A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Panauti is a municipality in Kavrepalanchok District in Province No. 3 of Nepal located 32 km Southeast of the capital Kathmandu. The town is listed as a UNESCO tentative site since 1996. Panauti is a historical city in Nepal it was a small state given by King Bhupatindra Malla as a dowry to his sister; this town has a population of under 15,000 people and a few prominent icons, such as the Indreswor temple and Panauti Durbar square found in the town center. At the end of the 13th Century, Panauti was integrated into the unified kingdom of Nepal, along with Kathmandu and Bhaktapur, which are all former capital cities of the Kathmandu valley. Panauti was a trading hub along the ancient Salt Trade route between India; the recorded history of Panauti goes back to the first century AD. However, with the end of the Salt trade in the 1950s and the construction of the Arniko Highway in the 1960s bypassing this old town, Panauti has gone into an economic rut. Panauti, consists of a variety of Buddhist and Hindu religious monuments, is considered to be one of the area's most important medieval sites.
Panauti is steeped in culture and tradition. Visitors will find colorful stones and other items that are laid out on the pavement to welcome everyone with great hospitality. Panauti, situated at the confluence of the two rivers Rosi and Punyamati, has been regarded as an important religious site since early times. In Nepali society, such rivers are considered to be sacred. A visit or just an ablution to such places enables the visitor to be freed from many sins and anxieties, as it is believed to be sacred. Moreover, it is believed that at Panauti, in addition to aforesaid two rivers, a third river Lilawati converges making it again a tri-junction called Triveni. However, the last one is said to be visible only to the intellectuals; the presence of this at Panauti has added and remarkably enhanced its religious sanctity and popularity as well. On account of this, every festive occasion, a great number of devotees from all across the country pour here for a holy ablution and to pay homage to the nearby Indreshwor Mahadev Temple and other holy sites located here.
The site is regarded as Prayagtirtha of Nepal. Panauti is one of the oldest towns in Nepal, consisting of many temples that are still present till this day dating back to the 15th Century or earlier, it has been debated that Panauti was founded by Ananda Malla, others believe that there is a golden scripture dated 1385, located within the Indreshwar temple stating that King Harisingh Dev founded the town. The Indreshwar temple is one of the tallest pagoda style temples in Nepal, it was built over a lingam in 1294, making it the oldest surviving temple of Nepal. The roof struts embellishing the two lower stories of the temple are distinct Nepalese wood-carving and architecture; the upper section of the temple is hung with pots and pans, offerings from young married couples hoping for a happy and prosperous family life. The temple survived the 2015 earthquake, it is from this temple that the mystical third river of Panauti starts from leading to the Brahmayani temple across from the Tri Beni Ghats.
The Indreshwar temple is kept in a well maintained, walled in, compound, managed by the Panauti Museum. Other than this temple, there is the king’s palace in Panauti's Durbar Square, which has yet to be excavated to a larger extent in order to reveal more about Panauti. There are many artifacts and remnants such as stone taps, water wells and coins found among some of the excavated sections of the palace. Although Panauti was founded independently, as time went on the influence of Bhaktapur increased and became part of Bhaktapur up until the 18th Century. In 1763, King Prithvi Narayan Shah annexed Panauti to the greater Nepal. Panauti, consists of a variety of Buddhist and Hindu religious monuments, is considered to be one of the area’s most important medieval sites, it is considered as the most artistic town in Nepal after Kathmandu Valley. As every culture has its unique ceremonies and celebration, Panauti holds a number of festivals reflecting the ancient tradition and ancient mythology. One of the most important is the three-day-long Panauti Jatra.
Panauti Jatra is known as the chariot festival which takes place every year in Panauti, at the end of the monsoon. The Jatra festival begins on the tenth day of the bright fortnight during the month of Jestha; the Jatra is celebrated for three days, as everyone becomes busy for the preparation of celebrating the festival, known as "Duin-chha-nya-ye-ke-guis", held in the evening. This event is one of the major cultural attractions of the Panauti Jatra. During this festival, images of the gods are displayed around the city; the pulling of the chariot begins from the town’s old Durbar Square. A team consisting of a priest, a woman, a porter crosses the bridge over the Punyamati River to worship the Gods; this crossing over the Punyamati River is a yearly event and signifies the tradition from many years before. The following day of festival is called Mu-jatra. On this day, many of the residents of Panauti will sacrifice male goats or ducks to the Gods, many other will make an offering of food; the sixth day is the full moon day, known as Panauti Punhi.
This day is the most favorable day for cleaning your body. Panauti is situated at the confluence of two main rivers and Punyamati, regarde
Kavrepalanchok District, a part of Province No. 3, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. The district, with Dhulikhel as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,396 km2 and has a population of 381,937. Information Technology Park is located in this district; the district consists of 13 Municipalities, out of which six are urban municipalities and seven are rural municipaliies. These are as follows: Dhulikhel Municipality Banepa Municipality Panauti Municipality Panchkhal Municipality Namobuddha Municipality Mandandeupur Municipality Khani Khola Rural Municipality Chauri Deurali Rural Municipality Temal Rural Municipality Bethanchok Rural Municipality Bhumlu Rural Municipality Mahabharat Rural Municipality Roshi Rural Municipality The small health centers in many VDCs are without Auxiliary Health Workers, Auxiliary Nurse Midwives and Community Health Workers. So, people seeking emergency health assistance have to travel a long distance to the district headquarters or Kathmandu or end up dying because of lack of treatment.
Many people still believe in Dhami and Jhakri and don't always seek medicine or go to the hospital for the treatment. An NGO, PHASE Nepal provides many health care facilities and training programs to Ryale, a VDC of Kavrepalanchok District. PHASE Nepal is working on several projects in this district including community health and education, livelihood and sanitation programmes; the main aim of PHASE Nepal is to provide awareness to the local people and help to know about sanitation, livelihood and community health and education. Kavre district has great potential in tourism industry. Kavre district is culturally rich with historical places like Dhulikhel, Panauti and Chandeni Mandan. Chandeni Mandan is interesting place for tourism it cover the low and high point of the district,low point is indrawoti river and highest point is THAMDANDA Big religious fairs like Chandeshwari Jatra of Banepa, Namobuddha Jatra of Namobuddha celebrated on the birth date of Lord Buddha, Kumbha mela of Panauti which happens once in 12 years, are some interesting events to view.
Kavre district has great potential in raising its local economy with tourism. Kavre has same potential as that of other tourist sites of Nepal like Jomsom; the Long Himalayan Gaurishankar range can be seen from Dhulikhel. Kavre is famous for short circuit trekking in places like Dhungkharka-Narayanthan, Dhulikhel-Kavre-Namobuddha-Sankhu-Panauti-Banepa; some places to visit here in Kavrepalanchok districts are: Saping Siddhi Ganesh Temple, Saping Mulkharka Bhimsenthan, Palanchok Bhagwati, Dhulikhel, Hajar Sidhi, Talu Dada view Tower, Banepa, Pasthali, Ladkeshwar Mahadev, Patlekhet, Phulbari and many more. Koshipari has good prospect in tourism field. There are lots of adventurous places; this place can be uplifted as home-stay also. Though the road network is still under development and a good paved road is lacking, Koshipari can be used as the cycling spots. Once the condition of road is well constructed, this place will be developed into many beautiful tourism spots. Kuseshwor mahadev Daneshwor mahadev, Chandeshwori mata, Indrashwor mahadev, Nala bhagawati, Dankali devi, Timal narayan dham, palanchowk bhagawati, Saping Mulkharka Bhimsenthan, Saping Siddhi Ganesh Temple, panauti Kedhreshwor mahadev, khopasi fadkeshwor mahadev, ladku Ladkeshwor mahadev.
There are many private and governmental schools providing education to the secondary level within the district. Kathmandu University, located in Dhulikhel is the third oldest university in Nepal. Neppol Megasite "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. The term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is a dry phase; the term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains, although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon. The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West Asia-Australian monsoons; the inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal has been debated. The term was first used in English in British India and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area; the English monsoon came from Portuguese monção from Arabic mawsim, "perhaps via early modern Dutch monson."
Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau after the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia around 50 million years ago. Because of studies of records from the Arabian Sea and that of the wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China, many geologists believe the monsoon first became strong around 8 million years ago. More studies of plant fossils in China and new long-duration sediment records from the South China Sea led to a timing of the monsoon beginning 15–20 million years ago and linked to early Tibetan uplift. Testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; the monsoon has varied in strength since this time linked to global climate change the cycle of the Pleistocene ice ages. A study of marine plankton suggested that the Indian Monsoon strengthened around 5 million years ago. During ice periods, the sea level fell and the Indonesian Seaway closed; when this happened, cold waters in the Pacific were impeded from flowing into the Indian Ocean.
It is believed that the resulting increase in sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean increased the intensity of monsoons. Five episodes during the Quaternary at 2.22 Ma, 1.83 Ma, 0.68 Ma, 0.45 Ma and 0.04 Ma were identified which showed a weakening of Leeuwin Current. The weakening of the LC would have an effect on the sea surface temperature field in the Indian Ocean, as the Indonesian through flow warms the Indian Ocean, thus these five intervals could be those of considerable lowering of SST in the Indian Ocean and would have influenced Indian monsoon intensity. During the weak LC, there is the possibility of reduced intensity of the Indian winter monsoon and strong summer monsoon, because of change in the Indian Ocean dipole due to reduction in net heat input to the Indian Ocean through the Indonesian through flow, thus a better understanding of the possible links between El Niño, Western Pacific Warm Pool, Indonesian Throughflow, wind pattern off western Australia, ice volume expansion and contraction can be obtained by studying the behaviour of the LC during Quaternary at close stratigraphic intervals.
The impact of monsoon on the local weather is different from place to place. In some places there is just a likelihood of having a little less rain. In other places, quasi semi-deserts are turned into vivid green grasslands where all sorts of plants and crops can flourish; the Indian Monsoon turns large parts of India from a kind of semi-desert into green lands. See photos only taken 3 months apart in the Western Ghats. In places like this it is crucial for farmers to have the right timing for putting the seeds on the fields, as it is essential to use all the rain, available for growing crops. Monsoons are large-scale sea breezes which occur when the temperature on land is warmer or cooler than the temperature of the ocean; these temperature imbalances happen. Over oceans, the air temperature remains stable for two reasons: water has a high heat capacity, because both conduction and convection will equilibrate a hot or cold surface with deeper water. In contrast, dirt and rocks have lower heat capacities, they can only transmit heat into the earth by conduction and not by convection.
Therefore, bodies of water stay at a more temperature, while land temperature are more variable. During warmer months sunlight heats the surfaces of both land and oceans, but land temperatures rise more quickly; as the land's surface becomes warmer, the air above it expands and an area of low pressure develops. Meanwhile, the ocean remains at a lower temperature than the land, the air above it retains a higher pressure; this difference in pressure causes sea breezes to blow from the ocean to the land, bringing moist air inland. This moist air rises to a higher altitude over land and it flows back toward the ocean. However, when the air rises, while it is still over the land, the air cools; this decreases the air's ability to hold water, this causes precipitation over the land. This is. In the colder months, the cycle is reversed; the land cools faster than the oceans and the air over the land has higher pressure than air over the ocean. This causes the air over the land to flow to the ocean; when humid air rises over the ocean, it cools, this causes precipitation over the oceans.
(The cool air flows towards the land to complete the cy
Palanchok Bhagawati Temple
Palanchowk Bhagwati Temple is 7-km north of the mountain of Panchkhal, 15 kilometers of Dhulikhel on the Arniko Highway and, 42 kilometers from Kathmandu. There is an idol of 3 feet high goddess Bhagawati artistically carved in a black stone, it is one of the most famous temples of goddess for Hindus. This temple is believed to have been constructed during the reign of King Man Dev. The. One can enjoy the panoramic views of landscape from this vantage point. We can enjoy spectacular Nepalese panoramas of the countryside; the temple is situated on the top of the Palanchowk hill named after Bhagawati, the height being 1563 meters, is well connected by a motorable road from the Arniko Highway. Many pilgrims visit the temple on Tuesdays and Saturdays and animal sacrificing is offered to the Goddess. During the great Dasain festival season, people from all over make a pilgrimage to Palanchowk Bhagawati. Palanchowk Bhagawati epitomizes the image of Durga Goddess where one does not find the impact of Rudra or Himsa.
She is calm, peaceful and showering her blessing. In addition to the religious importance, the beautiful scenes, view from the hill top is magnificent
Gaunpalika or gaupalika is the newly formed lower administrative division in Nepal. The Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development dissolved the existing village development committees and announced the establishment of this new local body. There are 460 rural municipalities; the main purpose of a gaunpalika is similar to that of a village development committee. Besides this, this division has the authority to collect various taxes like entertainment tax, business tax and residential tax at the local level; the Village Development Committee was dissolved on 10 March 2017. Panchayat was dissolved and turned into VDC by the Constitution of Nepal 1990. According to the English translation of the Constitution of Nepal, the term "gaunpalika" has been used as "village body". However, the Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development explained that the term "rural municipality" was coined after opinions from experts and diverse sources; the chief is the head of a rural municipality. A total of 744 chiefs were selected by the government in 10 March 2017.
The rural municipalities will have an annual budget of at least Rs 10 million. Village development committees of Nepal topics
Bekhsimle is a village development committee in Kabhrepalanchok District in the Bagmati Zone of central Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had 228 houses in it. UN map of the municipalities of Kavrepalanchok District