such as the Okavango, the largest drainage area on earth, or in large lakes areas, such as the Finnish Lakeland, it is difficult to find a meaningful definition of a watershed. Another case is bifurcation, where the watershed is in the river bed, a wetland or underground; the largest watershed of this type is the bifurcation of the Orinoco in the north of South America, whose main stream empties into the Caribbean, but which drains into the South Atlantic via the Casiquiare canal and Amazon River.
Since ridgelines are sometimes easy to see and agree about, drainage divides may form natural borders defining political boundaries, as with the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in British North America which coincided with the ridgeline of the Appalachian Mountains forming the Eastern Continental Divide that separated settled colonial lands in the east from Indian Territory to the west. Drainage divides hinder waterway navigation. In pre-industrial times, water divides were crossed at portages. Canals connected adjoining drainage basins. Important examples are the Chicago Portage, connecting the Great Lakes and Mississippi by the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, the Canal des Deux Mers in France, connecting the Atlantic and the Mediterranean; the name is enshrined at the Height of Land Portage which joins the Great Lakes to the rivers of western Canada. List of watershed topics River source – The starting point of a riverCategories: Category:Drainage basins
Chaukori is a hill station in the Pithoragarh district set among the lofty peaks of the western Himalayan Range in the Kumaon Division of Uttarakhand, India. To its north is Tibet and to its south is Terai; the Mahakali River, running along its eastern boundary, forms the Indo-Nepal international border. This place has become a prominent tourist place and from here a wide and picturesque view of Himalayan range can be viewed; the golden yellow colour of sun rays falling on the Himalayan range in the morning time is worth seeing. There are cottages available here where one can enjoy the serene surroundings. Tourists coming to this place also visit the nearby tourist places like Patal Bhuvaneshwar, Kausani and Almora. Chaukori is located in Berinag Tehsil of Pithoragarh district in India, it is situated 10km away from sub-district headquarter Berinag and 86km away from district headquarter Pithoragarh. Chaukori's elevation is 2010 m with spectacular panoramic views of the snowy peaks of Nanda Devi, Nanda Kot and the Panchchuli group.
Chaukori is a medium size village located in Berinag of Pithoragarh district, Uttarakhand with total 248 families residing. Total population of Chaukori is 1163 out of which 672 are males while 491 are females as per Population Census 2011. In Chaukori, population of children with age 0-6 is 190. Average Sex Ratio of Chaukori is 731, lower than Uttarakhand state average of 963. Child Sex Ratio for Chaukori as per census is 624, lower than Uttarakhand average of 890. Chaukori has lower literacy rate as compared to Uttarakhand. In 2011, literacy rate of Chaukori was 76.36 % compared to 78.82 % of Uttarakhand. In Chaukori, Male literacy stands at 87.03 % while female literacy rate was 62.20 %. In Chaukori, most of the villagers are from Schedule Caste. Schedule Caste constitutes 38.95 %. In Chaukori, out of total population, 354 were engaged in work activities. 74.58 % of workers describe their work as Main Work while 25.42 % were involved in Marginal activity providing livelihood for less than 6 months.
Of 354 workers engaged in Main Work, 45 were cultivators. As per constitution of India and Panchyati Raaj Act, Chaukori is administrated by a Sarpanch, an elected representative of the village. Gangolihat, 35 km away, is an important religious centre with the Hat-Kalika temple. In the general area are the following temples: Mahakali Temple of Gangolihat Patal Bhuvaneshwar Mostamanu temple Nagmandir of Berinag Ghunsera Devi Temple Kedar temple Nakuleshwar Temple Kamaksha Temple Kapileshwar Mahadev cave temple Ulkadevi Temple Jayanti Temple Dhwaj Arjuneshwar Shiva temple Kot Gari Devi Tripuradevi temple Chaukori is well connected with Motorable roads to major destinations in Kumaon; the Udiari Bend in Chaukori marks the intersection of roads coming from Kanda-Bageshwar, Seraghat-Almora and Thal-Munsiari. Shared Taxis, locally called Jeeps are the preferred for short distance Transport. Jeeps ply from Chaukori to the nearby towns of Berinag and Thal. Buses are used for Interstate Transport. Bus services are provided by the state owned'Uttarakhand Transport Corporation' and the owned'K.
M. O. U bus Services'. Buses connect Chaukori with the cities of Bageshwar, Almora and Delhi. Distance from other cities and towns are listed below. Delhi - 530 km Kathgodam - 198 km via Almora and Bageshwar Nainital - 183 kmThe closest railhead is 198 km at Kathgodam. Temples in the general area Pithoragarth District Website
Pithoragarh district is the easternmost Himalayan district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is landscaped with high Himalayan mountains, snow-capped peaks, valleys, alpine meadows, waterfalls, perennial rivers and springs; the flora and fauna of the area have rich ecological diversity. Pithoragarh has many temples and ruined forts from the once flourishing reign of the warrior Chand Kingdom; the geographical area of the district is 7,110 km2. At the 2011 census, the total population of the district was 485,993; the total literacy rate was 82.93 percent. Pithoragarh town, located in Saur Valley, is its headquarters; the district is within the Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state. The Tibet plateau is situated to the north and Nepal is to the east; the Kali River flows south, forming the eastern border with Nepal. The Hindu pilgrimage route for Mount Kailash-Lake Manasarovar passes through this district via Lipulekh Pass in the greater Himalayas; the district is administratively divided into six tehsils: Munsiari.
Naini Saini Airport is the nearest civil airport, but it does not have regular scheduled commercial passenger service. The mineral deposits present in the district are magnesium ore, copper ore and slate; some attribute the name to King Pithora Chand from the Chand Dynasty, while others cite Prithvi Raj Chauhan of the Chauhan Rajputs, who built a fort named Pithora Garh in the Saur Valley. After its conquest by Bhartpal, the Rajwar of Uku, in the year 1364, Pithoragarh was ruled for the rest of the 14th century by three generations of Pals, the kingdom extended from Pithoragarh to Askot. According to a tamrapatra from 1420, the Pal dynasty, based out of Askot, was uprooted by Chand kings. Vijay Brahm took over the empire as King. Following the death of Gyan Chand, in a conflict with Kshetra Pal, the Pals were able to regain the throne, it is believed that Bharti Chand, an ancestor of Gyan Chand, had replaced Bams, the ruler of Pithoragarh, after defeating them in 1445. In the 16th century, the Chand dynasty again took control over Pithoragarh town and, in 1790, built a new fort on the hill where the present Girls Inter College is situated.
This fort was destroyed by the Indian government in 1962 after China attacked India. The Chand rule, at its zenith, is seen as one of the most prominent empires in Kumaon, their rule coincides with a period of cultural resurgence. Archeological surveys point towards the development of art forms in this period, they contribute to built the distic and they are kind and initiative and they came from Nepal where they were king and did many social developing things. British rule began on 2 December 1815. Pithoragarh remained a tehsil under Almora district until 1960 when its status was elevated to that of a district. There was an army cantonment, a church, a mission school, resulting in the spread of Christianity in the region. In 1997, part of Pithoragarh district was separated to form the new Champawat district. Kumaoni, with its numerous variations, is the most spoken language; the language is written in Devanagari script. Hindi is the common language between the outsiders; those who visit the place do not find any difficulty as Hindi is the most common link language everywhere.
English is spoken by some people specially teachers and lecturers engaged in educational institution and students in undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Shauka tribe of tehsil Dharchula speak 3 dialects of Runglo called Byansi spoken in Byans valley, Bangbani spoken in Chaudas valley and Darmia in Darma valley; these are spoken languages. The Van Rawat tribe speaks their own unique Kumaoni variant. There are several Sino-Tibetan languages of the West Himalayish branch are spoken in Pithoragarh district; these include the Rawat language, was spoken in Pithoragarh district and is now extinct. Pithoragarh town, being in a valley, is warm during summer and cool during winter. During the coldest months of December and January, the tropical and temperate mountain ridges and high locations receive snowfall and have an average temperature of 5.5–8.0 °C. Pithoragarh district has extreme variation in temperature due to the large variations in altitude; the temperature rises from mid-March through mid-June.
The areas above 3,500 metres remain in a permanent snow cover. Regions lying at 3,000–3,500 metres become snowbound for four to six months. At places like the river gorges at Dharchula, Jhulaghat and Sera, temperatures reach 40 °C; the annual average rainfall in lower reaches is 360 centimetres.. ISBN 8170998980. After June the district receives monsoon showers. Winter is a time for transhumance – the seasonal migration of the Bhotiya tribe with their herds of livestock to lower, warmer areas. Winter: December–March Summer: March–June Season of general rains: North–West monsoon – mid-June to mid-September Season of retreating monsoon: September–November According to the 2011 census Pithoragarh district has a population of 485,993 equal to the nation of Suriname; this gives it a ranking of 546th among the 640 Districts of India. The district has a population density of 69 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 5.13%. Pithoragarh has a sex ratio of 1021 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 82.93%.
Native tribes in the district include the Van Shaukas. Va
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
For Kumaoni people see Kumaoni people Kumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of the Indian state of Uttarakhand, the other being Garhwal. It includes the districts of Almora, Champawat, Nainital and Udham Singh Nagar, it is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Nepal, on the south by the state of Uttar Pradesh, on the west by the Garhwal region. The people of Kumaon speak the Kumaoni language. Ruled by the kings of Katyuri and Chand Dynasties, the Kumaon division was formed in 1816, when the British reclaimed this region from the Gorkhas, who had annexed the erstwhile Kingdom of Kumaon in 1790; the division consisted of three districts, Kumaon and Garhwal, formed the northernmost frontier of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces in British India, that became North Western Provinces in 1836, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh in 1902, United Provinces in 1937. It is home to the Kumaon Regiment. Important towns of Kumaon are Haldwani, Almora, Rudrapur, Kashipur, Pantnagar and Ranikhet.
Nainital is the administrative centre of Kumaon Division and this is where the Uttarakhand high court is located. Kumaon is believed meaning land of the Kurmavatar; the region of Kumaon is named after as such. During the time of the British control of the region, between 1815 and 1857 it was known as Kemaon; the Kumaon region consists of a large Himalayan tract, together with two submontane strips called the Terai and the Bhabar. The submontane strips were up to 1850 an impenetrable forest, given up to wild animals; the rest of Kumaon is a maze of mountains, part of the Himalaya range, some of which are among the loftiest known. In a tract not more than 225 km in length and 65 km in breadth there are over thirty peaks rising to elevations exceeding 5500 m; the rivers like Gori and Kali rise chiefly in the southern slope of the Tibetan watershed north of the loftiest peaks, amongst which they make their way down valleys of rapid declivity and extraordinary depth. The principal is the Pindari and Kailganga, whose waters join the Alaknanda.
The river Sharda forms the international boundary between Nepal. The pilgrim route used to visit Kailash-Mansarovar goes along this river and crosses into Tibet at Lipu Lekh pass; the chief trees are the Chir Pine, Himalayan Cypress, Pindrow Fir, Alder and Saindan. Limestone, slate and granite constitute the principal geological formations. Mines of iron, gypsum and asbestos exist. Except in the submontane strips and deep valleys, the climate is mild; the rainfall of the outer Himalayan range, first struck by the monsoon, is double that of the central hills, in the average proportion of 2000 mm to 1000 mm. No winter passes without snow on the higher ridges, in some years, it is universal throughout the mountain tract. Frosts in the valleys, are severe. In the ancient period between 1300 and 1400 AD, after the disintegration of Katyuri kingdom of Uttarakhand, eastern region of Uttarakhand was divided into eight different princely states i.e. Baijnath-Katyuri, Doti, Askot, Sora, Sui. On, in 1581 AD after the defeat of Raika Hari Mall with the hand of Rudra Chand all these disintegrated parts came under King Rudra Chand and the whole region was as Kumaon.
The Katyuri dynasty was founded by Vashudev Katyuri. From Joshimath, during their reign they dominated lands of varying extent from the'Katyur' valley in Kumaon, between 7th and 11th centuries AD, established their capital at Baijnath in Bageshwar district, known as Kartikeyapura and lies in the centre of'Katyur' valley. Brahmadev mandi in Kanchanpur District of Nepal was established by Katyuri king Brahma Deo. At their peak, the Katyuri kingdom extended from Nepal in the east to Kabul, Afghanistan in the west, before fragmenting into numerous principalities by the 12th century, they were displaced by the Chand Kings in the 11th century AD. Architectural remains of the Katyur dynasty's rule can be found in Dwarahat; the Rajbar dynasty of Askot in Pithoragarh, was set up in 1279 AD, by a branch of the Katyuri Kings, headed by Abhay Pal Deo, the grandson of Katyuri king, Brahma Deo. The dynasty ruled the region till it became part of the British Raj through the treaty of Sighauli in 1816; the Chand kingdom was established by Som Chand, who came here from Kannauj near Allahabad, sometime in the 10th century, displaced the Katyuri Kings from Katyur valley near Joshimath, ruling the area from the 7th century AD.
He continued to call his state Kurmanchal and established its capital in Champawat in Kali Kumaon called so, due to its vicinity to river Kali. Many temples built in this former capital city, during the 11th and 12th century exist today, this includes the Baleshwar and Nagnath temples, they had brief skirmishes with the Rajput clans in Gangoli and Bankot predominant there, the Mankotis of Mankot, the Pathanis of Attigaon-Kamsyar and many other Khas Rajput Clans of the region. However they were able to establish their domain there. One of most powerful rulers of Chand dynasty was Baz
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC