Warrnambool railway line
The Warrnambool railway line is a railway serving the south west of Victoria, Australia. Running from the western Melbourne suburb of Newport through the cities of Geelong and Warrnambool, the line once terminated at the coastal town of Port Fairy before being truncated to Dennington; this closed section of line has been converted into the 37 km long Port Fairy to Warrnambool Rail Trail. The line continues to see both freight services today. Metro Trains Melbourne operates suburban passenger services along the inner section of the line as far as Werribee, while V/Line operates the Geelong and the Warrnambool services. For 11 years, from 19 September 1993 until 31 August 2004, the Melbourne to Warrnambool passenger service was run by the private West Coast Railway company. Freight services run on the line, operated by Pacific National and, for a brief period, El Zorro to the WestVic container terminal, between Warrnambool and Dennington; the Warrnambool line was built by the private Geelong and Melbourne Railway Company and opened on 25 June 1857, the line being sold to the Victorian Railways in 1860.
The line was designed by English engineer Edward Snell, built as a single track. The standard of engineering was called into question as the light timber bridges required extra maintenance and had a short life span, while the decision to build only a single track resulted in slow and infrequent trains. Travelers between Melbourne and Geelong continued to prefer the bay steamers across Port Phillip Bay, leading to diminished profits for the company. At a railway commission enquiry, Snell defended his approach as necessary to complete the work in time, with the expectation that the engineering works would be upgraded as traffic and revenue increased; the railway had the misfortune of a fatal accident on its first run. The company's superintendent - and a friend of Snell’s - was struck when leaning out of the train's engine as it approached a bridge. An inquiry cleared the company of any negligence; the line was progressively duplicated from the 1950s to the 1980s. The line was extended south-west, to Winchelsea in 1876, Colac in 1877, Camperdown in 1883, Terang in 1877 and Warrnambool and Port Fairy in 1890.
This line is now closed beyond Warrnambool, with the last train leaving Port Fairy on 10 September 1977, hauled by B75, with the line closing on 12 September 1977. A branch line was built from Koroit to Hamilton, via Penshurst, in 1890. At the same time a short-lived connection was opened between Dunkeld, it closed eight years later. Branch lines were constructed from South Geelong to Queenscliff in 1879, from Moriac to Wensleydale and Terang to Mortlake in 1890, from Birregurra to Forrest in 1891, from Camperdown to Timboon in 1892, from Irrewarra to Cressy in 1910, from Colac to Alvie in 1923. A 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge branch was opened from Colac to Beech Forest in 1902, principally to carry timber, was extended to Weeaproniah and Crowes in 1911; the branch lines began to be closed from the late 1940s, the Wensleydale line being the first in 1948, followed by the Forrest line in 1957, the Irrewarra line in 1953, the Alvie line in 1954, the Beech Forest line in 1962, the Timboon line in 1988.
In July 2012, the Minister for Public Transport announced that a new crossing loop would be constructed on the line at Warncoort, between Birregurra and Colac. Tenders were called for in August; the loop opened in April 2014. In 2017, the Victorian State Government announced upgrades to be completed by 2019 that allow VLocity railcars to travel to Warrnambool; these upgrades include new signalling, level crossing upgrades and a second track between Boorcan and Weerite, either side of Camperdown. Rail Geelong: Line History
Terang is a town in the Western District of Victoria, Australia. The town is in the Shire of Corangamite and on the Princes Highway 212 kilometres south west of the state's capital, Melbourne. At the 2006 census, Terang had a population of 1,824. At the 2001 census, Terang had a population of 1,859; the population of Terang has since risen according to the 2011 Census. The semi-nomadic Kirrae Wuurong clans inhabited the area between Mount Emu Creek and the Hopkins River, much of their language was recorded by a Scottish squatter, James Dawson; the first dwelling in the township area was built in 1840 by Donald McNicol, consisted of a slab hut on the east bank of Lake Terang. The township was developed in the late 1850s, the post office opening on 1 March 1859; the railway though the town was opened in 1887. From 1890 it was extended as part of Victoria's south-western line; the Mortlake line once branched from the town, opened in 1893 and closed in 1978. The local railway station is served by V/Line passenger services on the Warrnambool line.
Avenues of trees were planted and several of these are now under the protection of the National Trust. Other features of Terang include a Heritage Trail walk which points out the historic trees and many of the historic buildings and sights of the town. Features to see are the historic post office with its clock tower, the war memorial, the rose gardens with the band rotunda, the town's first church; the Thomson Memorial church is a significant local structure. There is a beautiful 18-hole golf course at the western entrance to the town. To the south of the town centre is a large peat bed unique to the region. In 1933, while dry, the peat bed became a shallow lake by the 1940s; the lake is now dry and the land is used by the cricket club, golf club, pony club and croquet club. The town has an Australian Rules football team, Terang-Mortlake, playing in the Hampden Football League. Terang has a horse racing club, the Terang & District Racing Club, which schedules around eight race meetings a year including the Terang Cup meeting in October.
Terang Harness Racing Club conducts regular meetings at its racetrack in the town. Golfers play at the course of the Terang Golf Club on High Street. Terang College is a school, established in 1848 as Terang Primary School, it educates more than 400 students from Prep to Year 12. It has two campuses, one located on the western side of the town while the other is located near Cobden Road, on Strong Street; the western campus houses years Prep to Grade 4 while the Cobden Road Campus has Years 5 - 12. John Robertson Duigan MC, the pioneer aviator who built and flew the first Australian-made aircraft, was born in Terang in 1882. Tom Skeyhill, Gallipoli Campaign veteran and biographer of Sergeant Alvin York WW1 Medal of Honor recipient, was born in Terang in 1895; the Australian immunologist and Nobel laureate Frank Macfarlane Burnet grew up in Terang, whilst his father was a bank manager. Author, business advisor and media commentator Bernard Salt was born in Terang and attended Terang High School.
AFL footballer and Essendon premiership player Chris Heffernan. Footscray footballer Dick Wearmouth. Collingwood footballer and four-time grand finalist Ronnie Wearmouth. Professional golfer Lachie Meade. Melbourne footballer Jordie McKenzie. 80s Rock musician Tim Williams. Nurse and International Humanitarian Lorraine Williams OAM The Standardbred racehorse Gammalite, the first Standardbred to win A$1 million in Australia. Ten Eyewitness News news presenter Candice Wyatt. Lake Terang Terang railway station Media related to Terang at Wikimedia Commons
Allansford is a town in the Western District of Victoria, Australia. It is in the City of Warrnambool local government area; the Hopkins River flows through the town. Warrnambool Cheese and Butter is based in Allansford; the Post Office opened on 1 January 1860 The railway though the town was opened in 1890, the town was once served by a local railway station. A business park for Warrnambool is planned for the area; the town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Warrnambool & District Football League. At the 2016 census, Allansford had a population of 1,521. 85.0% of people were born in Australia and 89.9% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 33.1% and Catholic 26.4%
Eucalyptus camaldulensis known as the river red gum, is a tree, endemic to Australia. It has smooth white or cream-coloured bark, lance-shaped or curved adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven or nine, white flowers and hemispherical fruit with the valves extending beyond the rim. A familiar and iconic tree, it is seen along many watercourses across inland Australia, providing shade in the extreme temperatures of central Australia. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree that grows to a height of 20 metres but sometimes to 45 metres and does not develop a lignotuber; the bark is smooth white or cream-coloured with patches of pink or brown. There is loose, rough slabs of rough bark near the base; the juvenile leaves are lance-shaped, 80 -- 13 -- 25 mm wide. Adult leaves are lance-shaped to curved, the same dull green or geyish green colour on both sides, 50–300 mm long and 7–32 mm wide on a petiole 8–33 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in groups of seven, nine or sometimes eleven, in leaf axils on a peduncle 5–28 mm long, the individual flowers on pedicels 2–10 mm long.
Mature buds are oval to more or less spherical, green to creamy yellow, 6–9 mm long and 4–6 mm wide with a prominently beaked operculum 3–7 mm long. Flowering occurs in summer and the flowers are white; the fruit is a woody, hemispherical capsule 2–5 mm long and 4–10 mm wide on a pedicel 3–12 mm long with the valves raised above the rim. The limbs of river red gums, sometimes whole trees fall without warning so that camping or picnicking near them is dangerous if a tree has dead limbs or the tree is under stress. Eucalyptus camaldulensis was first formally described in 1832 by Friedrich Dehnhardt who published the description in Catalogus Plantarum Horti Camaldulensis. Seven subspecies of E. camaldulensis have been described and accepted by the Australian Plant Census. The most variable character is the shape and size of the operculum, followed by the arrangement of the stamens in the mature buds and the density of veins visible in the leaves; the subspecies are: Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp.
Acuta Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has mature flower buds with a pointed operculum 6–9 mm long and erect stamens and broadly lance-shaped or egg-shaped juvenile leaves. Arida Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has bluish green adult leaves with only a few veins and mature flowers buds with a curved to rounded operculum 3–7 mm long. Subsp. Camaldulensis has a beaked operculum, incurved or irregularly bent stamens and narrow lance-shaped juvenile leaves. Minima Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has mature flower buds that are small with a conical operculum 2–4 mm long and broad juvenile leaves that are covered with a powdery bloom. Obtusa Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has white, powdery bark in some months and mature flower buds with a curved, conical operculum 4–7 mm long. Refulgens Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has glossy green adult leaves with a dense network of veins. Simulata Ian Brooker & Kleinig. has a horn-shaped operculum 9–16 mm long. The specific epithet is a reference to a private estate garden near the Camaldoli monastery in Naples, where Frederick Dehnhardt was the chief gardener.
The type specimen was grown in the gardens from seed collected in 1817 near Condobolin by Allan Cunningham, was grown there for about one hundred years before being removed in the 1920s. Although Dehnhardt was the first to formally describe E. camaldulensis, his book was unknown to the botanical community. In 1847 Diederich von Schlechtendal gave the species the name Eucalyptus rostrata but the name was illegitimate because it had been applied by Cavanilles to a different species. In the 1850s, Ferdinand von Mueller labelled some specimens of river red gum as Eucalyptus longirostris and in 1856 Friedrich Miquel published a description of von Mueller's specimens, formalising the name E. longirostris. In 1934, William Blakely recognised Dehnhardt's priority and the name E. camaldulensis for river red gum was accepted. Northern Territory aboriginal names for this species are: aper, aper or per, aylpele, ngapiri, yitara apara, piipalya, kunjumarra and ngapiri. Dimilan is the name of this tree in the Miriwoong language of the Kimberley.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis has the widest natural distribution of any eucalyptus species. It is found along waterways and there are only a few locations where the species is found away from a watercourse. Subspecies acuta is common along rivers from south of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland to the north west slopes and plains of New South Wales but is absent from coastal areas and the arid inland. Subspecies arida has the widest distribution of the subspecies and is found in all mainland states except Victoria, it grows in arid regions but only. Subspecies camaldulensis is the dominant eucalypt along the Murray-Darling river system and its tributaries, it occurs on the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas and Kangaroo Island in South Australia and in some locations along the Hunter River in New South Wales. I
Garvoc is a town in the Western District of Victoria, Australia. The town is located in the Moyne Shire local government area, 223 kilometres south west of the state capital, Melbourne; the town is the proposed location for a regional livestock selling centre servicing the area between Warrnambool and Colac. Media related to Garvoc at Wikimedia Commons A-Z of the south west - Garvoc
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Byaduk is a township in the Shire of Southern Grampians in the Western District of Victoria, Australia. European settlement began around 1853 by Wendish or Sorbian Lutheran immigrants who gave it the name Neukirch after the town in Saxony; the township was settled in the early 1860s, named Byaduk, an aboriginal word meaning "stone tomahawk". The Post Office opened on 1 August 1863; the Byaduk Caves, lava tubes from the volcanic eruption of Mount Napier, are nearby. You can see extensive views of the lava flow at Harmans Valley and the tumuli lava blisters off Old Crushers Road. Sergeant Simon Fraser, 57th Battalion, is honoured by a 1998 sculpture by Peter Corlett in the Australian Memorial Park in Fromelles, France and a 2008 replica at the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne depicting him rescuing a wounded compatriot from no man's land after the Battle of Fromelles in 1916. Media related to Byaduk at Wikimedia Commons Video of VC Corner and Australian Memorial Park, Fromelles. Jason Fielding