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Pangasinan language

The Pangasinan language is one of the eight major languages of the Philippines. It is the primary and predominant language of the entire province of Pangasinan and northern Tarlac, on the northern part of Luzon's central plains geographic region, most of whom belong to the Pangasinan ethnic group. Pangasinan is spoken in southwestern La Union, as well as in the municipalities of Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Zambales that border Pangasinan. A few Aeta groups in Central Luzon's northern part understand and speak Pangasinan as well; the Pangasinan language belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family. Pangasinan is similar to other related Philippine languages, Malay in Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore, Hawaiian in Hawaii and Malagasy in Madagascar; the Pangasinan language is closely related to the Ibaloi language spoken in the neighboring province of Benguet, located north of Pangasinan. Pangasinan is classified under the Pangasinic group of languages.

The other Pangasinic languages are: Ibaloi Karao Iwaak Kalanguya Kallahan Pangasinan is the official language of the province of Pangasinan, located on the west central area of the island of Luzon along Lingayen Gulf. The people of Pangasinan are referred to as Pangasinense; the province has a total population of 2,343,086. Pangasinan is spoken in other Pangasinan communities in the Philippines in the neighboring provinces of Benguet, La Union, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac and Nueva Vizcaya. Austronesian speakers settled in Maritime Southeast Asia during prehistoric times more than 5,000 years ago; the indigenous speakers of Pangasinan are descendants of these settlers, who were part of a wave of prehistoric human migration, believed to have originated from Southern China via Taiwan between 10 and 6 thousand years ago. The word Pangasinan, means “land of salt” or “place of salt-making”. Pangasinan could refer to a “container of salt or salted-products”. Pangasinan was preserved and kept alive despite the propagation of the Spanish and English languages.

Written Pangasinan and oral literature in this language flourished during the Spanish and American period. Writers like Juan Saingan, Felipe Quintos, Narciso Corpus, Antonio Solis, Juan Villamil, Juan Mejía and María C. Magsano continued to publish in Pangasinan. Felipe Quintos, a Pangasinan officer of the Katipunan, wrote Sipi Awaray: Gelew Diad Pilipinas, a history of the Katipunan revolutionary struggle in Pangasinan and surrounding provinces. Narciso Corpus and Antonio Solis co-wrote Impanbilay na Manoc a short love story. Juan Villamil translated José Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adiós in Pangasinan. Pablo Mejia edited a news magazine, in the 1920s, he wrote Bilay tan Kalkalar nen Rizal, a biography of Rizal. Magsano published a literary magazine. Magsano wrote Samban Agnabenegan, a romance novel. Pangasinan Courier published literary works in Pangasinan. Pioneer Herald published a literary supplement in Pangasinan. Many Christian publications in Pangasinan are available. Many Pangasinan are multilingual and proficient in English and Ilocano.

However, the spread and influence of the other languages is contributing to the decline of the Pangasinan. Many Pangasinan people the native speakers are promoting the use of Pangasinan in the print and broadcast media, local governments, public facilities and schools in Pangasinan. In April 2006, the creation of Pangasinan Wikipedia was proposed, which the Wikimedia Foundation approved for publication in the Internet. Like other Malayo-Polynesian languages, Pangasinan has a verb -- subject --. Pangasinan is an agglutinative language. A:-UM- MAKAN-, AKAN- PINAGKA- INKA- KA KA-AN -AN SAN- SANKA- SANKA-AN MA- MAY- MAY-EN MANKA-, ANKA-, MANGA- KI-AN INKI- KI- NA-AN, A-AN NI-AN EN- -IN- I- I-AN IN- INY- IN-AN Modern Pangasinan consists of 27 letters, which include the 26 letters of the basic Latin alphabet and the Pangasinan digraph ng: The ancient people of Pangasinan used an indigenous writing system; the ancient Pangasinan script, related to the Tagalog Baybayin script, was derived from the Javanese Kawi script of Indonesia and the Vatteluttu or Pallava script of South India.

The Latin script was introduced during the Spanish colonial period. Pangasinan literature, using the indigenous syllabary and the Latin alphabet, continued to flourish during the Spanish and American colonial period. Pangasinan acquired many Spanish and English words, some indigenous words were Hispanicized or Anglicized. However, use of the ancient syllabary has declined, not much literature written in it has survived. Most of the loan words in Pangasinan are Spanish, as the Philippines was ruled by Spain for more than 300 years. Examples are lugar, kontra, birdi and santo. Malinac ya Labi. Malinac ya Labi Oras ya mareen Mapalpalnay dagem Katekep to’y linaew Samit day kogip ko Binangonan kon tampol Ta pilit na pusok ya sika'y amamayoen Refrain: Lalo la no bilay No sikalay nanengneng Napunas ya ami'y Ermen ya akbibiten No nodnonoten ko ra'y samit na ogalim Agtaka nalingwanan Anggad kaayos na bilay Modern Pangasinan with English translation Malinak lay LabiA night of calm Oras la’y mareenAn hour of peace Mapalpalna’y dagemA gentle bree

Abraham Neuda

Abraham Neuda was an Austrian rabbi. He was the son of Rabbi Aaron Neuda of Loštice, the nephew of Rabbi Jacob Neuda of Lobnig, Moravia. In 1830 he entered the Talmudic school at Mikulov, at whose head was Landesrabbiner Nehemiah Trebitsch. While he was at Mikulov his father died, the community of Loštice elected Abraham as his successor. Against this election, in accordance with a privilege vested in the district rabbi by law, Nehemiah Trebitsch interposed a veto; this action gave rise to legal proceedings, which were pressed by both parties for six years, but which terminated in favor of Neuda, after he had passed an examination. He married the future author Fanny Schmiedl. In 1854 Fanny wrote the first Jewish prayer book known to have been written by a woman for women, called Hours of Devotion. In 2015 a plaque honoring her was unveiled in Loštice, where she lived while her husband was a rabbi there. Abraham Neuda wrote the following works: "Eine Auswahl Gottesdienstlicher Vorträge, Gehalten in der Synagoge zu Loschitz".

He left in manuscript: "Die Namen der Farben in Bibel und Talmud". Der Juden in Mähren," extracts from which appeared in "Neuzeit"; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore Singer, Meyer Kayserling. "Neuda, Abraham". In Singer, Isidore; the Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Ungarisch-Jüdische Wochenschrift, 1871, pp. 358 et seq. 365 et seq

The Wedge (surfing)

The Wedge is a spot located at the extreme east end of the Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach, California known for its large wedge shaped waves that makes it a popular spot for surfing. During a south or south/southwest swell of the right size and aligned in the swell window, the Wedge can produce huge waves up to 30 feet high; the waves are a by-product of alterations to the rock jetty on the west side of the Newport Harbor entrance undertaken during the 1930s. When conditions are right, a wave approaches the shore at the proper angle, an approaching wave will reflect off the jetty creating a second wave; the reflected wave meets up with the following wave of the set and forms a peak, this pattern can repeat for several following waves as well. If the reflected and incoming waves align the resulting wave is bigger than either alone due to constructive interference; this occurs rapidly and forms waves in a unpredictable and "unstable" pattern, so that no two waves are alike and the exact breaking point is difficult to predict for an experienced surfer.

Although this condition occurs with large, south swells, it can occur, with lesser frequency, during "normal" conditions. In addition, the beach at The Wedge is steeply shaped sand, resulting in what is known as shore break and a strong backwash which drags people back into the surf; the backwash itself creates another, outgoing wave, which can hit an incoming wave or surfer with enormous force. With the combined effect of the unpredictability of where the incoming waves will break, the strength of the backwash, the resulting wave action can be unpredictable and therefore both exciting as well as dangerous; the combination of danger, along with the chance to get pitted, draws many to surf The Wedge. The Wedge breaks largest when intense Southern Hemisphere storms or large tropical cyclones send their long period energy from the SSW direction during the summer & fall months; the formation of the surfing spot known as the Wedge was a by-product of alterations to the Newport Harbor, which were completed and re-dedicated on May 23, 1936.

Before those renovations and extensions of the West Jetty wall, the Newport Harbor was the premier surfing spot on the entire west coast of North America. However, while the Newport Harbor was popular with surfers, it was at time, a tragic place to be for boaters and swimmers, alike during big swells. In 1926, George Rogers Jr. a young 15-year-old polio victim, drowned in the Newport Harbor as his boat capsized amidst the heavy waves. As a result of polio, George Rogers Jr. was confined to wearing leg braces, due to the weight of his heavy iron leg braces, his body sank to the bottom of the harbor and was never found. To prevent such a tragedy from happening again to boaters or swimmers, the boy's father, George Rogers Sr. a successful southern California road builder, was motivated to sell his business and focus his remaining years of life on seeking local and federal funding to alter the Newport Harbor. From 1926 to 1936 George Rogers Sr. campaigned to raise funds. Despite the scarcity of money during the Depression, Rogers Sr. helped raise $2 million in federal aid and local bond funds.

A month following the re-dedication of the improved Newport Harbor entrance, George Rogers Sr. suffered a heart attack while on his boat as he entered the harbor entrance. He died at the same location his son died, ten years earlier. In 2014, the documentary, The Wedge: Dynasty, Legacy, aired on PBS SoCaL, recounting these events. In the early to mid-1950s The Wedge was known locally as "102 Beach," where teens held frequent evening beach parties at which Brew 102, a popular Southern California beer from the Meier Brewing Co. was liberally consumed. Legendary surf music guitarist Dick Dale memorialized the Wedge in an eponymous 1963 instrumental piece, included in his Greatest Hits; the Wedge makes an appearance in Bruce Brown's The Endless Summer. Pop punk band All Time Low mentions the Wedge in their song "Let It Roll" from their 2007 album, "So Wrong, It's Right". Balboa is mentioned in the opening song to seminal surfing movie "Beach Party". Balboa Peninsula on Google Maps The Wedge: Dynasty, Legacy THE THRILL-SEEKING BODYSURFERS OF CALIFORNIA’S MOST TERRIFYING WAVE Surf Report for The Wedge

2012 United States House of Representatives elections in Texas

The 2012 United States House of Representatives elections in Texas were held on Tuesday, November 6, 2012 to elect the 36 U. S. Representatives from the state of Texas—an increase of four seats in reapportionment following the 2010 United States Census; the elections coincided with the elections of other federal and state offices, including a quadrennial presidential election and an election for the U. S. Senate; the primary election had been scheduled to be held on March 6, 2012, with a runoff election on May 22. With 58% of voting age people turning out, all existing seats were held by their respective parties. Of the four new seats, one was won by the Republican Party for a total of 24 seats, three were won by the Democratic Party for a total of 12 seats. In March 2011, The Texas Tribune conducted a poll of Texas "insiders" which found 54 per cent to believe three of the state's four new congressional districts would be drawn to favor the Republican Party, with one district drawn to favor the Democratic Party.

In April, Republican U. S. Representative Lamar Smith argued that the seats should be evenly split between the parties in order to reflect Texas's growing Hispanic population and abide by the Voting Rights Act. Joe Barton a Republican U. S. Representative, arguing that three or four of the districts should favor Republicans. In April, the Mexican American Legislative Caucus filed a lawsuit against Governor Rick Perry and the state of Texas, seeking to halt redistricting based on Census data which failed to count up to 250,000 Hispanic residents of colonias. In April, Democratic U. S. Representative Lloyd Doggett released a map which he alleged had been submitted by Republican members of Congress to leaders of the Texas Legislature; the map would divide Travis County between four districts, three of which would favor Republicans and one of which would favor Democrats. In May, state representative Burt Solomons, a Republican, expressed concern that the legislature would not produce a congressional redistricting map by May 30, when it was scheduled to adjourn, that a special session would be necessary.

State senator Kel Seliger, the chair of the Senate's Select Committee on Redistricting downplayed the likelihood that redistricting legislation would be passed but emphasized the importance of creating a "credible instrument for the court to consider." Joe Barton filed a lawsuit in response to perceived "inaction" by the legislature on redistricting. On May 25, Seliger confirmed that the legislature would not pass redistricting legislation, that a congressional map would be drawn either by a federal court or in a special session; the same day, Rick Perry reiterated his position that the Legislature rather than the courts should draw the map, three days said he would call a special session on the condition that legislators decide on a map in advance. On May 30, Perry called a special session. On May 31, the first day of the special session, redistricting was added to the list of matters to be addressed and Seliger and Solomons released a proposed congressional map. In Seliger and Solomons' map, African Americans and Hispanic Americans form majorities in two of the new districts, while the other two new districts gave Perry more than 56 per cent of their vote in the 2010 gubernatorial election.

The districts represented by Doggett and Republicans Quico Canseco and Blake Farenthold would be made more favorable to Republicans. Democratic state representative Marc Veasey and Nina Perales of the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund criticized the plan, which they said failed to increase the number of minority opportunity districts. Democratic U. S. Representative Gene Green filed a lawsuit against the map, alleging that it would neglect Hispanic population growth in Harris County. On June 2, Solomons acknowledged that the map was to undergo significant changes. A new map was proposed by Seliger on June 2, under which Republican U. S. Representative Ron Paul's district would be modified and a district which linked urban Houston to rural East Texas counties would be redrawn; the map was passed by the State Senate's redistricting committee, by the full Senate on party lines on June 6. A different map from that passed by the Senate was passed by the House of Representatives' Redistricting Committee.

The House map would lower the Hispanic population of Canseco's district by concentrating Hispanics in Democrat Charlie Gonzalez's district. The map was passed by the full House of Representatives on June 14. On June 20, the Senate voted to accept the House's amendments; the map was signed into law by Perry on July 18. On September 13, the Civil Rights Division of the U. S. Department of Justice said that, based on a preliminary investigation, the map appeared to have been "adopted, at least in part, for the purpose of diminishing the ability of citizens of the United States, on account of race, color, or membership in a language minority group, to elect their preferred candidates of choice to Congress" and would have a discriminatory effect. On November 8, a federal court refused to approve the Legislature's proposed map, thereby necessitating lengthy legal proceedings and the implementation of an interim map for the 2012 elections, to be drawn by a panel of federal judges. On November 23, a panel of three federal judges drew a map in which three of the four new districts would favor Democrats.

However, three days Greg Abbott, the Texas Attorney General, announced that the state would file for an emergency stay from the U. S. Supreme Court. On December 9, the S

Dawn Over the Drava

Dawn Over the Drava is a Bulgarian war-drama film from 1974, directed by Zako Heskiya. The Liberation of the Chamber of Communists and the Communist Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina, on 8–9 September 1944, Commander Boyan Vassilev received the Major General and the Assistant Chief of Command in the Bulgarian Army. Him is ahead of the mistrust of the officership of the corps and the participation in the self-proclaimed for the Bulgarians of fights. Secondly, the warriors of the Draco in the Balatontone Operations. Georgi Georgiev-Getz as Boyan Vassilev Georgi Cherkelov as Colonel Demirev Peter Slabakov as Delcho Stoyan Gadev as big man Stefan Danailov as Lieutenant Bozhev Golden Rose Bulgarian Feature Film Festival:Best Film Best Actor — Georgi Georgiev-Getz, Georgi Cherkelov Best Screenplay — Pavel Vezhinov, Rangel Ignatov Best CinematographyKrum Krumov Screenplay Award of Union of Bulgarian Writers: Pavel Vezhinov, Rangel Ignatov Българската национална филмотека Dawn Over the Drava on IMDb Зарево над Драва — БНТ

European integrated hydrogen project

The European integrated Hydrogen Project was a European Union project to integrate United Nations Economic Commission for Europe guidelines and create a basis of ECE regulation of hydrogen vehicles and the necessary infrastructure replacing national legislation and regulations. The aim of this project was enhancing of the safety of hydrogen vehicles and harmonizing their licensing and approval process. EIHP was launched in 1998, it was coordinated by a German consultancy company. Its phase 1 lasted from 1998–2000, it consists of 10 partners including research institutes, energy companies and automotive industries such as BMW, Volvo. During the phase 1, information about the existing legislation and safety of alternative propulsion vehicles and related infrastructure was collected; as a result of the phase 1, UNECE drafted regulations for the onboard storage system for liquid hydrogen, for the on-board storage system for gaseous hydrogen. Phase 2 lasted from 2001–2004 and it developed drafts of a harmonized regulation for hydrogen-fuelled road vehicles, procedures for periodic hydrogen vehicle inspections, standards and periodic inspection procedures for the relevant refuelling infrastructure and components.

During phase 2, a new liquefied hydrogen storage system was manufactured. It was approved safe by the German Technical Inspection Association. Phase 2 developed a semi-quantitative risk analysis methodology, used for risk assessment of several hydrogen applications. There were 20 partners of phase 2. Although regulations worked-out by EIHP are not adopted, they are used as guidelines for design and approval of on-board cryogenic storage systems. For example, General Motors and BMW have announced that they are following EIHP's draft regulations when jointly developing refueling devices for liquid hydrogen vehicles. Partners of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project - Phase II were researchers working at the following institutions: Energy law Energy policy Energy supply Hydrogen codes and standards Hydrogen economy World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations EIHP homepage