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Pangenesis was Charles Darwin's hypothetical mechanism for heredity, in which he proposed that each part of the body continually emitted its own type of small organic particles called gemmules that aggregated in the gonads, contributing heritable information to the gametes. He presented this'provisional hypothesis' in his 1868 work The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, intending it to fill what he perceived as a major gap in evolutionary theory at the time; the etymology of the word comes from the Greek words genesis or genos. Pangenesis mirrored ideas formulated by Hippocrates and other pre-Darwinian scientists, but built off of new concepts such as cell theory, explaining cell development as beginning with gemmules which were specified to be necessary for the occurrence of new growths in an organism, both in initial development and regeneration, it accounted for regeneration and the Lamarckian concept of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, as a body part altered by the environment would produce altered gemmules.

This made Pangenesis popular among the neo-Lamarckian school of evolutionary thought. This hypothesis was made obsolete after the 1900 rediscovery among biologists of Gregor Mendel's theory of the particulate nature of inheritance. Pangenesis was similar to ideas put forth by Hippocrates and other pre-Darwinian scientists in proposing that the whole of parental organisms participate in heredity. Darwin wrote that Hippocrates' pangenesis was "almost identical with mine—merely a change of terms—and an application of them to classes of facts unknown to the old philosopher."Science historian Conway Zirkle wrote that: The hypothesis of pangenesis is as old as the belief in the inheritance of acquired characters. It was endorsed by Hippocrates, Galen, Clement of Alexandria, Lactantius, St. Isidore of Seville, Bartholomeus Anglicus, St. Albert the Great, St. Thomas of Aquinas, Peter of Crescentius, Jerome Cardan, Levinus Lemnius, John Ray, Bonnet, von Haller and Herbert Spencer. Zirkle demonstrated that the idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics had become accepted by the 16th century and remained immensely popular through to the time of Lamarck's work, at which point it began to draw more criticism due to lack of hard evidence.

He stated that pangenesis was the only scientific explanation offered for this concept, developing from Hippocrates' belief that "the semen was derived from the whole body." In the 13th century, pangenesis was accepted on the principle that semen was a refined version of food unused by the body, which translated to 15th and 16th century widespread use of pangenetic principles in medical literature in gynecology. Pre-Darwinian important applications of the idea included hypotheses about the origin of the differentiation of races. A theory put forth by Pierre Louis Maupertuis in 1745 called for particles from both parents governing the attributes of the child, although some historians have called his remarks on the subject cursory and vague. In 1749, French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon developed a hypothetical system of heredity much like Darwin's pangenesis, wherein'organic molecules' were transferred to offspring during reproduction and stored in the body during development.

Commenting on Buffon's views, Darwin stated, "If Buffon had assumed that his organic molecules had been formed by each separate unit throughout the body, his view and mine would have been closely similar."In 1801, Erasmus Darwin advocated a hypothesis of pangenesis in the third edition of his book Zoonomia. In 1809, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in his Philosophie Zoologique put forth evidence for the idea that characteristics acquired during the lifetime of an organism, either from effects of the environment or may be passed on to the offspring. Charles Darwin first had significant contact with Lamarckism during his time at the University of Edinburgh Medical School in the late 1820s, both through Robert Edmond Grant, whom he assisted in research, in Erasmus's journals. Darwin's first known writings on the topic of Lamarckian ideas as they related to inheritance are found in a notebook he opened in 1837 entitled Zoonomia. Historian Johnathan Hodge states that the theory of pangenesis itself first appeared in Darwin's notebooks in 1841.

In 1861, Irish physician Henry Freke developed a variant of pangenesis in his book Origin of Species by Means of Organic Affinity. Freke proposed that all life was developed from microscopic organic agents which he named granules, which existed as'distinct species of organizing matter' and would develop into different biological structures. In 1864, four years before the publication of Variation, Herbert Spencer in his book Principles of Biology proposed a theory of "physiological units" similar to Darwin's gemmules, which were said to be related to specific body parts and responsible for the transmission of characteristics of those body parts to offspring, he supported the Lamarckian idea of transmission of acquired characteristics. Darwin had debated whether to publish a theory of heredity for an extended period of time due to its speculative nature, he decided to include pangenesis in Variation after sending a 30 page manuscript to his close friend and supporter Thomas Huxley in May 1865, met by significant criticism from Huxley that made Darwin more hesitant.

However, Huxley advised Darwin to publish, writing: "Somebody rummaging among your papers half a century hence will find Pangenesis & say'See this wonderful anticipation of our modern Theories—and that stupid ass, prevented his pu

Rights-based approach to development

Rights-based approach to development is an approach to development promoted by many development agencies and non-governmental organizations to achieve a positive transformation of power relations among the various development actors. This practice blurs the distinction between economic development. There are two stakeholder groups in rights-based development—the rights holders and the duty bearers. Rights-based approaches aim at strengthening the capacity of duty bearers and empower the rights holders. Human rights came into global discourse after the United Nations passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948; this was the first global recognition. United Nations endorsement of democracy had little to do with the UN's stance on development. Human rights became one of the major debates between the West and Communist states during the Cold War. Cold War dichotomy of right versus left defined power of the state and of the individual in aspects of society based on political affiliation.

The end of the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet bloc left Western values and ideas, which remains one of the main ideologies of the world. Human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, used to focus on documenting human rights violations on the civil and political level. No longer do these organizations focus on human rights violations, but on social and cultural rights; the evolution of human rights organizations and development organizations and the western idea that rights are asserted through responsibilities, transparency and accountability have led to the development of the rights-based approach. In 1993 the UN held the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna; this made the Cold War division of Civil and Political Rights and Economic Social and Cultural rights interdependent. This further led to the linkage between human rights and development and enabled policy makers and developers to incorporate a rights-based approach into their policies. In 1997, the Secretary General to the United Nations called to mainstream human rights into all work of the United Nations.

In 2003, various organizations and agencies met to develop a "Common Understanding" of a human rights-based approach. Giving six main principles: Universality and Inalienability Indivisibility Inter-Dependence and Inter-Relatedness Equality and Non-Discrimination Participation and Inclusion Accountability and Rule of LawThe United Nations developed this guide to address the significant changes occurring in the international development community with the adoption of human rights in development work. Since the UN published their standards and steps to a rights-based approach to development, many bilateral donor agencies, such as CIDA and DFID, international NGOs such as CARE and Oxfam have taken similar steps; the welfare model has been rooted into Western developmental practices since the 20th century. In the welfare model, poverty is defined as the absence of a public knowledge. If the state or another vehicle, such as an NGO, provides the absent good poverty can be alleviated and development will occur.

Billions of dollars have been poured into this approach, however despite some achievements there has not been success with this model. The gap between the rich and poor is widening and according to the World Development Report, nearly half of the world's population live on less than $2 a day; this model lacks a way to hold governments accountable for their actions or inaction. It fails to address governments' inability to fulfill their citizens' rights either because of funding or knowledge, it constructs the poor as objects of charity, predetermining their roles in civic society. Due to the failures of the welfare model, NGOs reevaluated and transitioned more towards a rights-based approach to development. In this model, instead of the poor being constructed as charity they would be constructed as actors or rights holders; the NGOs' role is to help the poor overcome obstacles blocking their rights and give governments the tools and training to provide these rights. The inclusion of human rights into development discourse has brought along a certain language of rights.

This brings a moral resonance to development rhetoric and makes it hard to avoid in today's discourse. Rights are defined as entitlements that belong to all human beings regardless of race, ethnicity, or socio-economic class. Who is responsible to give these rights, in other words the duty bearers, has been debated. In rights-based approach it is the person’s government that assumes the duty bearer position, but most of the time the said government does not have the resources to fulfill this role; this is where the NGOs come and try to help these governments fulfill their roles and duties to their people by giving them resources. These resources can be more sustainable such as training to government officials. There is an under-fulfillment of human rights, directly linked with poverty. Poverty includes the assessment of standard of living and well being; these are social and economic human rights,which have just been included in development discourse. First generation rights, or civil and political rights, have dominated public policy in the past.

However, with poverty on the rise and public policy failing and economic rights are becoming i

Syrus of Pavia

Saint Syrus of Pavia is traditionally said to have been the first bishop of Pavia during the 1st century. His legend, according to the 14th century source known as the De laudibus Papiæ, states that Syrus was the boy with the five loaves who appears in the Gospels; as Hippolyte Delehaye writes, "To have lived amongst the Saviour's immediate following was...honorable...and accordingly old patrons of churches were identified with certain persons in the gospels or who were supposed to have had some part of Christ's life on earth." Syrus is said to have followed Saint Peter to Rome and from there he was sent to the Po valley to preach and convert the people to the Christian faith. He preached in all of the major cities of northern Italy. Another tradition, dating back to the 8th century, makes Syrus a disciple of Saint Hermagoras, who in turn was the disciple of Mark the Evangelist. Hermagoras was the founder of the diocese of Aquileia. Together with Juventius of Pavia he was sent there by Saint Hermagoras.

Both Juventius and Syrus are reported to have been the first bishop of Pavia. Syrus worked to convert those who followed Arianism in his diocese. Syrus is the patron saint of Pavia. Bramante designed the chapel of San Siro in the city's cathedral. Hippolyte Delehaye, The Legends of the Saints, 37. N. Everett, "The Earliest recension of the Life of S. Sirus of Pavia", Studi Medievali 43, 857-957. N. Everett, Patron Saints of Early Medieval Italy AD c.350-800. History and Hagiography in Ten Biographies. PIMS / Durham University Press, 2016. Saint Siro Saint Syrus of Pavia 12 September at Dominican Martyrology "1st century saints at Orthodox England". Archived from the original on 2012-09-10. San Siro di Pavia San Siro di Pavia at the Italian Wikipedia San Siro

Robert Parfew

For the English Test cricket umpire, see Robert Warton. Robert Parfew was an English Benedictine abbot, at the time of the dissolution of the monasteries, bishop successively of St Asaph and Hereford, he was born in the late years of the fifteenth century. He is known by variants of two, he was a Cluniac monk, became abbot of Bermondsey. In 1525 he is said to have proceeded B. D. at Cambridge. The list of supremacy acknowledgments does not include that of Bermondsey, but it seems clear, from his subsequent history, that Warton signed. On 8 June 1536 he was elected bishop of St. Asaph, but retained his abbacy in commendam till 1538, when the abbey was suppressed, Warton received a substantial pension. Warton lived at Denbigh, he took part in 1537 in the drawing up of The Institution of a Christian Man. On 18 August 1538 he received the surrender of the Carmelites of Denbigh Friary, in 1539 he cautiously commended confession as requisite and expedient, though not enjoined by the word of God, he had a plan, the revival of a plan of 1282, for moving the seat of the cathedral and grammar school of his diocese to Wrexham, he wrote about it to Thomas Cromwell soon after his appointment.

Afterwards he thought of Denbigh. In 1537 he was present at the funeral of Jane Seymour, he liked to reside in his remote diocese. In 1548 he was one of those who in the drawing up of the Book of Common Prayer represented the Bangor use. In 1551 he was placed on the Council for Wales. At the beginning of Queen Mary's reign he was retained and was made a member of the commission which expelled most of the bishops, he was on 1 March 1554 translated to the diocese of Hereford in place of John Harley, deprived. He died on 22 September 1557; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Warton, Robert". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Withered Hand

Dan Willson known by his stage name Withered Hand, is an Edinburgh-based indie rock musician. His first studio album, Good News, was released in 2009 in Scotland, re-released in 2011 on Absolutely Kosher Records in the United States, his second album, entitled New Gods, was released in March 2014 through Fortuna Pop Records in the UK and Slumberland Records in the USA. He performed at the South by Southwest festival in Austin, Texas in 2014, as part of that year's Scottish Showcase. Willson was raised as a Jehovah's Witness in Scotland as well as in Bishop's Stortford in England; as a kid, he was not permitted to attend school assemblies, birthday parties or Christmas celebrations. Willson was worried throughout his childhood that his voice was too high so he didn't begin singing until his late twenties, he wanted to be a visual artist, he has been based in Edinburgh since 1996. Willson began his solo musical career at age 30, after one of his close friends died and his wife bought him a guitar for his 30th birthday.

As Withered Hand, the first song he wrote was Cornflake. Willson studied at Art College in London, moved to Edinburgh with his then-girlfriend, to whom he is now married, in 1996. Shortly thereafter, Willson tried his hand at being a visual artist, but abandoned his work in the field, he attributes this in part to his "lack of success in expressing myself visually." He was guitarist in Edinburgh band Barrichello, which he joined in 1999. This band broke up amicably in 2002, his second band was known as Squits, became a short-lived art rock group named Peanut. He was a member of the short lived anti-folk group The Love Gestures alongside Cammy Watt of Enfant Bastard and Neil Pennycook of Meursault. Willson has said that his upbringing as a Jehovah's Witness "gave fledgling artistic temperament a lot to think about", that since he was taught that the world would end soon, he began to "read everything as a sign"; the first song he wrote as Withered Hand was "Cornflake." He has cited Teenage Fanclub and Eugenius as two of the bands he listened to most growing up, as the reason why he was so glad that Eugenius' frontman Eugene Kelly appeared on New Gods.

Willson, in fact, named his son after Kelly. Withered Hand was an active member of the Fence Collective and its offshoot the Alter Ego Trading Company, making appearances at their Fife based events The World Tour of Crail and Bunfight at the OK Karail, he has toured with the likes of James Yorkston, Frightened Rabbit, Rozi Plain, King Creosote and Samantha Crain. Marc Riley has named Withered Hand as one of his favourite artists, has had him perform sessions on his show, BBC Radio 6 Music. Robert Christgau has written favorable reviews of both his albums, naming Good News the 14th best album of 2011 and New Gods the 3rd best album of 2014. Willson's most recent band consisted of, in addition to him, Malcolm Benzie of Edinburgh band eagleowl, Fraser Hughes and Alun Thomas of The Leg, they are occasionally joined by Pam Berry of 90s US band Black Tambourine and various former members of the Second Hand Marching Band. Previous members include Hannah Neil Pennycook of Meursault. Good News New Gods Religious Songs You're Not Alone Heart Heart Inbetweens "King of Hollywood" "Horseshoe" Bandcamp page

SS Empire Bardolph

Empire Bardolph was a 7,017 GRT refrigerated cargo ship, built in 1942 for the Ministry of War Transport. She was sold in 1946 and renamed Memling and sold again in 1953 and renamed Vancouver Star, being renamed Memling in 1957, she was scrapped in 1959. Empire Bardolph was built by Short Brothers Ltd, Sunderland as yard number 474, she was launched on 8 December 1942 and completed in March 1943. Empire Bardolph was built for the MoWT and operated under the management of Donaldson Brothers & Black Ltd. Management passed to Lamport and Holt Line Ltd in 1944 Empire Bardolph had 259,960 cubic feet of refrigerated cargo space in her holds. Empire Bardolph was a member of a number of convoys during the Second World War. SL 165Convoy SL 162 departed Freetown, Sierra Leone on 20 July 1944 and arrived at Liverpool on 10 August. Empire Bardolph was carrying general cargo. OS 87Convoy OS 87 arrived at Freetown on 13 September. Empire Bardolph was bound for the River Plate. In 1946, Empire Bardolph was sold to Holt Line Ltd and renamed Memling.

She was one of the first two ships acquired by Holt after the war. She was sold in 1953 to Blue Star Line and renamed Vancouver Star, being renamed Memling in 1957. On 23 October 1959, Memling arrived at Netherlands for scrapping, she was propelled by a triple expansion steam engine, built by North East Marine Engineering Company Ltd, Newcastle upon Tyne. Official numbers were a forerunner to IMO Numbers. Empire Bardolph had the UK official number 169109 and the call sign BPKF