The technical meaning of maintenance involves functional checks, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, machinery, building infrastructure, supporting utilities in industrial, business and residential installations. Over time, this has come to include multiple wordings that describe various cost-effective practices to keep equipment operational. Together, these functions are referred to as Maintenance and overhaul. MRO is used for Maintenance and operations. Over time, the terminology of maintenance and MRO has begun to become standardized; the United States Department of Defense uses the following definitions: Any activity—such as tests, replacements and repairs—intended to retain or restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions. All action taken to restore it to serviceability, it includes inspections, servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair and reclamation. All repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission.
The routine recurring work required to keep a facility in such condition that it may be continuously used, at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose. Maintenance is connected to the utilization stage of the product or technical system, in which the concept of maintainability must be included. In this scenario, maintainability is considered as the ability of an item, under stated conditions of use, to be retained in or restored to a state in which it can perform its required functions, using prescribed procedures and resources. In some domains like aircraft maintenance, terms maintenance and overhaul include inspection, rebuilding and the supply of spare parts, raw materials, sealants and consumables for aircraft maintenance at the utilization stage. In international civil aviation maintenance means: The performance of tasks required to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or combination of overhaul, replacement, defect rectification, the embodiment of a modification or a repair.
This definition covers all activities for which aviation regulations require issuance of a maintenance release document. The basic types of maintenance falling under MRO include: Preventive maintenance known as PM Corrective maintenance where equipment is repaired or replaced after wear, malfunction or break down. Predictive maintenance, which uses sensor data to monitor a system continuously evaluates it against historical trends to predict failure before it occurs. ReinforcementArchitectural conservation employs MRO to preserve, restore, or reconstruct historical structures with stone, glass and wood which match the original constituent materials where possible, or with suitable polymer technologies when not. Preventive maintenance is "a routine for periodically inspecting" with the goal of "noticing small problems and fixing them before major ones develop." Ideally, "nothing breaks down."The main goal behind PM is for the equipment to make it from one planned service to the next planned service without any failures caused by fatigue, neglect, or normal wear, which Planned Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance help to achieve by replacing worn components before they fail.
Maintenance activities include partial or complete overhauls at specified periods, oil changes, minor adjustments, so on. In addition, workers can record equipment deterioration so they know to replace or repair worn parts before they cause system failure; the New York Times gave an example of "machinery, not lubricated on schedule" that functions "until a bearing burns out." Preventive maintenance contracts are a fixed cost, whereas improper maintenance introduces a variable cost: replacement of major equipment. Preventive maintenance or preventative maintenance has the following meanings: The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects; the work carried out on equipment in order to avoid its malfunction. It is a routine action taken on equipment in order to prevent its breakdown. Maintenance, including tests, adjustments, parts replacement, cleaning, performed to prevent faults from occurring.
Other terms and abbreviations related to PM are: scheduled maintenance planned maintenance, which may include scheduled downtime for equipment replacement planned preventive maintenance is another name for PM breakdown maintenance: fixing things only when they break. This is known as "a reactive maintenance strategy" and may involve "consequential damage." Planned preventive maintenance, more referred to as planned maintenance or scheduled maintenance, is any variety of scheduled maintenance to an object or item of equipment. Planned maintenance is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent and suitable agent, to ensure that an item of equipment is operating and to therefore avoid any unscheduled breakdown and downtime; the key factor as to when and why this work is being done is timing, involves a service, resource or facility being unavailable. By contrast, co
Dixie Carter (wrestling)
Dixie Carter-Salinas, known professionally as Dixie Carter, is an American businesswoman and former promoter. Carter is the former chairman and chief strategy officer of Impact Wrestling, is a minority 5% equity stakeholder in the promotion. Carter was born in Texas to parents Robert W. and Janice Carter. She graduated from The Hockaday School in 1982 and subsequently attended the University of Mississippi, graduating in 1986 with a Bachelor of Business Administration. While a student, Carter was active on the Student Programming Board, was a member of the Kappa Kappa Gamma women's fraternity. In addition, Carter worked as an intern with Levenson and Hill, a marketing and advertisement firm in the Las Colinas suburb of Dallas, Texas. Upon graduating, Carter became a full-time employee of Levenson and Hill, receiving a promotion to the position of vice president at the age of 32. In 1993, she started her own business in Nashville, focusing on sport and music representation. In 2002, the president of Monterey Peninsula Talent contacted Carter and informed her that Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, a professional wrestling promotion, required a marketing and publicity outlet.
Carter began working with TNA, two months was informed by Jeff Jarrett that a key financial backer had withdrawn support from TNA, that the company was in dire straits as a result. Carter, claiming to " the potential in a marketplace that had one company WWE with a US$900 million market cap and no competitor", contacted her parents, the owners of Panda Energy International, a Dallas-based energy company. In October 2002, Panda Energy purchased 71% of TNA from the HealthSouth Corporation for $250,000. On October 31, 2002, TNA was renamed "TNA Entertainment". Carter was appointed president of TNA Entertainment in spring 2003. In December 2007, Carter voluntarily appeared before United States Congress to be interviewed regarding professional wrestling in the wake of the Chris Benoit double murder and suicide. Carter served as the president of TNA until August 12, 2016, when she was announced as the new chairman of the promotion, with Billy Corgan taking over the presidency. Soon after, however, it was announced that Corgan would sue the company and Carter, as he was lied to about when he would get his money back.
On November 30, it was reported that Corgan had settled his lawsuit against TNA, with Anthem Sports & Entertainment Corp. acquiring the loans Corgan made to Carter in the process. In late November 2016, it was reported that, once Corgan's lawsuit was settled, TNA would go through a restructuring period that would see ownership change, with Anthem taking 85%, Aroluxe 10%, Dixie Carter 5%, making Carter the minority owner and making her have no decision-making power in TNA going forward. On January 4, 2017, Anthem Sports and Entertainment purchased 85% majority stake of TNA Wrestling and Carter resigned as chairwoman after fourteen years in charge. Ed Nordholm of Anthem took over as president. Carter joined the Advisory Board of Fight Media Group, the division of Anthem that deals with the combat sports-related assets of the company where she will focus on the global growth of the brands in that division, while remaining as a minority shareholder of the company. After making only occasional appearances on pay-per-views, Carter made her first appearance on TNA Impact! on August 27, 2009, interviewing new signee Bobby Lashley.
In early 2010, after the debuts of Hulk Hogan and Eric Bischoff, Carter became a regular authority figure on Impact!, before losing her on-screen power to the two of them, on the October 14, 2010, edition of Impact!. However, Carter would make another appearance on the November 25, 2010 edition of Reaction when, in storyline, she informed Hogan and Bischoff that a judge filed an injunction against the two on behalf of Carter over not having signatory authority. On the March 3, 2011, edition of Impact!, the result of the court battle between Carter and Hogan was revealed, with Hogan declaring himself as the new head of TNA Wrestling. Carter returned to TNA on October 16 at Bound for Glory, when Sting defeated Hogan to bring her back to power. Carter made an appearance on the December 8th edition of Impact Wrestling, along with Sting to confront TNA World Heavyweight Champion, Bobby Roode; the segment ended with Roode spitting in Carter's face. In the summer of 2012, Carter was the focal point in a storyline where Kazarian and Christopher Daniels accused her of having an affair with company TNA mainstay A.
J. Styles; the duo provided compromising footage of Carter and Styles entering a hotel together as well as photographs of them embracing. Carter's real-life husband Serg Salinas made a televised appearance on Impact Wrestling where he knocked Styles to the ground, it was revealed that Carter and Styles were helping a mutual friend, Claire Lynch, work through drug addiction issues. Carter appeared at the ending segment of Impact Wrestling on September 19, 2013 to confront AJ Styles over the remarks he has made about the way she was running the company. Carter responded by saying that Styles was not a great wrestler and claimed that she was the one who created the Styles' persona to get marketing for the company, she added that Styles would still be living in poverty if her father didn't pay him, she was the one who created this house. She was about to leave when Styles was going to respond, she decided to end the show by cutting off the microphones and turning off the lights, thus turning into a villainess in the process.
On the follo
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Impact X Division Championship
The Impact X Division Championship is a professional wrestling championship, is owned by Impact Wrestling. It debuted on June 2002, at the taping of then-TNA's second weekly pay-per-view event. Like most professional wrestling championships, the title is won as a result of a predetermined match. There have been 89 reigns among 45 wrestlers; the TNA X Division was established on June 19, 2002 at Total Nonstop Action's first weekly PPV event with a Six Man Tag Team match resulting in Jimmy Yang, Jorge Estrada, Sonny Siaki—collectively known as The Flying Elvises—defeating A. J. Styles, Jerry Lynn, Low Ki; that day at the taping of the next weekly PPV event, TNA introduced the X Division Championship—then known as the X Championship—to showcase the division more prominently. The division is described as wrestling reinvented, as it takes traditional wrestling and mixes it with the fast paced, high–risk style of wrestling incorporated in cruiserweight divisions and lucha libre; the division was until 2011 promoted under the motto "It is not about weight limits, it is about no limits" by commentator Mike Tenay.
On the August 11, 2011, edition of TNA's primary television program, Impact Wrestling, TNA authority figure Eric Bischoff announced that from that point onwards the X Division would have a weight limit of 225 lb. Following Hulk Hogan becoming the new on-screen General Manager in March 2012, the weight limit was ignored on June 10, 2012, at Slammiversary when the 280 lb Samoa Joe was allowed to challenge for the belt. In October 2012, the weight limit was repealed when 237 lb Rob Van Dam challenged for, won, the title at Bound for Glory. In March 2013, the X Division was given a new set of rules, which meant all matches were wrestled in Triple Threat format, a new weight limit of 230 lbs; this proved to be unpopular with fans, the rules and weight limit were repealed once again in August of that year. The Total Nonstop Action X Division has multiple styles of match types used to showcase the talent within the division and to defend the TNA X Division Championship in more marketable matches. Three of the matches used in TNA are the Ultimate X match, The Steel Asylum, the Xscape match.
The Ultimate X match was introduced in 2003. It involves multiple competitors racing to retrieve the X Division Championship or a giant red letter "X", suspended above the ring by two cables; the cables are attached to posts. These cables intertwine to form an "X" over the center of the ring; this match has become successful in TNA. The Steel Asylum made its debut in May 2008 at TNA's Sacrifice PPV event, under the name "The TerrorDome", it was used once again in October 2008 at their Bound for Glory IV PPV event, under the new and current moniker "The Steel Asylum". As of April 2019, this match has only been used to determine the number one contender to the TNA X Division Championship; the layout of the match involves the ring being surrounded by a giant red steel barred cage with a domed ceiling. The only way to achieve victory is to escape the cage through a hole in the center of the ceiling; the Xscape match is the third specialty match used in TNA. It is held annually at TNA's Lockdown PPV event in April—an all–steel cage format PPV event.
The first two Xscape matches were held to determine the number one contender to the TNA X Division Championship, since 2007, it has been contested for the X Division Championship. The contest involves four to six participants. To win this match, two or more participants—depending on how many are involved in the encounter—must be eliminated by pinfall or submission leaving only two participants; these two men race to see who escapes the cage first to claim victory. The championship was created and debuted before the main event at the taping of TNA's second weekly PPV event on June 19, 2002. A. J. Styles defeated Low Ki, Jerry Lynn, Psicosis in a Four Way Double Elimination match to be crowned the inaugural champion. Afterwards, the title was renamed the NWA–TNA X Division Championship and shortened to just the TNA X Division Championship; this is the oldest title in TNA. Option C is a concept in which the current X Division Champion may voluntarily vacate the championship in exchange for a World Heavyweight Championship match at that year's Destination X event.
It began in June 2012 when then-champion Austin Aries said that he was not satisfied with being just the X Division Champion, which led to then-General Manager Hulk Hogan offering him a match for the World Heavyweight Championship, but only if he first vacated the X Division Championship. Aries agreed to Hogan's terms, on the condition that the X Division Champion be given the same opportunity in future years. Aries would relinquish the X Division Championship and defeated Bobby Roode for the World title; the following year, Hogan asked then-champion Chris Sabin if he wanted to vacate the championship and challenge for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship, which Sabin accepted, defeated Bully Ray to win the title. On June 24, 2014, a mere five days after regaining the X Division Championship for his fifth reign, Austin Aries invoked Option C once again, but failed to defeat champion Lashley. On May 10, 2015, one day after regaining the title for his second reign, Rockstar Spud invoked Option C, was defeated by champion Kurt Angle.
On the July 5, 2016 episode of Impact Wrestling, World Heavyweight Champion Lash
Run-of-river hydroelectricity or run-of-the-river hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric generation plant whereby little or no water storage is provided. Run-of-the-river power plants may have no water storage at all or a limited amount of storage, in which case the storage reservoir is referred to as pondage. A plant without pondage is subject to seasonal river flows, thus the plant will operate as an intermittent energy source. Conventional hydro uses reservoirs, which regulate water for flood control and dispatchable electrical power. Run-of-the-river or ROR hydroelectricity is considered ideal for streams or rivers that can sustain a minimum flow or those regulated by a lake or reservoir upstream. A small dam is built to create a headpond ensuring that there is enough water entering the penstock pipes that lead to the turbines which are at a lower elevation. Projects with pondage, as opposed to those without pondage, can store water for daily load demands. In general, projects divert some or most of a river's flow through a pipe and/or tunnel leading to electricity-generating turbines return the water back to the river downstream.
ROR projects are different in design and appearance from conventional hydroelectric projects. Traditional hydro dams store enormous quantities of water in reservoirs, sometimes flooding large tracts of land. In contrast, run-of-river projects do not have the disadvantages associated with reservoirs, why they have less environmental impact; the use of the term "run-of-the-river" for power projects varies around the world. Some may consider a project ROR if power is produced with no water storage while limited storage is considered ROR by others. Developers may mislabel a project ROR to soothe public perception about its environmental or social effects; the Bureau of Indian Standards describes run-of-the-river hydroelectricity as: A power station utilizing the run of the river flows for generation of power with sufficient pondage for supplying water for meeting diurnal or weekly fluctuations of demand. In such stations, the normal course of the river is not materially altered. Many of the larger ROR projects have been designed to a scale and generating capacity rivaling some traditional hydro dams.
For example, the Beauharnois Hydroelectric Generating Station in Quebec is rated at 1,853 MW. Some run of the river projects are downstream of other reservoirs; the run of the river project didn't build the reservoir, but does take advantage of the water supplied by it. An example would be the 1995 1,436 MW La Grande-1 generating station. Previous upstream dams and reservoirs are part of the 1980s James Bay Project; when developed with care to footprint size and location, ROR hydro projects can create sustainable energy minimizing impacts to the surrounding environment and nearby communities. Advantages include: Like all hydro-electric power, run-of-the-river hydro harnesses the natural potential energy of water, eliminating the need to burn coal or natural gas to generate the electricity needed by consumers and industry. Moreover, run-of-the-river hydro-electric plants do not have reservoirs thus eliminating the methane and carbon dioxide emissions caused by the decomposition of organic matter in the reservoir of a conventional hydro-electric dam.
This is a particular advantage in tropical countries. Without a reservoir, flooding of the upper part of the river does not take place; as a result, people remain living at or near the river and existing habitats are not flooded. Any pre-existing pattern of flooding will continue unaltered, presenting a flood risk to the facility and downstream areas. Run-of-the-River power is considered an "unfirm" source of power: a run-of-the-river project has little or no capacity for energy storage and hence can't co-ordinate the output of electricity generation to match consumer demand, it thus generates much more power during times when seasonal river flows are high, depending on location, much less during drier summer months or frozen winter months. The potential power at a site is a result of the flow of water. By damming a river, the head is available to generate power at the face of the dam. Where a dam may create a reservoir hundreds of kilometres long, in run of the river the head is delivered by a canal, pipe or tunnel constructed upstream of the power house.
Due to the cost of upstream construction, a steep drop is desirable, such as rapids. Small, well-sited ROR projects can be developed with minimal environmental impacts. Larger projects have more environmental concerns. In the case of fish-bearing rivers a ladder may be required and dissolved gases downstream may affect fish. In British Columbia the mountainous terrain and wealth of big rivers have made it a global testing ground for 10–50 MW run-of-river technology; as of March 2010, there were 628 applications pending for new water licences for the purposes of power generation – representing more than 750 potential points of river diversion. Diverting large amounts of river water reduces river flows, affecting water velocity and depth, reducing habitat quality for fish and aquatic organisms. In undeveloped areas, new access roads and transmission lines can cause habitat fragmentation, allowing the introduction of invasive species; the lack of reservoir storage may result in intermittent operation, reducing the project's viability.
Belo Monte Dam, 11,233 megawatts, Pará, Brazil Chief Joseph Dam, 2,620 megawatts Beauharnois Hydroelectric Power Station, 1,903 megawatts Bonneville Dam, 1,092 megawatts Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd, Sa
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
Impact World Championship
The Impact World Championship is a professional wrestling world heavyweight championship owned and promoted by Impact Wrestling. It is the promotion's principal championship. Like most professional wrestling championships, the title is won via the result of a predetermined match. Before the championship was created, the promotion known as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, controlled the NWA World Heavyweight Championship via an agreement with the National Wrestling Alliance. In 2007, the agreement between TNA and the NWA ended, leading to the creation of the TNA World Heavyweight Championship; the championship was unveiled on May 14, 2007 at the taping of TNA's primary television program, Impact!, which aired on May 17, 2007. The inaugural champion was Kurt Angle, who holds the record for the most reigns at six; when TNA changed its name and became Impact Wrestling in March 2017, the title was renamed soon after to reflect the change. After Impact Wrestling rebranded to GFW that year, the title was unified with the original GFW Global Championship at Slammiversary XV and became the Unified GFW World Heavyweight Championship.
Following Destination X, the title took the GFW Global Championship name and kept the former TNA lineage. On October 23, 2017, the GFW name was dropped and the company name was reverted to Impact Wrestling when the company severed ties with Jeff Jarrett and thus he took the GFW name with him. However, Impact Wrestling kept the Global Championship name for their championship and the title was called the Impact Global Championship; as of the February 1, 2018 episode of Impact!, the title has been known as the Impact World Championship. On June 4, 2018, the title was unified with the Impact Grand Championship. Impact Wrestling was formed as NWA: Total Nonstop Action in May 2002; that same year, TNA was granted control over the NWA World Heavyweight and World Tag Team Championships by the National Wrestling Alliance governing body. On June 19, 2002, NWA-TNA held its first show; the main event of the telecast was a twenty-man Gauntlet for the Gold match in which 20 men trying to throw each other over the top rope and down to the floor in order to eliminate them, until there were two men left who wrestle a standard match to become the first TNA-era NWA World Heavyweight Champion.
Ken Shamrock defeated Malice to win the vacant championship with Ricky Steamboat as the special guest referee at the event. The NWA World Heavyweight and World Tag Team Championships were contested for in TNA until the morning of May 13, 2007. On that day, NWA's Executive Director Robert Trobich announced that the NWA were ending their five-year agreement with TNA, which had allowed them full control over both titles. Trobich went on to state that effective that morning, then-NWA World Heavyweight Champion Christian Cage and then-NWA World Tag Team Champions Team 3D were stripped of their respective championships; the alleged motivation behind these actions was because Cage refused to defend the NWA World Heavyweight Championship against wrestlers from NWA territories. That same day, TNA were scheduled to produce their Sacrifice event, in which both Cage and Team 3D were to defend their respective championships. On the card, Cage was scheduled to defend the NWA World Heavyweight Championship against Kurt Angle and Sting in a match involving three competitors known as a three-way match.
That night, the onscreen graphic used to refer to the champions and their respective championships credited both Cage and Team 3D as still being NWA champions. However, the ring announcers for the encounters proclaimed the matches as being for the "World Heavyweight Championship" and the "World Tag Team Championship". Angle defeated Sting to win the World Heavyweight Championship. TNA held a set of tapings for the next two episodes of Impact! on May 14, with the episodes set to air on tape delay on May 17 and May 24. At the first taping, Angle came to the ring with the new TNA World Heavyweight Championship belt and announced that he was the "new TNA World Heavyweight Champion". TNA commentator Mike Tenay announced when Angle made his way to the ring that Management Director Jim Cornette, TNA's on-screen authority figure at the time, "made the decision that due to TNA's growing worldwide exposure, the company needed to have its own TNA title belts". On during the broadcast, Cornette stripped Angle of the TNA World Heavyweight Championship due to a controversial finish to the match at Sacrifice.
Cornette announced the championship would be contested for at TNA's Slammiversary on June 17, 2007 in a King of the Mountain match—a match which involves five participants racing to gain a pinfall or submission to become eligible to hang a championship belt to win. On May 15, 2007, Jeremy Borash unveiled the TNA World Heavyweight Championship belt on that day's edition of TNA's online podcast TNA Today; the five participants for the King of the Mountain match were determined in a series of standard wrestling matches that took place on Impact! Leading up to the event, with Angle defeating Rhino in the first bout to gain entry on the May 17 episode of Impact!. On the May 24 episode of Impact!, Samoa Joe defeated Sting to become the second participant. The third qualification match was held on the May 31 episode of Impact! between A. J. Styles and Tomko, which Styles won; the next bout pitted Chris Harris against James Storm on the June 7 episode Impact!, which ended in a double disqualification, therefore neither man advanced to the King of the Mountain match.
The final qualification match was won by Christian Cage over A