Influenza vaccines known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses. A new version of the vaccine is developed twice a year, as the influenza virus changes. While their effectiveness varies from year to year, most provide modest to high protection against influenza; the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that vaccination against influenza reduces sickness, medical visits and deaths. When an immunized worker does catch the flu, they are on average back at work a half day sooner. Vaccine effectiveness in those under two years old and over 65 years old remains unknown due to the low quality of the research. Vaccinating children may protect those around them; the World Health Organization and the CDC recommend yearly vaccination for nearly all people over the age of six months those at high risk. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control recommends yearly vaccination of high risk groups; these groups include pregnant women, the elderly, children between six months and five years of age, those with other health problems, those who work in healthcare.
The vaccines are safe. Fever occurs in five to ten percent of children vaccinated. Temporary muscle pains or feelings of tiredness may occur as well. In certain years, the vaccine has been linked to an increase in Guillain–Barré syndrome among older people at a rate of about one case per million doses, it should not be given to those with severe allergies to previous versions of the vaccine. Although most influenza vaccines are produced using egg-based techniques, influenza vaccines are nonetheless recommended for people with egg allergies if severe; the vaccines come in weakened viral forms. The inactive version should be used for those, they come in forms that are injected into a muscle, sprayed into the nose, or injected into the middle layer of the skin. Vaccination against influenza began in the 1930s with large scale availability in the United States beginning in 1945, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.
The wholesale price in the developing world is about $5.25 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States, it costs less than $25 USD as of 2015; the CDC recommends the flu vaccine as the best way to protect people against the flu and prevent its spread. The flu vaccine can reduce the severity of the flu if a person contracts a flu strain that the vaccine did not contain, it takes about two weeks following vaccination for protective antibodies to form. A 2012 meta-analysis found. A vaccine is assessed by its efficacy. In the case of influenza, effectiveness is expected to be lower than the efficacy because it is measured using the rates of influenza-like illness, not always caused by influenza. Influenza vaccines show high efficacy, as measured by the antibody production in animal models or vaccinated people. However, studies on the effectiveness of flu vaccines in the real world are difficult. However, in most years, the flu vaccine strains have been a good match for the circulating strains, a mismatched vaccine can provide cross-protection.
Trials of both live and inactivated influenza vaccines against seasonal influenza have been summarized in several meta-analyses. Studies on live vaccines have limited data, but these preparations may be more effective than inactivated vaccines; the meta-analyses examined the efficacy and effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against seasonal influenza in adults and the elderly. Tom Jefferson, who has led Cochrane Collaboration reviews of flu vaccines, has called clinical evidence concerning flu vaccines "rubbish" and has therefore declared them to be ineffective, his views on the efficacy of flu vaccines are rejected by medical institutions including the CDC and the National Institutes of Health, by key figures in the field like Anthony Fauci. Michael Osterholm, who has led the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy 2012 review on flu vaccines, recommended getting the vaccine but criticized its promotion, saying, "We have overpromoted and overhyped this vaccine...it does not protect as promoted.
It's all a sales job: it's all public relations". The CDC recommend that everyone except infants under the age of six months should receive the seasonal influenza vaccine. Vaccination campaigns focus special attention on people who are at high risk of serious complications if they catch the flu, such as pregnant women, children over six months, the elderly, people with chronic illnesses or weakened immune systems, as well as those to whom they are exposed, such as health care workers; as the death rate is high among infants who catch influenza, the household contacts and caregivers of infants should be vaccinated to reduce the risk of passing an influenza infection to the infant. In children, vaccines again showed high efficacy, but low effectiveness in preventing "flu-like illness". In children under the age of two, the d
Influenza C virus
Influenza C virus is the species in the genus Influenzavirus C in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, which like other influenza viruses, causes influenza. Influenza C viruses are known to infect pigs. Flu due to the Type C species is rare compared to Types A or B, but can be severe and can cause local epidemics. Type C has 7 RNA segments and encodes 9 proteins, while Types A and B have 8 RNA segments and encode at least 10 proteins. Influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza viruses A, B, C, D represent the four antigenic types of influenza viruses. Of the four antigenic types, influenza A virus is the most severe, influenza B virus is less severe but can still cause outbreaks, influenza C virus is only associated with minor symptoms. Influenza A virus can infect a variety of animals as well as humans, its natural host or reservoir is birds, whereas influenza viruses B, C, D do not have animal reservoirs. Influenza C virus is not as isolated so less information is known of this type, but studies show that it occurs worldwide.
Influenza C virus has 6 lineages, which were estimated to have emerged around 1896 AD. This virus may be spread from person to person through respiratory droplets or by fomites due to its ability to survive on surfaces for short durations. Influenza viruses have a short incubation period of 18–72 hours and infect the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. Influenza virus C tends to cause mild upper respiratory infections. Cold-like symptoms are associated with the virus including fever, dry cough, headache, muscle pain, achiness; the virus may lead to more severe infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. After an individual becomes infected, the immune system develops antibodies against that infectious agent; this is the body's main source of protection. Most children between five and ten years old have produced antibodies for influenza virus C; as with all influenza viruses, type C affects individuals of all ages, but is most severe in young children, the elderly and individuals with underlying health problems.
Young children have less prior exposure and have not developed the antibodies and the elderly have less effective immune systems. Influenza virus infections have one of the highest preventable mortalities in many countries of the world. Influenza viruses, like all viruses in the family Orthomyxoviridae, are enveloped RNA viruses with single stranded genomes; the antigens, matrix protein and nucleoprotein, are used to determine if an influenza virus is type A, B, C, or D. The M1 protein is required for virus NP functions in transcription and replication; these viruses contain proteins on the surface of the cell membrane called glycoproteins. Type A and B have two glycoproteins: neuraminidase. Types C and D have only one glycoprotein: hemagglutinin-esterase fusion; these glycoproteins allow for fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Fusion of these membranes allows the viral proteins and genome to be released into the host cell, which causes the infection. Types C and D are the only influenza; this enzyme is similar to the enzyme neuraminidase produced by Types A and B in that they both function in destroying the host cell receptors.
Glycoproteins may undergo mutations or reassortment in which NA is produced. Influenza virus C is only capable of antigenic drift whereas Type A undergoes antigenic shift, as well; when either of these processes occur, the antibodies formed by the immune system no longer protect against these altered glycoproteins. Because of this, viruses continually cause infections. Influenza virus C is different from Types B in its growth requirements; because of this, it is not identified as frequently. Diagnosis is by virus isolation and other tests. Hemagglutination inhibition is one method of serology that detects antibodies for diagnostic purposes. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are two other methods used to detect proteins in serum. In each of these techniques, the antibodies for the protein of interest are added and the presence of the specific protein is indicated by a color change. ELISA was shown to have higher sensitivity to the HEF than the HI test; because only Influenza viruses C and D produce esterase, In Situ Esterase Assays provide a quick and inexpensive method of detecting just Types C and D.
If more individuals were tested for Influenza virus C as well as the other three types, infections not associated with Type C may be recognized. Because influenza virus A has an animal reservoir that contains all the known subtypes and can undergo antigenic shift, this type of influenza virus is capable of producing pandemics. Influenza viruses A and B cause seasonal epidemics every year due to their ability to antigenic shift. Influenza virus C does not have this capability and it is not thought to be a significant concern for human health. Therefore, there are no vaccinations against influenza virus C. Wagaman PC, Spence HA, O'Callaghan RJ. "Detection of influenza C virus by using an in situ esterase assay". J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 832–36. PMC 267439. PMID 2745694. ICTVdB database for Influenza viruses Influenza Research Database Database of influenza genomic sequences and related information. Viralzone: Influenza virus C
Influenza A virus subtype H7N9
H7N9 is a bird flu strain of the species Influenza virus A. Avian influenza A H7 viruses circulate amongst avian populations with some variants known to infect humans. An H7N9 virus was first reported to have infected humans in China. Cases continued to be reported throughout April and dropped to only a few cases during the summer months. At the closing of the year, 144 cases had been reported of, it is known that influenza tends to strike during the winter months, the second wave, which began in October, was fanned by a surge in poultry production timed for Chinese New Year feasts that began at the end of January. January 2014 brought a spike in reports of illness with 96 confirmed reports of disease and 19 deaths; as of April 11, 2014, the outbreak's overall total was 419, including 7 in Hong Kong, the unofficial number of deaths was 127. A 5th epidemic of the H7N9 virus began in October 2016 in China; the epidemic is the largest since the first epidemic in 2013 and accounts for about one-third of human cases reported.
The cumulative total of laboratory-confirmed cases since the first epidemic is 1,223. About 40 percent have died; the CDC estimates that the H7N9 virus has the greatest potential compared with other influenza A viruses to cause a pandemic, although the risk is low, because like other type A viruses, it is not transmitted between people in its current form. The World Health Organization has identified H7N9 as "...an unusually dangerous virus for humans." Most of the cases resulted in severe respiratory illness, with a mortality rate of 30 percent. Researchers have commented on the unusual prevalence of older males among H7N9-infected patients. While several environmental and biological explanations for this pattern have been proposed, the reason remains unknown, it has been established that many of the human cases of H7N9 appear to have a link to live bird markets. As of January 2014, there has been no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission. H7N9 virus does not kill poultry. Chinese scientists announced the development of a vaccine on October 26, 2013, but said that H7N9 had not spread far enough to merit widespread vaccination.
Research regarding background and transmission is ongoing. Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase; the avian influenza A virus designation of H7N9 identifies it as having HA of the H7 subtype and NA of the N9 subtype. Avian influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that circulate among birds. H7 influenza infections in humans are uncommon, but have been confirmed worldwide in people who have direct contact with infected birds. Most infections have been mild involving mild upper respiratory symptoms; the avian influenza. Although some H7 viruses have been found to infect humans, H7N9 has been isolated only in birds, with outbreaks reported in the Netherlands and the United States; until the 2013 outbreak in China, no human infections with H7N9 viruses had been reported. Genetic characterisation of avian influenza A shows that the H7N9 virus that infects human beings resulted from the recombination of genes between several parent viruses noted in poultry and wild birds in Asia.
It is most related to sequences found in samples from ducks in Zhejiang province in 2011. Evidence so far suggests, it is hypothesized that the gene that codes for HA has its origin in ducks and the gene that codes for NA has its origin with ducks and also wild birds. Six internal genes originated with at least two H9N2 chicken viruses; the HA genes were circulating in the East Asian flyway in both wild birds and ducks, while the NA genes were introduced from European lineages and transferred to ducks in China by wild birds through migration along the East Asian flyway. Dr. Keiji Fukuda, WHO's assistant director-general for health security and environment, remarked at a Toronto interview that "I think we are genuinely in new territory here in which the situation of having something, low path in birds appears to be so pathogenic in people... And to have those genetic changes... I don't know what that combination is going to lead to." "Almost everything you can imagine is possible. And what's to happen are the things which you can't imagine," he remarked.
According to the deputy director of CDC's influenza division, the genetic makeup of H7N9 is "disturbingly different" from that of the H5N1 virus that has infected more than 600 people over the past 10 years and killed more than half of them. "The thing that's different between them is the H5 virus still maintains a lot of the avian or bird flu characteristics, whereas this H7N9 shows some adaptation to mammals. And that's and concerning for us, it still has a ways to go before it becomes like a human virus, but the fact is, it's somewhere in that middle ground between purely avian and purely human."In August 2013, it was announced that scientists plan to create mutant forms of the virus so they can gauge the risk of it becoming a lethal human pandemic. The genetic modification work will result in transmissible and deadly forms of H7N9, is being carried out in several high security laboratories around the world. On March 31, 2013
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza. H3N2 viruses can infect mammals. In birds and pigs, the virus has mutated into many strains. H3N2 is abundant in seasonal influenza. H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A, an important cause of human influenza, its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its coat and neuraminidase. By reassortment, H3N2 exchanges genes for internal proteins with other influenza subtypes. Seasonal influenza kills an estimated 36,000 people in the United States each year. Flu vaccines are based on predicting which "mutants" of H1N1, H3N2, H1N2, influenza B will proliferate in the next season. Separate vaccines are developed for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres in preparation for their annual epidemics. In the tropics, influenza shows no clear seasonality. In the past ten years, H3N2 has tended to dominate in prevalence over H1N1, H1N2, influenza B. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005.
Seasonal H3N2 flu is a human flu from H3N2, different from one of the previous year's flu season H3N2 variants. Seasonal influenza viruses flow out of overlapping epidemics in East Asia and Southeast Asia trickle around the globe before dying off. Identifying the source of the viruses allows global health officials to better predict which viruses are most to cause the most disease over the next year. An analysis of 13,000 samples of influenza A/H3N2 virus that were collected across six continents from 2002 to 2007 by the WHO's Global Influenza Surveillance Network showed the newly emerging strains of H3N2 appeared in East and Southeast Asian countries about six to 9 months earlier than anywhere else; the strains reached Australia and New Zealand next, followed by North America and Europe. The new variants reached South America after an additional six to 9 months, the group reported. A 2007 study reported: "In swine, three influenza A virus subtypes are circulating throughout the world. In the United States, the classic H1N1 subtype was prevalent among swine populations before 1998.
Most H3N2 virus isolates are triple reassortants, containing genes from human and avian lineages. Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus control and prevention in swine farms include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to three commercial SIV vaccines. Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests current commercial vaccines might not protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses."Avian influenza virus H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China, has been detected in pigs in Vietnam, contributing to the emergence of new variant strains. Pigs can carry human influenza viruses, which can combine with H5N1, passing genes and mutating into a form which can pass among humans.
H3N2 evolved from H2N2 by antigenic shift and caused the Hong Kong Flu pandemic of 1968 and 1969 that killed up to 750,000 humans. The dominant strain of annual flu in humans in January 2006 was H3N2. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 in humans had increased to 91% by 2005. In August 2004, researchers in China found H5N1 in pigs; the Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift, in which genes from multiple subtypes reassorted to form a new virus. This pandemic of 1968 and 1969 killed an estimated one million people worldwide; the pandemic infected an estimated 500,000 Hong Kong residents, 15% of the population, with a low death rate. In the United States, about 33,800 people died. Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses; the new subtypes arose in pigs coinfected with avian and human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. Swine were considered the original "intermediate host" for influenza, because they supported reassortment of divergent subtypes.
However, other hosts appear capable of similar coinfection, direct transmission of avian viruses to humans is possible. H1N1 may have been transmitted directly from birds to humans; the Hong Kong flu strain shared the neuraminidase with the 1957 Asian flu. Accumulated antibodies to the neuraminidase or internal proteins may have resulted in much fewer casualties than most pandemics. However, cross-immunity within and between subtypes of influenza is poorly understood; the Hong Kong flu was the first known outbreak of the H3N2 strain, though there is serologic evidence of H3N? Infections in the late 19th century; the first record of the outbreak in Hong Kong appeared on 13 July 1968 in an area with a density of about 500 people per acre in an urban setting. The outbreak reached maximum intensity in two weeks; the virus was isolated in Queen Mary Hospital. Flu symptoms lasted four to five days. By July 1968, extensive outbreaks were reported in Singapore. By September 1968, it reached the Philippines, northern Australia and Europe.
That same month, the virus entered Calif
Harry Mason Reid is a retired American politician who served as a United States Senator from Nevada from 1987 to 2017. He led the Senate's Democratic Conference from 2005 to 2017 and was the Senate Majority Leader from 2007 to 2015. Reid began his public career as the city attorney for Henderson, Nevada before winning election to the Nevada Assembly in 1968. Reid's former boxing coach, Mike O'Callaghan, chose Reid as his running mate in the 1970 Nevada gubernatorial election, Reid served as Lieutenant Governor of Nevada from 1971 to 1975. After being defeated in races for the United States Senate and the position of mayor of Las Vegas, Reid served as chairman of the Nevada Gaming Commission from 1977 to 1981. From 1983 to 1987, Reid represented Nevada's 1st district in the United States House of Representatives. Reid won election to the United States Senate in 1986 and served in the Senate from 1987 to 2017, he served as the Senate Democratic Whip from 1999 to 2005 before succeeding Tom Daschle as Senate Minority Leader.
The Democrats won control of the Senate after the 2006 United States Senate elections, Reid became the Senate Majority Leader in 2007. He held that position for the last two years of George W. Bush's presidency and the first six years of Barack Obama's presidency; as Majority Leader, Reid helped pass major legislation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Act, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Republicans took control of the Senate following the 2014 United States Senate elections, Reid served as Senate Minority Leader from 2015 to his retirement in 2017. Reid was succeeded as the Senate Democratic leader by Chuck Schumer, whose leadership bid had been endorsed by Reid. Along with Alben W. Barkley and Mike Mansfield, Reid is one of only three Senators to serve at least eight years as Majority Leader. Reid was born in Searchlight, the third of four sons of Harry Vincent Reid, a miner, Inez Orena Reid, a laundress. At the time, Searchlight was a small impoverished town.
His father died by suicide at age 58, when Harry was 32 years old. His paternal grandmother was an English immigrant from Staffordshire. Reid's boyhood home was a shack with no hot water, or telephone. Since Searchlight had no high school, Reid boarded with relatives 40 miles away in Henderson, Nevada to attend Basic High School, where he played football, was an amateur boxer. While at Basic High, he met future Nevada governor Mike O'Callaghan, a teacher there and served as Reid's boxing coach. Reid attended Southern Utah University, graduated from Utah State University where he double majored in political science and history, he minored in economics at Utah State's School of Business Administration. He went to George Washington University Law School earning a J. D. while working as a police officer for the United States Capitol Police. Reid returned to Nevada after law school and served as Henderson city attorney before being elected to the Nevada Assembly for the multi-member fourth district of Clark County in 1968.
In 1970, at age 30, Reid was chosen by O'Callaghan as his running mate for Lieutenant Governor of Nevada. Reid and O'Callaghan won their respective races, Reid served as lieutenant governor from 1971 until 1974, when he ran for the U. S. Senate seat being vacated by Alan Bible, he lost by fewer than 700 votes to former governor Paul Laxalt. In 1975, Reid lost to Bill Briare. Reid served as chairman of the Nevada Gaming Commission from 1977 to 1981; when Jack Gordon, La Toya Jackson's future agent and husband, offered Reid a $12,000 bribe to get approval of new games for casinos, Reid brought in the FBI to tape Gordon's bribery attempt and arrest him. After FBI agents interrupted the transaction, as prearranged, Reid lost his temper and attempted to choke Gordon, saying "You son of a bitch, you tried to bribe me!" before agents stopped him. Gordon was sentenced to six months in prison. In 1981, Reid's wife found a bomb attached to the family station wagon. Prior to the 1980 Census, Nevada had only a single at-large member in the United States House of Representatives, but population growth in the 1970s resulted in the state picking up a second district.
Reid won the Democratic nomination for the 1st district, based in Las Vegas, in 1982, won the general election. He served two terms in the House, from 1983 to 1987. In 1986, Reid won the Democratic nomination for the seat of retiring two-term incumbent Republican Senator Paul Laxalt. Reid defeated former at-large Congressman Jim Santini, a Democrat who had turned Republican, in the November election. Reid ran for reelection in 1992. In 1998 he narrowly defeated 1st District Congressman John Ensign in the midst of a statewide Republican sweep. In 2004, Reid won reelection with 61 percent of the vote, defeating Richard Ziser, gaining the endorsement of several Republicans. Ensign was elected to Nevada's other Senate seat in 2000. Ensign and Reid had a good relationship despite their bitter contest in 1998; the two worked together on Nevada issues until Ensign was forced to resign from his Senate seat, due to an ethics scandal. Reid won the Democratic nomination with 75% of the vote in the June 8 primary.
He faced a competitive general election for the Senate in Nevada in 2010. Reid engaged in a $1 million media campaign to "reintroduce himself" to the state's voters, he defeated Republican challenger Sharron Angle in the November election, 50.3% to 44.6%, despite losing 14 of Nevada's 17 counties. In January, 2015, Reid suffered severe injuries in
Birch Evans Bayh III is an American lawyer and politician of the Democratic Party who served as the junior United States Senator from Indiana from 1999 to 2011 and the 46th Governor of Indiana from 1989 to 1997. Bayh was first elected to public office as the Secretary of State of Indiana in 1986, he held the position for two years before being elected Governor. He left his office after completing two terms and took a job lecturing at Indiana University Bloomington, he was elected to Congress as a Senator in 1998 and reelected in 2004. On February 15, 2010, Bayh unexpectedly announced he would not seek reelection to the Senate in 2010. After leaving the Senate, he was replaced by his predecessor, Dan Coats, became a partner with the law and lobbying firm McGuireWoods in the firm's Washington, D. C. office, became a senior adviser with Apollo Global Management. He was a part-time contributor for Fox News from March 2011 to July 2016. In June 2011 he became a messaging adviser for the U. S. Chamber of Commerce.
On October 27, 2011, it was announced that Berry Plastics Corp. had appointed Bayh to its board of directors. Following the withdrawal of 2016 Democratic primary winner Baron Hill, Bayh announced that he would be running to take back his old Senate seat from retiring Republican incumbent Dan Coats, he was defeated by Todd Young in the general election by a 10-point margin. Bayh was born in Shirkieville, the son of Marvella Bayh and Birch Evans Bayh Jr., a U. S. Senator from 1963 until his 1981 defeat by then-Representative and future Vice President Dan Quayle. Evan Bayh attended St. Albans School in Washington, D. C. and graduated with honors with a B. S. in business administration from the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University Bloomington in 1978. At Indiana, he became a member of the Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity's Indiana Beta chapter. Bayh received his Juris Doctor degree from the University of Virginia School of Law in 1981. Bayh and his wife, have twin sons, Birch Evans IV and Christopher, born in 1995.
Susan Bayh serves on corporate boards, including health insurance company Anthem. She was a law professor. After a debate over whether he met the state's five-year residency requirement to be on the ballot, Bayh defeated former Kokomo Mayor Steve Daily in the Democratic primary of the 1988 Indiana gubernatorial election, he went on to defeat the incumbent lieutenant governor in the general election, becoming the first Democrat to serve as Governor of Indiana in 20 years. Only 32 years old upon his election and 33 when he took office, Bayh became the youngest governor in the nation at the time, he was re-elected as governor in 1992, defeating State Attorney General Linley E. Pearson with 63% of the vote. By the end of his second term, Bayh had an approval rating of nearly 80 percent, he was ineligible to seek a third consecutive term in 1996 due to term limits. When his second term as governor ended in 1997, he accepted a lecturing position at his alma mater, the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University Bloomington.
From 1997 to 1998, while he was campaigning for U. S. Senate, Bayh was hired as a partner at Indianapolis law firm Baker & Daniels. In 1998, his Baker & Daniels salary was $265,000, according to Senate financial records. Indiana University paid him an additional $51,000 that year. Bayh was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1998 to the seat, once held by his father, he won with 64% of the vote, the largest margin recorded for a Democrat in a U. S. Senate race in Indiana, defeating former Fort Wayne Mayor Paul Helmke, he won reelection in 2004, defeating Prof. Marvin Scott, receiving 62% of the vote—in the process, becoming only the fifth Indiana Democrat to be popularly elected to a second term in the Senate. Bayh released an autobiography in 2003 entitled From Father to Son: A Private Life in the Public Eye. From 2001 to 2005, Bayh served as Chairman of the Democratic Leadership Council, he is a member of the Senate Centrist Coalition, helped establish the New Democrat Coalition, founded the Moderate Dems Working Group.
Bayh served on the board of directors of the National Endowment for Democracy. Bayh was an early supporter of the Bush administration's policies on Iraq. On October 2, 2002, Bayh joined President George W. Bush and Congressional leaders in a Rose Garden ceremony announcing their agreement on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War, was thanked by Bush and Senator John McCain for co-sponsoring the resolution, he voted yes on reauthorizing the Patriot Act in 2006. In the aftermath of the Financial crisis of 2007–2010, Bayh joined with his fellow senators in hurrying to bail out U. S. financial institutions. Addressing the launch of the No Labels political organization, he "described a scene from 2008 where Ben Bernanke warned senators that the sky would collapse if the banks weren't rescued.'We looked at each other,' said Bayh,'and said, what do we need.'" On February 15, 2010, Bayh announced he would not seek reelection to a third Senate term in the November 2, 2010, midterm election. Bayh's announcement came shortly after former Senator Dan Coats declared his own candidacy for Bayh's Senate seat.
Because he made his announcement the day before the deadline for filing for the primary, no Democrat was able to gather a sufficient number of signatures to qualify for the primary ballot, so the state party committee chose Congressman Brad Ellsworth as the nominee. According to the Associated Press, Bayh spent a significant portion of his last year in office searching for a job, holding over four dozen meetings with potential corporate employers between February and December 2010, he cast votes on issues of interest to his