The term tandoor refers to a variety of ovens. The most known is a cylindrical clay or metal oven used in cooking and baking in Northern Indian subcontinent; the tandoor is used for cooking in Southern and Western Asia, as well as in the South Caucasus. The heat for a tandoor was traditionally generated by a charcoal or wood fire, burning within the tandoor itself, thus exposing the food to live-fire, radiant heat cooking, hot-air, convection cooking, smoking by the fat and food juices that drip on to the charcoal. Temperatures in a tandoor can approach 480 °C, it is common for tandoor ovens to remain lit for long periods to maintain the high cooking temperature; the tandoor design is something of a transitional form between a makeshift earth oven and the horizontal-plan masonry oven. The word tonir is used in various languages like tannūr. However, according to Dehkhoda Persian Dictionary, the word originates from Akkadian tinûru "tin" means mud and nuro/nura means fire, is mentioned as early as in the Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh.
So tandoor may have originated from Semitic. In Sanskrit, the tandoor was referred to as kandu. A tandoor may be used to bake many different types of flatbread; some of the most common are tandoori roti, tandoori naan, tandoori laccha paratha, missi roti, tandoori kulcha. Roasted cashews and cottage cheese paste marinated in spiced thick cream grilled in a tandoor. Potatoes stuffed with cottage cheese and cashew nuts, roasted in a tandoor. Tandoori chicken is a roasted chicken delicacy that originated in Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent; the chicken is marinated in yogurt seasoned with garam masala, ginger, cayenne pepper, other spices depending on the recipe. In hot versions of the dish, red chili powder, or other spices give the typical red color. Turmeric produces a yellow-orange color, it is traditionally cooked at high temperatures in a tandoor, but can be prepared on a traditional grill. Chicken tikka is a dish from Mughlai cuisine made by grilling small pieces of boneless chicken which have been marinated in spices and yogurt.
It is traditionally cooked on skewers in a tandoor and is boneless. It is served and eaten with a green coriander chutney, or used in preparing the curry chicken tikka masala. Kalmi kabab, a popular snack in South Asian cuisine, is made by marinating chicken drumsticks and placing them in a tandoor. Various freshly ground spices are added to the yogurt to form a marinade for the chicken. Traditionally, the marinaded chicken is given 12 hours at the least; when prepared, the drumsticks are garnished with mint leaves and served with laccha onions. Samosa is a stuffed snack consisting of a fried or baked triangular, semilunar or tetrahedral pastry shell with a savory filling, which may include spiced potatoes, peas and lentils, or ground lamb or chicken; the size and shape of a samosa, as well as the consistency of the pastry used, can vary considerably. In some regions of Central Asia, samosas are baked in a tandoor, while they are fried elsewhere; the Afghan tandoor is made of bricks. The Punjabi tandoor from the Indian Subcontinent is traditionally made of clay and is a bell-shaped oven, which can either be set into the earth and fired with wood or charcoal reaching temperatures of about 480 degrees Celsius, or rest above the ground.
Tandoor cooking is a traditional aspect of Punjabi cuisine in undivided Punjab. In India and Pakistan, tandoori cooking was traditionally associated with the Punjab, as Punjabis embraced the tandoor on a regional level, became popular in the mainstream after the 1947 partition when Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus resettled in places such as Delhi. In rural Punjab, it was common to have communal tandoors; some villages still have a communal tandoor, a common sight prior to 1947. In ancient times, the tonir was worshiped by the Armenians as a symbol of the sun in the ground. Armenians made tonirs in resemblance with the setting sun "going into the ground"; the underground tonir, made of clay, is one of the first tools in Armenian cuisine, as an oven and as a thermal treatment tool. Armenians are said to have originated underground tonirs. In ancient times people used it to cook bread and various dishes. Tandir bread is widespread bread type in Azerbaijan. Tandir bread is baked from the heat of the tandir's walls, which ensures fast baking.
One of the world's biggest tandoors was built in Azerbaijan's southern city of Astara in 2015. The height of the tandoor is 6,5m and the diameter is 12 m; the tandoor consists of 3 parts
A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food vegetables. However, different varieties of salad may contain any type of ready-to-eat food. Salads are served at room temperature or chilled, with notable exceptions such as south German potato salad, served warm. Garden salads use a base of leafy greens such as arugula/rocket, kale or spinach. Other types include bean salad, tuna salad, Greek salad, sōmen salad; the sauce used to flavor a salad is called a salad dressing. Salads may be served at any point during a meal: Appetizer salads—light, smaller-portion salads served as the first course of the meal. Side salads—to accompany the main course as a side dish. Main course salads—usually containing a portion of a high-protein food, such as meat, eggs, legumes, or cheese. Dessert salads—sweet versions containing fruit, sweeteners or whipped cream; the word "salad" comes from the French salade of the same meaning, from the Latin salata, from sal. In English, the word first appears as "salad" or "sallet" in the 14th century.
Salt is associated with salad because vegetables were seasoned with brine or salty oil-and-vinegar dressings during Roman times. The phrase "salad days", meaning a "time of youthful inexperience", is first recorded by Shakespeare in 1606, while the use of salad bar, referring to a buffet-style serving of salad ingredients, first appeared in American English in 1976; the Romans and ancient Greeks ate mixed greens with a type of mixed salad. Salads, including layered and dressed salads, have been popular in Europe since the Greek and Roman imperial expansions. In his 1699 book, Acetaria: A Discourse on Sallets, John Evelyn attempted with little success to encourage his fellow Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Mary, Queen of Scots, ate boiled celery root over greens covered with creamy mustard dressing, truffles and slices of hard-boiled eggs. Oil used on salads can be found in the 17th century colony of New Netherland. A list of common items arriving on ships and their designated prices when appraising cargo included "a can of salad oil at 1.10 florins" and "an anker of wine vinegar at 16 florins".
In a 1665 letter to the Director of New Netherland from the Island of Curaçao there is a request to send greens: "I request most amicably that your honors be pleased to send me seed of every sort, such as cabbage, lettuce, etc. for none can be acquired here and I know that your honor has plenty...". Salads may be sold at restaurants and at fast food chains. In the United States, restaurants will have a "salad bar" with salad-making ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their salad. Salad restaurants were earning more than $300 million in 2014. At-home salad consumption in the 2010s was rising but moving away from fresh-chopped lettuce and toward bagged greens and salad kits, with bag sales expected to reach $7 billion per year. A salad can be tossed. A green salad or garden salad is most composed of leafy vegetables such as lettuce varieties, spinach, or rocket. If non-greens make up a large portion of the salad it may be called a vegetable salad instead of a green salad. Common raw vegetables used in a salad include cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, radishes, avocado, artichoke hearts, heart of palm, parsley, garden beets, green beans.
Nuts, berries and flowers are less common components. Hard-boiled eggs, bacon and cheeses may be used as garnishes, but large amounts of animal based foods would be more in a dinner salad. A wedge salad is made from a head of lettuce quartered, with other ingredients on top. Bound salads are assembled with thick sauces such as mayonnaise. One portion of a true bound salad will hold its shape when placed on a plate with an ice-cream scoop. Examples of bound salad include tuna salad, chicken salad, egg salad, potato salad. Bound salads are used as sandwich fillings, they are popular at barbecues. Main course salads may contain seafood, or sliced steak. Caesar salad, Chef salad, Cobb salad, Chinese chicken salad and Michigan salad are dinner salads. Fruit salads are canned. Examples include fruit cocktail. Note that "fruit" here refers to culinary fruits, many common components of vegetable salads are botanical fruits but culinary vegetables. Dessert salads include leafy greens and are sweet. Common variants are made with whipped cream.
Other forms of dessert salads include snickers salad, glorified rice, cookie salad. Sauces for salads are called "dressings"; the concept of salad dressing varies across cultures. Sometimes a dressing is not used. In Western culture, there are two basic types of salad dressing: Vinaigrettes based on a mixture of salad oil and vinegar flavored with herbs, salt, pepper and other ingredients. Creamy dressings based on mayonnaise or fermented milk products, such as yogurt, sour cream, or butte
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The dominant geographical features of North India are the Indus-Gangetic Plain and the Himalayas, which demarcate the region from the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia; the term North India has varying definitions—the Ministry of Home Affairs in its Northern Zonal Council Administrative division included the states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Punjab and Rajasthan and Union Territories of Delhi, Chandigarh. While the Ministry of Culture in its North Culture Zone includes the state of Uttarakhand but excludes Delhi whereas the Geological Survey of India includes Uttar Pradesh and Delhi but excludes Rajasthan and Chandigarh. Other states sometimes included are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. North India has been the historical centre of the Mughal, Delhi Sultanate and British Indian Empires, it has a diverse culture, includes the Hindu pilgrimage centres of Char Dham, Varanasi, Mathura, Vaishno Devi and Pushkar, the Buddhist pilgrimage centres of Sarnath and Kushinagar, the Sikh Golden Temple as well as world heritage sites such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Khajuraho temples, Hill Forts of Rajasthan, Jantar Mantar, Bhimbetka Caves, Sanchi monuments, Qutb Minar, Red Fort, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri and the Taj Mahal.
The languages that have official status in one or more of the states and union territories located in North India are Hindi, Urdu and English. Different authorities and sources define North India differently; the Northern Zonal Council is one of the advisory councils, created in 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act to foster interstate cooperation under the Ministry of Home Affairs, which included the states of Chandigarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Punjab and Rajasthan. The Ministry of Culture established the North Culture Zone in Patiala, Punjab on 23 March 1985, it differs from the North Zonal Council in the omission of Delhi. In contrast, the Geological Survey of India included Uttar Pradesh and Delhi in its Northern Region, but excluded Rajasthan and Chandigarh, with a regional headquarters in Lucknow; the Hindu newspaper puts Bihar and Uttar Pradesh related articles on its North pages. Articles in the Indian press have included the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal in North India as well.
The Tropic of Cancer, which divides the temperate zone from the tropical zone in the Northern Hemisphere, runs through India, could theoretically be regarded as a geographical dividing line in the country. Indian states that are above the Tropic of Cancer are Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar and most of North East Indian states; however that definition would include major parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal and minor regions of Chhattisgarh and Gujarat. In Mumbai, the term "North Indian" is sometimes used to describe migrants from eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar using the term bhaiya along with it in a derogatory sense, however these people are not considered North Indian by the inhabitants of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Rajasthan. In Punjab, people from the same region are referred to as Purabias, or Easterners; the Government of Bihar official site places the state in the eastern part of India. Within Uttar Pradesh itself, "the cultural divide between the east and the west is considerable, with the purabiyas being clubbed with Biharis in the perception of the westerners."
The empires and dynasties that have ruled parts or all of North India include: Maurya Empire, 326 – 187 BCE Indo-Greek Kingdom, c.150 BCE – 10 CE Northern Satraps, 1st century BCE to 1st century CE Gupta Empire, during the reign of Samudragupta, c.335 – c.550 CE Empire of Harsha, 606 to 647 CE Pala Empire, 770 to 810 CE Pratihara Empire, mid-7th to the 11th century Delhi Sultanate, 1206–1526 Mughal Empire, 1526–1540 1555–1857, interrupted by the Sur Empire, Sur Empire 1540–1556 Sikh Empire 1799–1849 Maratha Empire 1761–1818 British Indian Empire 1858–1947The Delhi Sultanate and British Indian Empires had Delhi as their capital for some or all of their rule. One demarcation between northern and southern nations has been the Vindhya mountain range. In centuries past this sometimes formed a border during periods of imperial expansion, such as the one ruled by the Gupta emperor Samudragupta; the Vindhyas find mention in the narrative of Rishi Agastya as a dividing feature between North and South India.
The Manusmṛti describes the southern limit of Aryavarta as being defined by the Vindhya range. Several sources consider sizable Muslim populations and deep-seated Islamic, Central Asian and Afghan influences to be defining characteristics of North Indian culture, both linguistically and culturally; some of these influences are pre-Islamic, such as the Bactrian-originated Kushan Empire that maintained twin capitals in Mathura and Peshawar, as well as the Hun confederacies that periodically asserted their rule over large parts of North India. North India lies on continental India, north of peninsular India. Towards its north are the Himalayas which define the boundary between the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan plateau. To its west is the Thar desert, shared between North India and Pakistan and the Aravalli Range, beyond which lies the state of Gujarat; the Vindhya mountains are, in some interpreta
Tikka, is a type of food from the Indian subcontinent. It is known as teeka or teekka. "Tikka" refers to a piece such as a cutlet. The popular dish chicken tikka is made of chicken cutlets in a marinade. Vegetarian varieties are popular. A westernised version, chicken tikka masala, a curry, is a popular dish in the United Kingdom; the marinade used in the preparation of chicken tikka is sometimes called tikka. Paneer prepared in a tandoor is known as paneer tikka. Tikka prepared with meat is known as Kebab; the major ingredient in vegetarian tikkas is potato. The tikka or kebab is deep fried. Kebabs are a popular dish in Mughlai cuisine. Curry Club Tandoori and Tikka Dishes, London — ISBN 0-7499-1283-9 Curry Club 100 Favourite Tandoori Recipes, London — ISBN 0-7499-1491-2 & ISBN 0-7499-1741-5 India: Food & Cooking, New Holland, London — ISBN 978-1-84537-619-2
Domino's Pizza, Inc. branded as Domino's, is an American pizza restaurant chain founded in 1960. The corporation is headquartered at the Domino's Farms Office Park in Ann Arbor and incorporated in Delaware. In February 2018, the chain became the largest pizza seller worldwide in terms of sales. On April 23, 1963, Tom Monaghan and his brother, took over the operation of DomiNick's, an existing location of a small pizza restaurant chain, owned by Dominick DiVarti, at 507 Cross Street in Ypsilanti, near Eastern Michigan University; the deal was secured by a $500 down payment, the brothers borrowed $900 to pay for the store. The brothers planned to split the work hours evenly, but James did not want to quit his job as a full-time postman to keep up with the demands of the new business. Within eight months, James traded his half of the business to Tom for the Volkswagen Beetle they used for pizza deliveries. By 1965, Tom Monaghan had purchased two additional pizzerias. Monaghan wanted the stores to share the same branding, but the original owner forbade him from using the DomiNick's name.
One day, an employee, Jim Kennedy, returned from a pizza delivery and suggested the name "Domino's". Monaghan loved the idea and renamed the business Domino's Pizza, Inc. in 1965. The company logo had three dots, representing the three stores in 1965. Monaghan planned to add a new dot with the addition of every new store, but this idea faded, as Domino's experienced rapid growth. Domino's Pizza opened its first franchise location in 1967 and by 1978, the company expanded to 200 stores. In 1975, Domino's faced a lawsuit by Amstar Corporation, the maker of Domino Sugar, alleging trademark infringement and unfair competition. On May 2, 1980, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans found in favor of Domino's Pizza. On May 12, 1983, Domino's opened its first international store, in Winnipeg, Canada; that same year, Domino's opened its first in Vancouver, Washington. In 1985, the chain opened their first store in the United Kingdom in Luton. In 1985, Domino's opened their first store in Tokyo, Japan.
In 1993, they became the second American franchise to open in the Dominican Republic and the first one to open in Haiti, under the direction of entrepreneur Luis de Jesús Rodríguez. By 1995, Domino's had expanded to 1,000 international locations. In 1997, Domino's opened its 1,500th international location, opening seven stores in one day across five continents. By 2014, the company had grown to 6,000 international locations and was planning to expand to pizza's birthplace, Italy. CEO Patrick Doyle, in May 2014, said. In February 2016, Domino's opened its 1,000th store in India. Domino's Pizza chose to use its traditional delivery-based business model in China, altering neither its toppings, nor reducing the sizes of pizzas, promising the usual 30-minute delivery time; the delivery time promise failed due to high automobile traffic patterns in many crowded Chinese cities hindering the delivery operations. The large pizza sizes made the use of knives and forks to eat them impractical, takeout services were unpopular with Chinese people due to cultural reasons.
Savio S. Chan and Michael Zakkour, authors of China's Super Consumers: What 1 Billion Customers Want and How to Sell it to Them, wrote that Domino's "failed miserably" in its strategy, resulting in the company being "basically" irrelevant in China, with only 40 restaurants there as of 2014. In January 2014, the company began introducing small restaurants in China. Jamie Fullerton of Vice stated that these restaurants served "solid, mildly overpriced pizzas" and did not have unique-to-China menu items. In 1998, after 38 years of ownership, Domino's founder Tom Monaghan announced his retirement, sold 93 percent of the company to Bain Capital, Inc. for about $1 billion, ceased being involved in day-to-day operations of the company. A year the company named Dave Brandon as its CEO. In 2004, after 44 years as a held company, Domino's began trading common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "DPZ". Industry trade publication Pizza Today magazine named Domino's Pizza "Chain of the Year" in 2003, 2010, 2011.
In a simultaneous celebration in January 2006, Domino's opened its 5,000th U. S. store in Huntley and its 3,000th international store in Panama City, making 8,000 total stores for the system. In August 2006, the Domino's location in Tallaght, Ireland, became the first store in Domino's history to hit a turnover of $3 million per year; as of September 2006, Domino's has 8,200+ stores worldwide, which totaled $1.4 billion in gross income. In 2007, Domino's introduced its Veterans Delivering the Dream franchising program and rolled out its online and mobile ordering sites. In 2008, Domino's introduced the Pizza Tracker, an online application that allows customers to view the status of their order in a real time progress bar; the first Domino's with a dining room opened in Stephenville, giving the customers the option to either eat in or take their pizza home. Since 2005, the voice of Domino's Pizza's US phone ordering service has been Kevin Railsback. In a 2009 survey of consumer taste preferences among national chains by Brand Keys, Domino's was last — tied with Chuck E.
Cheese's. In December that year, Domino's announced plans to reinvent its pizza, it began a self-critical ad campaign in which consumers were filmed criticizing the then-current pizza's qu
The lemon, Citrus limon Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to South Asia North eastern India. The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses; the pulp and rind are used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, with a pH of around 2.2, giving it a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie; the origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam, northern Burma or China. A genomic study of the lemon indicated it was a hybrid between bitter citron. Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no than the second century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome. However, they were not cultivated, they were introduced to Persia and to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD. The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, was used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.
It was distributed throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150. The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century; the lemon was introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds, it was used as an ornamental plant and for medicine. In the 19th century, lemons were planted in Florida and California. In 1747, James Lind's experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known as an important dietary ingredient; the origin of the word lemon may be Middle Eastern. The word draws from the Old French limon Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, from the Persian līmūn, a generic term for citrus fruit, a cognate of Sanskrit. The'Bonnie Brae' is oblong, thin-skinned and seedless; these are grown in San Diego County, USA.
The'Eureka' grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon known as'Four Seasons' because of its ability to produce fruit and flowers together throughout the year; this variety is available as a plant to domestic customers. There is a pink-fleshed Eureka lemon, with a green and yellow variegated outer skin. The'Femminello St. Teresa', or'Sorrento' is native to Italy; this fruit's zest is high in lemon oils. It is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello. The'Yen Ben' is an Australasian cultivar. Lemons are a rich source of vitamin C, providing 64% of the Daily Value in a 100 g serving. Other essential nutrients, have insignificant content. Lemons contain numerous phytochemicals, including polyphenols and tannins. Lemon juice contains more citric acid than lime juice, nearly twice the citric acid of grapefruit juice, about five times the amount of citric acid found in orange juice. Lemon juice and peel are used in a wide variety of foods and drinks; the whole lemon is used to make lemon curd and lemon liqueur.
Lemon slices and lemon rind are used as a garnish for food and drinks. Lemon zest, the grated outer rind of the fruit, is used to add flavor to baked goods, puddings and other dishes. Lemon juice is used to make lemonade, soft drinks, cocktails, it is used in marinades for fish, where its acid neutralizes amines in fish by converting them into nonvolatile ammonium salts. In meat, the acid hydrolyzes tough collagen fibers, tenderizing the meat, but the low pH denatures the proteins, causing them to dry out when cooked. In the United Kingdom, lemon juice is added to pancakes on Shrove Tuesday. Lemon juice is used as a short-term preservative on certain foods that tend to oxidize and turn brown after being sliced, such as apples and avocados, where its acid denatures the enzymes. In Morocco, lemons are preserved in barrels of salt; the salt penetrates the peel and rind, softening them, curing them so that they last indefinitely. The preserved lemon is used in a wide variety of dishes. Preserved lemons can be found in Sicilian, Italian and French dishes.
The leaves of the lemon tree are used to make a tea and for preparing cooked seafoods. Lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid before the development of fermentation-based processes; the juice of the lemon may be used for cleaning. A halved lemon dipped in salt or baking powder is used to brighten copper cookware; the acid dissolves the tarnish, the abrasives assist the cleaning. As a kitchen cleaning agent the juice can deodorize, remove grease, bleach stains, disinfect; the oil of the lemon's peel has various uses. It is used as a wood cleaner and polish, where its solvent property is employed to dissolve old wax and grime. Lemon oil and orange oil are used as a nontoxic insecticide treatment. Lemon oil may be used in aromatherapy. Lemon oil aroma may contribute to relaxation. One educational science experiment involves attaching electrodes to a lemon and using it as a battery to produce electricity. Although low power, several lemon batteries can power a small digital watch; these experiments work with other fruits and vegetables.
Lemon juice may
Subway is an American held fast food restaurant franchise that sells submarine sandwiches and salads. Subway is one of the fastest-growing franchises in the world and, as of June 2017, had 42,000 stores located in more than 100 countries. More than half of the stores are located in the United States, it is the largest single-brand restaurant chain, the largest restaurant operator, in the world. As of 2017, the Subway Group of companies was organized as follows: Subway IP Inc. is the owner of the intellectual property for the restaurant system. Franchise World Headquarters, LLC leads franchising operations. FWH Technologies, LLC licenses Subway's point of sale software. Franchisors include Doctor's Associates Inc. in the U. S.. V.. Advertising affiliates include Subway Franchisee Advertising Fund Trust, Ltd.. V.. Subway's international headquarters are in Milford, with five regional centers supporting the company's international operations; the regional offices for European franchises are located in Amsterdam.
In 1965, Fred DeLuca borrowed $1,000 from friend Peter Buck to start "Pete's Super Submarines" in Bridgeport, in the following year, they formed Doctor's Associates Inc. to oversee operations of the restaurants as the franchise expanded. The holding company derives its name from DeLuca's goal to earn enough from the business to pay tuition for medical school, as well as Buck's having a doctorate in physics. Doctor's Associates is not affiliated with, any medical organization. In 1968, the sandwich shop was renamed "Subway"; the first Subway on the West Coast was opened in Fresno, California, in 1978. The first Subway outside of North America opened in Bahrain in December 1984; the first Subway in the United Kingdom was opened in Brighton in 1996. In 2004, Subway began opening stores in Walmart supercenters and surpassed the number of McDonald's locations inside U. S. Walmart stores in 2007. Since 2007, Subway has ranked in Entrepreneur magazine's Top 500 Franchises list. In 2015, it ranked #3 on the "Top Global Franchises" list and #1 as the "Fastest Growing Franchise".
At the end of 2010, Subway became the largest fast food chain worldwide, with 33,749 restaurants – 1,012 more than McDonald's. In January 2015, Suzanne Greco became president and CEO after her brother Fred DeLuca, the company’s first CEO, died of leukemia in September 2015 after being ill for two years. In 2016, Subway closed hundreds of restaurants in the U. S. experiencing a net loss in locations for the first time. However, with 26,744 locations, it remained the most ubiquitous restaurant chain in the U. S.. In 2016, Subway announced a new logo for the franchise, to be implemented in 2017. On July 17, 2017, Subway unveiled redesigned restaurants, dubbed "Fresh Forward." Features include self-order kiosks. The company is piloting the changes at 12 locations across the United States and the United Kingdom, with many features expected to be implemented into stores worldwide by the end of 2017. In 2017, the chain closed more than 800 of its U. S. locations. In April 2018, the chain announced. According Abha Bhattarai of The Washington Post, this is a result of three consecutive years of falling profits, foot traffic in Subway stores reduced by 25 percent since 2012.
Franchisees complained that the company's deep promotions further ate away at profits. Industry analysts like Bob Phibbs, chief executive of the New York-based consulting firm Retail Doctor, say changing tastes on the part of consumers, who more prefer locally sourced produce and hormone-free meat served by regional start-ups like Sweetgreen in metropolitan areas, are the cause of the drop in Subway's sales, as well as loss of market share to competitors; these include fast-casual eateries and sandwich shops like Panera Bread, Au Bon Pain and Firehouse Subs, as well as food trucks, grocery stores that offer freshly made meals at competitive prices. In January 2018, Subway invested $25 million in a re-branding campaign targeted at young consumers in order to revitalize its image and boost sales; as of June 2017, Subway had 44,000 stores worldwide, all independently owned. Located in 112 countries; these locations are concentrated in North America, with about 26,400 in the United States, as many U.
S. locations as McDonald’s and Starbucks combined. Outside North America, the countries with the most locations are Australia and the United Kingdom. Subway's core product is the submarine sandwich. In addition to these, the chain sells wraps, salad and baked goods. Subway's best-selling sandwich, the B. M. T. Contains pepperoni and ham; the name stood for Brooklyn Manhattan Transit, but now stands for "Biggest, Tastiest". Subway sells breakfast sandwiches, English muffins, flatbread. In 2006, "personal pizzas" debuted in some US markets; these are heated for 85 seconds. Breakfast and pizza items are only available in some stores. In November 2009