Pagination known as paging, is the process of dividing a document into discrete pages, either electronic pages or printed pages. In reference to books produced without a computer, pagination can mean the consecutive page numbering to indicate the proper order of the pages, found in documents pre-dating 1500, only became common practice c. 1550, when it replaced foliation, which numbered only the front sides of folios. Word processing, desktop publishing, digital typesetting are technologies built on the idea of print as the intended final output medium, although nowadays it is understood that plenty of the content produced through these pathways will be viewed onscreen as electronic pages by most users rather than being printed on paper. All of these software tools are capable of flowing the content through algorithms to decide the pagination. For example, they all include automated word wrapping, machine-readable paragraphing, automated pagination. All of those automated capabilities can be manually overridden by the human user, via soft hyphens, manual line breaks, hard returns, manual page breaks.
Today printed pages are produced by outputting an electronic file to a printing device, such as a desktop printer or a modern printing press. These electronic files may for example be Microsoft PDF or QXD files, they will already incorporate the instructions for pagination, among other formatting instructions. Pagination encompasses rules and algorithms for deciding where page breaks will fall, which depend on cultural considerations about which content belongs on the same page: for example one may try to avoid widows and orphans; some systems are more sophisticated than others in this respect. Before the rise of information technology, pagination was a manual process: all pagination was decided by a human. Today, most pagination is performed by machines, although humans override particular decisions. "Electronic page" is a term to encompass paginated content in presentations or documents that originate or remain as visual electronic documents. This is a software file and recording format term in contrast to electronic paper, a hardware display technology.
Electronic pages may be a standard sized based on the document settings of a word processor file, desktop publishing application file, or presentation software file. Electronic pages may be dynamic in size or content such as in the case of HTML pages; when end-user interactivity is part of the user experience design of an electronic page, it is better known as a graphical user interface. The number and size of electronic pages in a document are limited by the amount of computer data storage, not by the display devices or amount of paper. Most electronic pages are for either display on a computer monitor or handheld device, or output to a printing device. PDF and some e-book file format pages are designed to do both. Most applications will print electronic pages without the need for a screen capture. However, not all software supports WYSIWYG printing of pages. Pages for screen output are more known as screens, interfaces, scenes, or cards. In the case of presentation software, electronic pages are known as slides.
Lee Cecil Fletcher Sallows is a British electronics engineer known for his contributions to recreational mathematics. He is noted as the inventor of golygons, self-enumerating sentences, geomagic squares. Sallows is an expert on the theory of magic squares and has invented several variations on them, including alphamagic squares and geomagic squares; the latter invention caught the attention of mathematician Peter Cameron who has said that he believes that "an deeper structure may lie hidden beyond geomagic squares"In "The lost theorem" published in 1997 he showed that every 3 × 3 magic square is associated with a unique parallelogram on the complex plane, a discovery that had escaped all previous researchers from ancient times down to the present day. In 2014 Sallows discovered a unnoticed result involving the medians of a triangle. A golygon is a polygon containing only right angles, such that adjacent sides exhibit consecutive integer lengths. Golygons were invented and named by Sallows and introduced by A.
K. Dewdney in the Computer Recreations column of the July 1990 issue of Scientific American. In 2012 Sallows named self-tiling tile sets -- a new generalization of rep-tiles. Lee Sallows is the only son of Leonard Gandy Sallows, he was born on 30 April 1944 at Brocket Hall in Hertfordshire and grew up in the district of Upper Clapton in northeast London. Sallows attended Dame Alice Owen's School located at The Angel, but failed to settle in and was without diplomas when he left at age 17. Knowledge gained via interest in short-wave radio enabled him to find work as a technician within the electronics industry. In 1970 he moved to Nijmegen in the Netherlands, where until 2009, he worked as an electronic engineer at Radboud University. In 1973 Sallows met up with his Dutch partner Evert Lamfers, a cardiologist, with whom he has lived since. 2014 Sallows, Lee "More On Self-tiling Tile Sets", Mathematics Magazine, April 2014 2012 Sallows, Lee. "On Self-Tiling Tile Sets", Mathematics Magazine, December, 2012 2012 "Geometric Magic Squares: A Challenging New Twist Using Colored Shapes Instead of Numbers", Dover Publications, ISBN 0486489094 1997 "The Lost Theorem", The Mathematical Intelligencer 1997 19.
1995 "The Impossible Problem", The Mathematical Intelligencer 1995 17. 1994 "Alphamagic Squares", In: The Lighter Side of Mathematics pp 305–39, Edited by R. K. Guy and R. E. Woodrow, pub. by The Mathematical Association of America, 1994, ISBN 0-88385-516-X 1992 Sallows, Lee. "New pathways in serial isogons". The Mathematical Intelligencer. 14: 55–67. Doi:10.1007/BF03025216. 1991 Sallows, Lee. "Serial isogons of 90 degrees". Mathematics Magazine. 64: 315–324. Doi:10.2307/2690648. JSTOR 2690648. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list 1990 "A Curious New Result in Switching Theory", The Mathematical Intelligencer 1990. 1987 "In Quest of a Pangram", In: A Computer Science Reader, pp 200–20, Edited by EA Weiss, Springer-Verlag, New York, ISBN 0-387-96544-0 1986 "Co-Descriptive Strings", Mathematical Gazette 1986.
Herman Rudolf "Rudy" Kousbroek was a Dutch poet, translator and first of all essayist. He was a prominent figure in Dutch cultural life between 1950 and 2010 and one of the most outspoken atheists in the Netherlands. In 1975 he was awarded the P. C. Hooft Prize for his essays, his principal work is the book Het Oostindisch kampsyndroom, a compilation of critical essays that are in one way or the other related to the Dutch East Indies and show his admiration for Dutch Indo-Eurasian authors like E. du Perron, Tjalie Robinson, Beb Vuyk as well as Indonesian intellectual Sutan Sjahrir. Rudy Kousbroek was born on the isle of Sumatra, in the Dutch East Indies; the first sixteen years of his life he lived there. During the Japanese occupation he and his family were imprisoned in a Japanese concentration camp. After World War II his family repatriated to the Netherlands, he studied physics in Amsterdam and Japanese in Paris. He never finished his studies, but he had absorbed the culture of both the sciences and the humanities, what C. P. Snow has called The Two Cultures.
Scientific thinking and empiricism remained the core of his world view. He returned to the Netherlands in the early 1970s, he became for some time the moving spirit of the Cultural Supplement of NRC Handelsblad. His range of interests was broad: he wrote poetry for children, analysed with subtlety human emotions, such as: longing, sexuality, love for cars, love for animals. Indonesian and Indo Eurasian culture and literature as well as the aftermath of colonialism remained a lifelong interest, he has written quite a lot about the visual arts and photography. He advocated a more prominent role of the natural sciences in intellectual education. In the 1950s Kousbroek became friends with Willem Frederik Hermans, a Dutch writer, considered one of the best Dutch writers of the 20th century, they had many interests in common: the scientific worldview, typewriters, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Karl Popper, atheism, literature. The friendship ended in the 1970s with a quarrel about the reliability of Friedrich Weinreb's memoirs.
The correspondence between Hermans and Ethel Portnoy, Kousbroek's wife at the time, has been published under the title Machines en emoties. Another renowned Dutch writer, Gerard Reve, has been on friendly terms with Kousbroek, but there remained a gap between the Roman Catholic convert Reve. The latter mocked Kousbroek and his rationalism in his novel Het boek van violet en dood. Kousbroek had been married to Ethel Portnoy, he married the Irish writer Sarah Hart. He had two with Ethel Portnoy and one with Sarah Hart, his daughter, Hepzibah Kousbroek became a writer. His son Gabriël Kousbroek became a professional illustrator. Rudy Kousbroek died aged 80 in Leiden, he sometimes used the pen names Fred Coyett. Kousbroek started his literary career with two books of poetry: Tien variaties op het bestiale and De begrafenis van een keerkring, he soon decided. With Remco Campert, a school friend, he founded the magazine Braak in May 1950; the magazine lasted only for two years, but was important for the development of the'Vijftigers'.
In 1972 he was the first to deliver the annual Huizinga Lecture and its subject was Ethology and the Philosophy of Culture. In 1975 he won the P. C. Hooft Award, one of the most prestigious literary awards in the Netherlands. In 1994 he received an honorary degree in philosophy from the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. Kousbroek's love for animals has inspired several of his books, from De aaibaarheidsfactor to Medereizigers. Kousbroek has translated Exercices de style by Raymond Queneau and wrote an introduction to the Dutch translation of Ombres chinoises by Simon Leys, a book that encouraged intellectuals in the Western world to revise their image of Mao Zedong and the Cultural Revolution. Kousbroek's magnum opus is Het Oostindisch kampsyndroom; the book is a polemic with the spokesmen of the emigrated people from the Dutch East Indies after the end of the Dutch colonial period, most notably among them Jeroen Brouwers, who holds the view and implicitly racist according to Kousbroek, that the hardships of the Japanese concentration camps in the East Indies during World War II are of the same order of atrocity as the hardships of the German concentration camps in Europe.
The book contains reminiscences of Kousbroek's youth in the Dutch East Indies, essays on related literature, reviews. 1951 – Tien variaties op het bestiale 1953 – De begrafenis van een keerkring 1968 – Revolutie in een industriestaat 1969 – de aaibaarheidsfactor 1969 – Anathema's 1 1970 – Het avondrood der magiërs 1970 – Anathema's 2 1970 – Het gemaskerde woord. Anathema's 1, 2 en 3 1971 – Een kuil om snikkend in te vallen 1971 – Anathema's 3 1973 – Ethologie en cultuurfilosofie 1978 – Een passage naar Indië 1978 – Stijloefeningen 1978 – De Aaibaarheidsfactor, gevolgd door Die Wacht am IJskast 1979 – Anathema's 4, De waanzin aan de macht 1981 – Vince
Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument, brush, or other writing instruments. A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive and skillful manner". Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable. Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both. Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, memorial documents, it is used for props and moving images for film and television, for testimonials and death certificates and other written works. The principal tools for a calligrapher are the brush. Calligraphy pens round, or pointed.
For some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens—steel brushes—can be used. However, works have been created with felt-tip and ballpoint pens, although these works do not employ angled lines. There are some styles such as Gothic script, that require a stub nib pen. Writing ink is water-based and is much less viscous than the oil-based inks used in printing. High quality paper, which has good consistency of absorption, enables cleaner lines, although parchment or vellum is used, as a knife can be used to erase imperfections and a light-box is not needed to allow lines to pass through it. Light boxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work. Ruled paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most ruled every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are used; this is the case with litterea unciales, college-ruled paper acts as a guideline well. Common calligraphy pens and brushes are: Quill Dip pen Ink brush Qalam Fountain pen Western calligraphy is recognizable by the use of the Latin script.
The Latin alphabet appeared about 600 BC, in Rome, by the first century developed into Roman imperial capitals carved on stones, Rustic capitals painted on walls, Roman cursive for daily use. In the second and third centuries the uncial lettering style developed; as writing withdrew to monasteries, uncial script was found more suitable for copying the Bible and other religious texts. It was the monasteries which preserved calligraphic traditions during the fourth and fifth centuries, when the Roman Empire fell and Europe entered the Dark Ages. At the height of the Empire, its power reached as far as Great Britain; the Semi-uncial generated the small Anglo-Saxon. Each region developed its own standards following the main monastery of the region, which are cursive and hardly readable. Christian churches promoted the development of writing through the prolific copying of the Bible, the Breviary, other sacred texts. Two distinct styles of writing known as uncial and half-uncial developed from a variety of Roman bookhands.
The 7th–9th centuries in northern Europe were the heyday of Celtic illuminated manuscripts, such as the Book of Durrow, Lindisfarne Gospels and the Book of Kells. Charlemagne's devotion to improved scholarship resulted in the recruiting of "a crowd of scribes", according to Alcuin, the Abbot of York. Alcuin developed the style known as the Carolingian minuscule; the first manuscript in this hand was the Godescalc Evangelistary —a Gospel book written by the scribe Godescalc. Carolingian remains the one progenitor hand. In the eleventh century, the Caroline evolved into the Gothic script, more compact and made it possible to fit more text on a page; the Gothic calligraphy styles became dominant throughout Europe. In the 15th century, the rediscovery of old Carolingian texts encouraged the creation of the humanist minuscule or littera antiqua; the 17th century saw the Batarde script from France, the 18th century saw the English script spread across Europe and world through their books. In the mid-1600s French officials, flooded with documents written in various hands and varied levels of skill, complained that many such documents were beyond their ability to decipher.
The Office of the Financier thereupon restricted all legal documents to three hands, namely the Coulee, the Rhonde, a Speed Hand sometimes called the Bastarda. While there were many great French masters at the time, the most influential in proposing these hands was Louis Barbedor, who published Les Ecritures Financière Et Italienne Bastarde Dans Leur Naturel circa 1650. With the destruction of the Camera Apostolica during the sack of Rome, the capitol for writing masters moved to Southern France. By 1600, the Italic Cursiva began to be replaced by a technological refinement, the Italic Chancery Circumflessa, which in turn fathered the Rhonde and English Roundhand. In England and Banson popularized the Round Hand while Snell is noted for his reaction to them, warnings of restraint and proportionality. Still Edward Crocker began publishing his copybooks 40 years before the aforementioned. Sacred Western calligraphy has some special features
The telex network was a public switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network, for the purposes of sending text-based messages. Telex was a major method of sending written messages electronically between businesses in the post-World War II period, its usage went into decline. The "telex" term refers to the network, not the teleprinters. Teleprinters evolved from telegraph systems, like the telegraph, they used binary signals, which means that symbols were represented by the presence or absence of a pre-defined level of electric current; this is different from the analog telephone system, which used varying voltages to represent sound. For this reason, telex exchanges were separate from the telephone system, with their own signalling standards and system of "telex numbers". Telex provided the first common medium for international record communications using standard signalling techniques and operating criteria as specified by the International Telecommunication Union. Customers on any telex exchange could deliver messages around the world.
To lower line usage, telex messages were first encoded onto paper tape and read into the line as as possible. The system delivered information at 50 baud or 66 words per minute, encoded using the International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2. In the last days of the telex networks, end-user equipment was replaced by modems and phone lines, reducing the telex network to what was a directory service running on the phone network. Telex began in Germany as a research and development program in 1926 that became an operational teleprinter service in 1933; the service, operated by the Reichspost had a speed of 50 baud — 66 words per minute. Telex service spread around the world. By 1978, West Germany, including West Berlin, had 123,298 telex connections. Long before automatic telephony became available, most countries in central Africa and Asia, had at least a few high-frequency telex links. Government postal and telegraph services initiated these radio links; the most common radio standard, CCITT R.44 had error-corrected retransmitting time-division multiplexing of radio channels.
Most impoverished PTTs operated their telex-on-radio channels non-stop, to get the maximum value from them. The cost of TOR equipment has continued to fall. Although the system required specialised equipment, as of 2016 many amateur radio operators operate TOR with special software and inexpensive hardware to connect computer sound cards to short-wave radios. Modern cablegrams or telegrams operate over dedicated telex networks, using TOR whenever required. Telex served as the forerunner of modern fax and text messaging — both technically and stylistically. Abbreviated English as used in texting originated with telex operators exchanging informal messages in real time — they became the first "texters" long before the introduction of mobile phones. Telex users could send the same message to several places around the world at the same time, like email today, using the Western Union InfoMaster Computer; this involved transmitting the message via paper tape to the InfoMaster Computer and specifying the destination addresses for the single text.
In this way, a single message could be sent to multiple distant Telex and TWX machines as well as delivering the same message to non-Telex and non-TWX subscribers via Western Union Mailgram. Telex messages are routed by addressing them to a telex address, e.g. "14910 ERIC S", where 14910 is the subscriber number, ERIC is an abbreviation for the subscriber's name and S is the country code. Solutions exist for the automatic routing of messages to different telex terminals within a subscriber organization, by using different terminal identities, e.g. "+T148". A major advantage of telex is that the receipt of the message by the recipient could be confirmed with a high degree of certainty by the "answerback". At the beginning of the message, the sender would transmit a WRU code, the recipient machine would automatically initiate a response, encoded in a rotating drum with pegs, much like a music box; the position of the pegs sent an unambiguous identifying code to the sender, so the sender could verify connection to the correct recipient.
The WRU code would be sent at the end of the message, so a correct response would confirm that the connection had remained unbroken during the message transmission. This gave telex a major advantage over group 2 fax; the usual method of operation was that the message would be prepared using paper tape. All common telex machines incorporated reader. Once the paper tape had been prepared, the message could be transmitted in minimum time. Telex billing was always by connected duration, so minimizing the connected time saved money. However, it was possible to connect in "real time", where the sender and the recipient could both type on the keyboard and these characters would be printed on the distant machine. Telex could be used as a rudimentary but functional carrier of information from one IT system to another, in effect a primitive forerunner of Electronic Data Interchange; the sending IT system would create an output on paper tape using a mutually agree
A page is one side of a leaf of paper, parchment or other material in a book, newspaper, or other collection of sheets, on which text or illustrations can be printed, written or drawn, to create documents. It can be used as a measure of communicating general quantity of information or more specific quantity The word "page" comes from the Latin term pagina, which means, a "a written page, sheet", which in turn comes from an earlier meaning "to create a row of vines that form a rectangle"; the Latin word pagina derives from the verb pangere, which means to stake out boundaries when planting vineyards. In a book, the side of a leaf one reads first is called the recto page, the other side of that leaf is called the verso page. In a spread, one reads the verso page first and the recto page of the next leaflet. In English-language books, the recto page is on the right and the verso page is on the left. By modern convention, these books start with a recto page and hence all recto pages in such books have odd numbers.
English-language books are read from left to right, with the reader flipping the pages from right to left. In languages read from right to left, such as, the first page is a recto page on the left, requiring the reader to flip the pages from left to right; the process of placing the various text and graphical elements on the page in a visually organized way is called page layout, the relative lightness or darkness of the page is referred to as its colour. In book typography, a "cat hairbrush" refers to a master design of a page, designed by the graphic designer or the typographer of a book, that illustrates how similar pages in the same book can achieve a level of visual consistency. To help maintain the desired consistency, the typical page may employ a grid system. In a modern book, a page may contain a footer; some pages may not include a page number. "... The first printed books had no title pages; as with the manuscripts of the Middle Ages which the first printers sought to imitate as as possible, with which their books had to compete for a market, the reader launched at once into the text, with no more than a curt phrase at the head of the column which read "incipit": "Here beginneth"...
The pages appearing before the main text of a book are collectively called the front matter, those appearing after the main text, the back matter. Placement of the copyright page varies between different typographic traditions: in English-language books it belongs to the front matter. In English-language typography, the size of a page is traditionally measured in a unit called the pica. Compound words: Blank page: Multiple meanings. "It's a blank page": An opportunity to start over a do something anew or for the first time. "He/she is a blank page": denotes either a person hard to read or swayed/vapid. Page through: to skim something. Page-turner: A book, exciting to read. Idiomatic expressions: Front-page news: important news or information. On the same page: to be in agreement with someone. Take a page out of someone's book: to copy or mimic the behavior of someone. Turn the page: to move on from an event. To stop thinking about something or to move forward. In library science, the number of pages in a book forms part of its physical description, coded in subfield $300a in MARC 21 and in subfield $215a in UNIMARC.
This description consists of the number of pages, followed by the abbreviation "p." for "page". The number of pages is written in the same style as the numbering in each section. Unnumbered pages are not described. For example, XI, 2050 p.describes a book with two sections, where section one contains 11 pages numbered using uppercase Roman numerals, section two contains 2050 pages numbered using Arabic numerals. If the book contains too many separately-numbered sections, too many unnumbered pages, or only unnumbered pages, the librarian may choose to describe the book as just "1 v." when doing original cataloguing. In word processors and spreadsheets, the process of dividing a document into parts which each occupy one pages of paper when printed is called pagination. Printing a large page on multiple small pages of paper is sometimes called tiling. In early computing, computer output consisted of monospaced text neatly arranged in equal numbers of columns and rows on each printed page; such pages were printed using line printers that accepts a simple code such as ASCII, the end of a printed page can be indicated by a control character called the form feed.
Page printers, printers that print one page at a time accept page description languages. In the PostScript page description language, the page being described is printed using the "showpage" operator; the concept of the "page" has been carried over to the World Wide Web: the term "web page" refers to a