Pancras of Rome
Saint Pancras was a Roman citizen who converted to Christianity, and was beheaded for his faith at the age of fourteen, around the year 304. His name is Greek and literally means the one that holds everything, from an early stage, Saint Pancras was venerated together with Saints Nereus and Achilleus in a shared feast day and Mass formula on 12 May. In 1595,25 years after Pope Pius V promulgated the Tridentine Missal, since 1969, Saint Pancras has been venerated separately, still on 12 May. He is, the second of the Ice Saints and his mother Cyriada died during childbirth, while his father Cleonius died when Pancras was eight years old. Pancras was entrusted to his uncle Dionysius care and they both moved to Rome to live in a villa on the Caelian Hill. They converted to Christianity, and Pancras became an adherent of the religion. During the persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian, around 303 AD, he was brought before the authorities and asked to perform a sacrifice to the Roman gods. A Roman matron named Ottavilla recovered Pancras body, covered it with balsam, wrapped it in precious linens, Pancras head was placed in the reliquary that still exists today in the Basilica of Saint Pancras.
Pope Gregory the Great gave impetus to the cult of Pancras, sending Augustine to England carrying relics of that saint, in medieval iconography, Pancras was depicted as a young soldier, due to his association with the paired soldier saints Nereus and Achilleus. Pancras is popularly venerated as the saint of children, jobs. His name is invoked against cramps, false witnesses, headaches. His image in statue form can be found in bars, restaurants. The Tridentine Calendar had on 12 May a joint feast of Nereus, the name of Domitilla was added in 1595. The joint celebration of Nereus, Achilleus and Pancras continued with that ranking until the revision of 1960, in the present General Roman Calendar, revised in 1969, Saints Nereus and Achilleus and Saint Pancras have distinct celebrations on 12 May. Saint Domitilla is not included in the calendar, because the liturgical honours once paid to her have no basis in tradition. Catholic Forum San Pancrazio http, //www. heiligenlexikon. de/Legenda_Aurea/Pancratius.
htm Colonnade Statue in St Peters Square
A church building, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly worship services. The term in its sense is most often used by Christians to refer to their religious buildings. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross. When viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle, towers or domes are often added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring church visitors. The earliest identified Christian church was a church founded between 233 and 256. During the 11th through 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals, a cathedral is a church, usually Roman Catholic, Oriental Orthodox or Eastern Orthodox, housing the seat of a bishop. In standard Greek usage, the word ecclesia was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, and the overall community of the faithful. This usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages.
In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead, in Old English the sequence of derivation started as cirice and eventually church in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scottish kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all similarly derived, according to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they gathered in homes or in Jewish worship places like the Second Temple or synagogues, the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256. During the 11th through 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals, in addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or parish church was used by the community in other ways. It could serve as a place for guilds or a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were performed in cathedrals, and cathedrals might be used for fairs. The church could be used as a place to thresh and store grain, a common architecture for churches is the shape of a cross.
These churches often have a dome or other large vaulted space in the interior to represent or draw attention to the heavens. Other common shapes for churches include a circle, to represent eternity, or an octagon or similar star shape, another common feature is the spire, a tall tower on the west end of the church or over the crossing. The Latin word basilica was used to describe a Roman public building
Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
Wenceslaus I, Wenceslas I, Václav the Good or Saint Wenceslaus was the duke of Bohemia from 921 until his assassination in 935. His younger brother, Boleslaus the Cruel, was complicit in the murder and his martyrdom and the popularity of several biographies gave rise to a reputation for heroic goodness that resulted in his elevation to sainthood. He was posthumously declared to be a king and came to be seen as the saint of the Czech state. He is the subject of the well-known Good King Wenceslas, a carol for Saint Stephens Day, Wenceslas was the son of Vratislaus I, Duke of Bohemia from the Přemyslid dynasty. His grandfather, Bořivoj I of Bohemia, was converted to Christianity by Saints Cyril and his mother, Drahomíra, was the daughter of a pagan tribal chief of the Havelli, but was baptized at the time of her marriage. His paternal grandmother, Ludmila of Bohemia, oversaw his education, in 921, when Wenceslas was about thirteen, his father died and his grandmother became regent. Jealous of the influence that Ludmila wielded over Wenceslas, Drahomíra arranged to have her killed, Ludmila was at Tetín Castle near Beroun when assassins murdered her on September 15,921.
She is said to have been strangled by them with her veil. She was at first buried in the church of St. Michael at Tetín, but her remains were removed, probably by Wenceslas, to the church of St. George in Prague. Drahomíra assumed the role of regent and immediately initiated measures against the Christians, when Wenceslas came of age, he took control of the government. He placed the duchy under the protection of Germany, introduced German priests, and favoured the Latin rite instead of the old Slavic, to prevent disputes between him and his younger brother Boleslav, they divided the country between them, assigning to the latter a considerable territory. To withstand Saxon overlordship, Wenceslass father Vratislaus had forged an alliance with the Bavarian duke Arnulf, the alliance became worthless, when Arnulf and Henry reconciled at Regensburg in 921. In 924 or 925, at about the age of 18 and he defeated a rebellious duke of Kouřim named Radslav. He founded a rotunda consecrated to St. Vitus at Prague Castle in Prague, Henry had been forced to pay a huge tribute to the Magyars in 926 and needed the Bohemian tribute, which Wenceslas probably refused to pay after the reconciliation between Arnulf and Henry.
Another possible reason for the attack was the formation of the alliance between Bohemia, the Polabian Slavs, and the Magyars. In September 935, a group of nobles allied with Wenceslass younger brother Boleslav plotted to kill him. After Boleslav invited Wenceslas to the feast of Saints Cosmas and Damian in Stará Boleslav, three of Boleslavs companions, Tira, Česta, and Hněvsa, fell on the duke, as the duke fell, Boleslav ran him through with a lance. According to Cosmas of Prague, in his Chronica Boëmorum of the early 12th century, because of the ominous circumstance of his birth, the infant was named Strachkvas, which means a dreadful feast
Prague 7 is a municipal district in Prague, Czech Republic. The administrative district of the name consists of the quarters Letná, Holešovice, Bubeneč. Its one of the smallest Prague districts and stretches along the bank of the Vltava. In the Northern part is located Troja with the world-famous Prague Zoo and its linked to the city centre by metro line C. Other attractions in Prague 7 include the stadium of famous Czech football club AC Sparta, cultural centre DOX and its parks Stromovka and Letná rank among the biggest in the capital. More information about Prague 7 and life there may be found in the correspondent article on the Prague Website Citypilot. cz Prague 7 - Official homepage
Prague 4, formally the Prague 4 Municipal District, is a second-tier municipality in Prague. The administrative district of the name consists of municipal districts Prague 4. Prague 4 is located just south of Prague 2 and is the biggest municipality in Prague, most of this district consists of large estates of panelaks. The district is well connected to the motorway to Brno. The Prison Service of the Czech Republic is headquartered in this district, the Prague British School Kamýk campus is in Prague 4. Prague 4 official site Census statistics for Czech municipalities
Prague 2, formally the Prague 2 Municipal District, is a second-tier municipality in Prague. It is co-extensive with the administrative district of the same name. As of the end of 2004,48,918 people lived in 34,689 homes in the district, at 4.19 km², Prague 2 is the smallest administrative district in the country. The district includes all of Vyšehrad and parts of Vinohrady, New Town, the district has remained intact since its creation in 1960. Vyšehrad contains the Czech national cemetery and the ruins of a medieval fortress and it is considered the area of the historic establishment of the Czech rulers. The historical center of Vinohrady, with its expensive apartment buildings from the late 19th and early 20th century, and it is one of Pragues main epicentres of nightlife, for gays and lesbians. Important sights, The Žižkov television tower and the Rieger Gardens - one of the most famous Prague parks, the grand central plaza of Vinohrady is Namesti Miru with the Vinohrady Theatre, the National House of Vinohrady and the main Prague 2 municipal building.
New Town is less a residential but an area and known for the Pavlak - I. P. Pavlova station which connects Karlovo náměstí – and thus New Town – with Náměstí Míru in Vinohrady. Tramlines cross here with Metro line C, as well as night buses, the centre of Nusle is Náměstí bratři Synků, where trams connect I. P. Pavlova and Charles Square
Districts of Prague
Prague has a local-government structure of two or three tiers, depending on the area of town. Since 1990, the city has been divided into 56 self-governing municipal districts, another important activity of the municipal districts is the ownership, maintenance and, sale of public property, especially public housing. Since 2001, the 57 municipal districts have been grouped into 22 numbered administrative districts, one municipal district in each administrative district has responsibility for providing certain services for the entire administrative district. Those services include providing business licenses, identity cards and passports, the municipal district with such responsibility shares a name with the administrative district it serves. For example, the district of Prague 19 provides those services to the municipal districts of Prague 19, Prague-Čakovice, Prague-Satalice. Residents of Satalice can get dog tags in their neighborhood but must go to Kbely, home of the Prague 19 government, both the citywide government and the municipal districts have elected councils and mayors.
The mayor of the Capital City of Prague is known as the primátor, from 1960 to 1990, Prague was divided into 10 districts. Those 10 districts are used for addressing and transportation purposes and, for example. Street signs additionally add the name of the area, which usually reflects the name of an old municipality before its assimilation into the city of Prague. Thus, a sign in Kbely will say Praha 9-Kbely, not Praha 19, Prague residents are much more likely to use the name of a cadastral area or a 1960 municipal district than the name of a post-1990 district in everyday communication. Notes, In 2001, the Czech government ordered all municipal districts serving entire administrative districts should have the same name as the administrative district. Thus, the districts of Radotín, Řepy, Letňany, Horní Počernice, Újezd nad Lesy and Uhříněves are now Prague 16 through 22. The old names persist as names of cadastral areas, all named districts officially begin with Prague-, or, in Czech, Praha-.
Thus, the name of Kunratice is Prague-Kunratice or Praha-Kunratice. Města a městečka v Čechách, na Moravě a ve Slezsku Par-Pra, beyond these 112 cadastral areas, many other Prague settlements and housing estates are perceived as districts although they dont constitute their own cadastral areas. The biggest panelák complexes are Jižní Město, Severní Město a Jihozápadní Město, most of Pragues panel housing estates from 1960s to 1980s have names including the Czech word sídliště, which refers to a post-World War 2 eastern bloc housing estate. Many local names originate from names of villages in todays Prague area
The Czech Republic, known as Czechia, is a nation state in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with mostly temperate continental climate and it is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes the territories of Bohemia, Moravia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire, after the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria, the Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years War.
After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, reimposed Roman Catholicism, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, and was liberated in 1945 by the armies of the Soviet Union and the United States. The Czech country lost the majority of its German-speaking inhabitants after they were expelled following the war, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup détat, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence, in 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed, on 6 March 1990, the Czech Socialistic Republic was renamed to the Czech Republic. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004, it is a member of the United Nations, the OECD, the OSCE, and it is a developed country with an advanced, high income economy and high living standards. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development, the Czech Republic ranks as the 6th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union, the traditional English name Bohemia derives from Latin Boiohaemum, which means home of the Boii. The current name comes from the endonym Čech, spelled Cžech until the reform in 1842. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, the etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning member of the people, thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk. The country has traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the southeast, and Czech Silesia in the northeast.
Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word geographical name in English, the name Czechia /ˈtʃɛkiə/ was recommended by the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs