Pando is a city in Canelones Department of Uruguay. It is an important commercial and industrial centre which has become part of the wider metropolitan area of Montevideo, it is the birthplace of Abel Hernández. Pando is the name of the municipality to which the city belongs and which includes several other small populated areas and rural areas from the limits of the Ciudad de la Costa to the south to the limits of Route 7 to the northwest; the city is located on Route 8, about 23 kilometres northeast of Montevideo. The stream Arroyo Pando flows by the east limits of the city. Pando was founded on 13 May 1788, it took its name from one of its first inhabitants who had moved there in 1730. It was the seat of a force against Portuguese advances, it had acquired the status of "Pueblo" before the Independence of Uruguay. According to the Act of Ley Nº 759, on 11 March 1863 it held the status of "Villa". On 5 August 1920, its status was elevated to "Ciudad" by the Act of Ley Nº 7.252. At the time, it was an industrial center and had a track for airplanes which became an airport in 1928.
This airport was moved to Carrasco in 1948 and the Military Aeronautic School took its place. Parish Church of the Immaculate Conception According to the 2011 census, Pando had a population of 25,947. In 2010, the Intendencia de Canelones had estimated a population of 31,713 for the municipality during the elections. Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Uruguay The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Pando has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Official site of Pando Intendencia Municipal de Canelones INE map of Pando, Estanque de Pando, Jardines de Pando and Viejo Molino
José Manuel Pando
José Manuel Inocencio Pando Solares was President of Bolivia between October 1899 and August 1904. Born in Luribay, he studied medicine, joined the army during the War of the Pacific against Chile, dedicated himself to exploring his country's vast and thinly populated lowland forests. In the 1880s he joined the Liberal Party of Eliodoro Camacho, becoming its leader in 1894. Pando served as Congressional Representative from Chuquisaca during the administration of Severo Fernández and was the nucleus around which coalesced the more vocal and seditious efforts of the Liberal Party to topple the Conservatives from power. Civil War erupted in 1899, under the guise of a regional dispute regarding whether Sucre should continue to be the capital of the country or the latter should be moved to La Paz. At this point, Pando's Liberals rallied around the movement to declare La Paz the capital and gathered considerable popular support behind the idea of turning hitherto unitary Bolivia into a federal republic.
An undeniable fatigue of the populace against the Conservatives, who had monopolized power since 1884, was probably a deciding factor in the upcoming denouement. After routing the Conservatives at the Battle of the Second Crucero, fought in Oruro province and quaintly pitting forces led directly by Pando against President Fernández, Pando became President, he did so first as member of a transitional Liberal Junta and as sole leader when a hastily convened Congress named him Constitutional President with a full 4-year term. This kicked off a period of 20-plus years of Liberal domination in Bolivian politics. Pando's first task was to pacify the country in the wake of the bloody 1899 Revolution, which included the repression of the indigenous rural populations of La Paz and Oruro, mobilized to fight alongside the Liberal forces as useful cannon fodder; this done, the President tackled the thorny issue of determining the national capital and settling the federal issue. At the time, La Paz was the largest and most powerful city in the country, but Sucre had the legal titles and the tradition.
Rather deftly, Pando acquiesced to making La Paz the permanent seat of the Bolivian government but retained Sucre's status as the official capital, thus sparing everyone's feelings. Despite the eruption of the brief Acre War against Brazil in 1903, in which Bolivia lost considerable but depopulated territory in its Northern frontier, Pando's term was as a whole rather peaceful, as he proved to be a popular leader; the main Liberal plank was not too different from that of the Conservatives in that it was pro-free trade and elitist. On the other hand, some concessions were made to the masses, including the institution of a modest program of education for Indians; the new party in power established freedom of religion and recognized civil marriages, fostering some friction with the Catholic Church. In 1904, he transferred the Presidential sash to Ismael Montes of the Liberal Party, elected in that year's presidential elections. Despite the emergence of Montes as the new "caudillo" of the Liberal Party, Pando remained universally respected—and critical of Montes and his efforts to perpetuate himself at the head of the movement.
He was unhappy with Montes' alleged manipulation of the 1908 elections and his re-election and return to power for the 1913-17 period. In 1915, Pando and a number of discontented Liberals and former Conservatives formed the Republican Party, it would be at first repressed by Montes and his successor, José Gutiérrez, but would come to power in 1920. Pando saw none of this, for he was assassinated near La Paz in June 1917, his murder was never clarified, but it was attributed to the governing elites associated with Montes and Gutiérrez, only increasing the appeal of the Republicans. In 1950, a monument commemorating José Manuel Pando was placed in the Cementerio General in La Paz, Bolivia. Category:José_Manuel_Pando José Manuel Pando Province
José Manuel Pando Province
José Manuel Pando is a province in the La Paz Department in Bolivia. It was founded on April 1986 during the presidency of Víctor Paz Estenssoro; the province was named after José Manuel Pando, the president of Bolivia from 1899 till 1904. Its capital is Santiago de Machaca; the province is situated in the western part of the Bolivian Altiplano, south of Lake Titicaca. To the west it is bordered by Peru, to the southeast by the Pacajes Province and to the northeast by the Ingavi Province; some of the highest mountains of the province are listed below: The province is divided into two municipalities which are further subdivided into cantons. Parina Quta Thujsa Jawira
Pando Creek is a Uruguayan stream, crossing Canelones Department. It flows into the Río de la Plata, its name derives from the nearby city of Pando. List of rivers of Uruguay
A Flock of Seagulls
A Flock of Seagulls are an English new wave and synth-pop band formed in 1980 in Liverpool by Michael "Mike" Score, his brother Alister "Ali" James Score, Francis Lee "Frank" Maudsley, with their most famous line-up consisting of the Score brothers and Maudsley along with lead guitarist Paul Reynolds. The group had a string of international hit singles including "I Ran", "Space Age Love Song", "Wishing", "The More You Live, the More You Love", they became notable in the 1980s for their video for "I Ran". The band won a Grammy Award in 1983 for their instrumental "D. N. A". A Flock of Seagulls was started by Mike Score in 1980 in Liverpool; the band's name was taken from The Stranglers song "Toiler on the Sea" and the book Jonathan Livingston Seagull, according to Mike Score. The inaugural line-up of the band featured Mike, a hairdresser, on lead vocals and keyboards, Ali Score on drums, Frank Maudsley on bass; the band added Willie Woo on guitar. Not long afterwards, Edmondson departed to make way for a returning Ali.
After practising above Score's hair salon, the band started playing clubs and got a recording contract. They recorded radio sessions for John Peel's Radio 1 on 6 May 1981. Under the management of Harry Maguire, Tommy Crossan and Mick Rossi all directors of Checkmount Limited, they began to release singles through Jive Records; the group released their debut single'Talking', on Bill Nelson's Cocteau label. They were signed to major label Jive, distributed through CBS records, where they released their second single'Telecommunication'; the single was produced by Nelson and became a club hit. Their third release was the EP'Modern Love is Automatic'. Released as a 4 track EP on both 7" and 12", the 12" edition was soon reissued adding'Telecommunication'; this 5 track EP was their first release in the U. S. In 1982, the group's fourth single'I Ran', produced by Mike Howlett, the former bass player of the band Gong, became a worldwide hit, reaching number 1 in Australia and the Top 10 in both the US and New Zealand.
Their debut album and single'Space Age Love Song' were both successful. In late 1982, the band found major success in their home country with'Wishing', the first single from their next album Listen, which reached the Top 10; the band was praised for having broken the ground for other musical acts during the advent of the video music area, but as it turned out, 1982 was the peak year of their commercial and critical success. On Memorial Day Weekend, Saturday, 28 May 1983, A Flock of Seagulls performed at the US Festival along with Oingo Boingo, Men at Work, others. Three more singles were released from Listen in 1983, including a re-recorded version of their debut single' Talking', but they were only minor successes in the UK and abroad. Faced with disappointment, the group changed direction from their Science Fiction themes and produced a more conceptual emotion based third album in 1984 called The Story of a Young Heart, with'The More You Live, the More You Love' as the lead single. Despite heavy rotation on MTV and other music video shows at that time, the single was only moderately successful, but the album's other two singles –'Never Again' and'Remember David' – did not make any headway.
Faced with sliding sales and a loss of direction, the band continued to consider their options whilst touring. During this period, Paul Reynolds left the band, was replaced by Gary Steadman. Both would stay in the band for the sessions during which their next album, Dream Come True, would be recorded, but would depart thereafter. Brothers Mike and Ali Score decided that they wanted to base the band out of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. With past success in the US, both brothers thought leaving the UK and a new life in America was a perfect solution. With the popularity of the first two albums and the name "A Flock of Seagulls" still having some equity, they had 4 straight sell-out shows in Philadelphia. Mike and Maudsley all applied for and were conditionally awarded green cards based on celebrity status under the O-1 work visa; the conditional approval was granted to all three. However, shortly after moving to the states, whilst recording Dream Come True, Maudsley became disillusioned with living in a strange city.
Missing the UK, he returned to England following the completion of the album. Mike and Ali satisfied the terms of the visa. With Frank in Britain and the brothers in the USA the band appeared to be splitting into two camps; the brothers had another falling-out which resulted in the band dissolving in 1986, shortly after the U. S. release of Dream Come True. The band's line-up had a complete modification in 1988 in Philadelphia with a line-up composed by Mike Score of himself along with numerous local musicians.
Pando is a department in the North of Bolivia, with an area of 63,827 square kilometres, in the Amazon Rainforest, adjoining the border with Brazil and Perú. Pando has a population 110,436, its capital is the city of Cobija. The department, named after former president José Manuel Pando, is divided into five provinces. Although Pando is rich in natural resources, the poverty level of its inhabitants is high, due to the lack of roads linking the province to the rest of the country. In addition, residents suffer from debilitating effects of tropical diseases, typical of life in the Amazonian rain forest; the main economic activities are agriculture and cattle. At an altitude of 280 metres above sea level in the northwestern jungle region, Pando is located in the rainiest part of Bolivia. Pando has a hot climate, with temperatures above 26 degrees Celsius. Pando is the least populous department in Bolivia, the most tropical, the most isolated, due to an absence of effective roads, it was organized at the beginning of the 20th century from what was left of the Acre Territory, lost to Brazil as a result of the so-called Acre War.
Its capital city of Cobija was named after the much-lamented Bolivian port of the same name on the Pacific Ocean, part of an area lost to Chile following the War of the Pacific. Although backward and remote, Pando is densely forested and close to navigable waterways leading to the Amazon River and from there on to the Atlantic Ocean; the department had a rubber boom in the late 19th century and early 20th century, along with the northern part of nearby Beni department. The local industry collapsed under competition with rubber cultivated in Southeast Asia, as well as the discovery and manufacture of synthetic rubber. Culturally, the Pandinos are considered part of the so-called Camba culture of the Bolivian lowlands, similar to the people of the country's other two tropical departments and Santa Cruz. Many of Pando's original settlers moved from nearby Beni. Far from the centers of power in Bolivian society, Pando has linked its fate with that of Santa Cruz and Beni, which are demanding increased autonomy for the departments, with a lessening in central government power.
Prefect Leopoldo Fernández backed autonomy for the department, in alliance with other governors of the eastern media luna. Nationwide referenda on autonomy held on July 2, 2006, were approved in all four departments. A second referendum to approve a statute of autonomy was held by each department in mid-2008, despite being declared illegal by the National Electoral Court in March. Left-wing and pro-Morales social movements boycotted the votes. Pando's referendum, held on June 1, 2008, won 82 % approval among those, but 46.5% of the registered electorate did not vote, the highest abstention rate in the four departments holding such referenda. Considerable social unrest took place in 2008, culminating with the spectacular arrest in September 2008 of Prefect Leopoldo Fernández, stemming from the massacre at El Porvenir of anti-autonomy backers of President Evo Morales. Abuná Federico Román Madre de Dios Manuripi Nicolás Suárez The predominant language in the department is Spanish; the following table shows the number of those belonging to the recognized group of speakers.
Manuripi-Heath Amazonian Wildlife National Reserve International Recreational Fishing Championship of Puerto Rico, Bolivia El Chive Porvenir Pando Travel Guide Weather in Pando Pando Official website "Bolivia 9/11: Bodies and Power on a Feudal Frontier" by Bret Gustafson, Upside Down World, 14 July 2009 Full information of Pando Department, Bolivian Land Bolivian Amazon
Pando known as the trembling giant, is a clonal colony of an individual male quaking aspen determined to be a single living organism by identical genetic markers and assumed to have one massive underground root system. The plant is located in the Fremont River Ranger District of the Fishlake National Forest at the western edge of the Colorado Plateau in south-central Utah, United States, around 1 mile southwest of Fish Lake. Pando occupies 43 hectares and is estimated to weigh collectively 6,000,000 kilograms, making it the heaviest known organism; the root system of Pando, at an estimated 80,000 years old, is among the oldest known living organisms. Pando is thought to be dying. Though the exact reasons are not known, it is thought to be a combination of factors including drought and fire suppression; the Western Aspen Alliance, a research group at Utah State University’s "S. J. & Jessie E. Quinney College of Natural Resources", has been studying the tree in an effort to save it, the United States Forest Service is experimenting with several 5-acre sections of it in an effort to find a means to save it.
A study published in October 2018 concludes that Pando has not been growing for the past 30–40 years. Human interference was named as the primary cause, with the study citing people allowing cattle and deer populations to thrive, their grazing resulting in fewer saplings and dying trees. Pando is thought to have grown for much of its lifetime under ideal circumstances: frequent forest fires have prevented its main competitor, from colonizing the area, a climate shift from wet and humid to semi-arid has obstructed seedling establishment and the accompanying rivalry from younger aspens. During intense fires, the organism survived underground, with its root system sending up new stems in the aftermath of each wildfire. If its postulated age is correct, the climate into which Pando was born was markedly different from that of today, it may have been as many as 10,000 years since Pando's last successful flowering. Additionally, the post glacial climatic conditions have made it problematic for new seeds to sprout.
According to an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development report: Clonal groups of P. tremuloides in eastern North America are common, but less than 0.1 ha in size, while in areas of Utah, groups as large as 80 ha have been observed. In the semi-arid western United States, some argue that widespread seedling establishment has not occurred since the last glaciation, some 10,000 years ago. Indeed, some biologists feel; the clone now known as Pando was discovered in 1968 by researcher Burton V. Barnes, who continued to study it through the 1970s. Barnes had described Pando as a single organism based on its morphological characteristics alone. Building on Barnes's earlier work, Michael Grant of the University of Colorado at Boulder re-examined the clone, named it "Pando", claimed it to be the world's most massive organism in 1992. In 2006 the United States Postal Service published a stamp in commemoration of the aspen, calling it one of the forty "Wonders of America." The clonal colony encompasses 43 hectares, weighs nearly 6,000 metric tons, has over 40,000 stems, which die individually and are replaced by new stems growing from its roots.
The average age of Pando's stems is 130 years. The roots are 80,000 years old. Michael Grant in BioScience said:...quaking aspen reproduces via a process called suckering. An individual stem can send out lateral roots that, under the right conditions, send up other erect stems; the process is repeated. This collection of multiple stems, called ramets, all form one, genetic individual termed a clone. Tree experts note that the organism's age cannot be determined with the level of precision found in tree rings, its current 80,000-year designation is based on a complex set of factors, including the history of its local environment, the evidence indicating that there are few if any occurring new aspens in most of the western United States since a climate shift took place 10,000 years ago which eliminated favorable soil conditions for seedlings, the rate of growth, its size, its genome in comparison to the mutations found among aspens born in the modern era. Michael Grant summed it thus: Despite enormous crops of viable seeds, successful seedling establishment appears to be a rare event in the semi-arid West, but the establishment of new trees from seeds appears to be common in the moist, humid forests of New England... aspen establishment from seeds has not occurred in the western United States since the last glaciation, some 10,000 years ago...
Part of the rationale behind current age estimates for aspen clones is that sexual reproduction is frustrated by the rarity of a favorable suite of conditions in semi-arid environments... High levels of genetic variation and excesses of heterozygotes are found in semi-a