Trajan was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Declared by the Senate optimus princeps, Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death, he is known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world. Trajan was born in the city of an Italic settlement in the province of Hispania Baetica. Although misleadingly designated by some writers as a provincial, his family came from Umbria and he was born a Roman citizen. Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a legatus legionis in Hispania Tarraconensis, in 89 Trajan supported Domitian against a revolt on the Rhine led by Antonius Saturninus. In September 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army.
After a brief and tumultuous year in power, culminating in a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard, Nerva was compelled to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. He was succeeded by his adopted son without incident; as a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left numerous enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. Early in his reign, he annexed the Nabataean Kingdom, his conquest of Dacia enriched the empire as the new province possessed many valuable gold mines. Trajan's war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia, his campaigns expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent. In late 117, while sailing back to Rome, Trajan fell ill and died of a stroke in the city of Selinus, he was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan's Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son Hadrian.
As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived nineteen centuries. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the wish felicior Augusto, melior Traiano. Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. In the Renaissance, speaking on the advantages of adoptive succession over heredity, mentioned the five successive good emperors "from Nerva to Marcus" – a trope out of which the 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of whom Trajan was the second; as far as ancient literary sources are concerned, an extant continuous account of Trajan's reign does not exist. An account of the Dacian Wars, the Commentarii de bellis Dacicis, written by Trajan himself or a ghostwriter and modelled after Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico, is lost with the exception of one sentence. Only fragments remain of a book by Trajan's personal physician Titos Statilios Kriton.
The Parthiká, a 17-volume account of the Parthian Wars written by Arrian, has met a similar fate. Book 68 in Cassius Dio's Roman History, which survives as Byzantine abridgments and epitomes, is the main source for the political history of Trajan's rule. Besides this, Pliny the Younger's Panegyricus and Dio of Prusa's orations are the best surviving contemporary sources. Both are adulatory perorations, typical of the late Roman era, that describe an idealized monarch and an idealized view of Trajan's rule, concern themselves more with ideology than with actual fact; the tenth volume of Pliny's letters contains his correspondence with Trajan, which deals with various aspects of imperial Roman government, but this correspondence is neither intimate nor candid: it is an exchange of official mail, in which Pliny's stance borders on the servile. It is certain that much of the text of the letters that appear in this collection over Trajan's signature was written and/or edited by Trajan's Imperial secretary, his ab epistulis.
Therefore, discussion of Trajan and his rule in modern historiography cannot avoid speculation, as well as recourse to non-literary sources such as archaeology and epigraphy. Marcus Ulpius Traianus was born on 18 September 53 AD in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, in the city of Italica. Although designated the first provincial emperor, dismissed by writers such as Cassius Dio as "an Iberian, neither an Italian nor an Italiot", Trajan appears to have hailed on his father's side from the area of Tuder in Umbria, at the border with Etruria, on his mother's side from the Gens Marcia, of an Italic family of Sabine origin. Trajan's birthplace of Italica was founded as a Roman military colony of Italian settlers in 206 BC, though it is unknown when the Ulpii arrived there, it is possible, but cannot be substantiated, that Trajan's ancestors married local women and lost their citizenship at some point, but they recovered their status when the city became a municipium with Latin citizenship in the mid-1st century BC.
Trajan was the son of Marcia, a Roman noblewoman and sister-in-law of the second Flavian Emperor Titus, Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a prominent senator and general f
Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus
Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus was a politician and military commander during the 2nd century in the Roman Empire. A general under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Pompeianus distinguished himself during Rome's wars against the Parthians and the Marcomanni, he was a member of the imperial family due to his marriage to Lucilla, a daughter of Marcus Aurelius, was a key figure during the Emperor's reign. Pompeianus was offered the imperial throne three times, though he refused to claim the title for himself. A native of Antioch in Syria, Pompeianus was from humble origins, his father was a member of the Equestrian Order. As indicated by his name, his family first received their Roman citizenship during the reign of Emperor Claudius. Pompeianus was a new man. Much of Pompeianus' early life has been lost to history, he participated in the Roman–Parthian War of 161–166 under the command of Emperor Lucius Verus as a Legionary Commander. Sometime prior to the Parthian campaign, he was elevated to the rank of Senator.
He served with distinction during the war, earning him appointment as Suffect Consul for the remainder of the year 162 AD. Following the completion the Parthian campaign, the Emperor Marcus Aurelius appointed him military governor of Pannonia Inferior on the Empire's northern frontier along the Danube River, he served from 164 until 168. In late 166 or early 167, a force of 6,000 Lombards invaded Pannonia. Pompeianus defeated the invasion with relative ease, but it marked the beginning of a larger barbarian invasion. Late in 167 the Marcomanni tribe invaded the Empire by crossing in Pannonia. Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus planned a punitive expedition to drive the barbarians back across the Danube River, but due to the effects of the Antonine Plague, the expedition was postponed until early 168. Aided by Pompeianus, the two Emperors were able to force the Marcomanni to retreat. Pompeianus' military skills earned him the confidence of Emperor Marcus Aurelius and he became one of the Emperor's closest advisors.
As the Emperors returned to their winter quarters in Aquileia, Lucius Verus fell ill and died in January 169. Following the death of Lucius Verus, Marcus Aurelius arranged for his daughter Lucilla, Verus' widow, to marry Pompeianus; as son-in-law to the Emperor, Pompeianus became a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. The Emperor offered to name Pompeianus as Caesar and his heir, but Pompeianus refused to accept the title. Instead, Pompeianus was promoted and served as the Emperor's chief general during the Marcommanic War. Under his guidance, the exiled Senator and fellow Parthian war veteran Pertinax was recalled and joined Pompeianus on his military staff. Pompeianus' successes during the Marcommanic War further distinguished him, with the Emperor awarding him a second Consulship in 173, he took part in a number of military operations in the Danubian region and was still stationed in the region following the death of Marcus Aurelius. Marcus Aurelius died in 180 AD, his 18-year-old son Commodus, Pompeianus' brother-in-law, was proclaimed Emperor.
Pompeianus tried to persuade Commodus to remain on the Danubian frontier to complete the conquest of the Marcommani, but Commodus refused and returned to Rome in the autumn of 180. The relationship between the young emperor and the experienced officer deteriorated. In 182, Pompeianus' wife and Commodus' sister, organized a failed assassination attempt against the Emperor. Though Commodus executed Lucilla and other members of her family, Pompeianus had not participated in the conspiracy and was spared. Following the conspiracy, Pompeianus withdrew from public life, citing old age, retired to his estates in Italy, he spent most of his time in the country away from Rome, claiming age and an ailment of the eyes as an excuse. Commodus was assassinated in 192 AD by members of the Praetorian Guard. Pompeianus returned to Rome once the plot against Commodus succeeded, resuming his seat in the Senate. Pertinax, the Urban Prefect at the time, offered the throne to Pompeianus, but he declined the offer; the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Pertinax as Emperor, but he was assassinated by the Praetorians after only 87 days for attempting to impose order upon the long-undisciplined unit.
Senator Didius Julianus, after becoming Emperor by bribing the Praetorian Guard to proclaim him, experienced difficulty in garnering support within the ranks of his own troops. In a desperate attempt to save himself, Julianus asked Pompeianus to become co-emperor with him. Pompeianus again declined the offer, on the grounds of his advanced years and eye problems. Julianus was executed on the orders of Septimius Severus after ruling for only 66 days. Pompeianus appears to have died sometime in 193, his children survived and prospered as members of an important family: they were the grandchildren of Marcus Aurelius. The prestige was dangerous, because the new dynasty of the Severans could have seen them as possible competition. Aurelius, son of Pompeianus, was consul in 209, but was assassinated at the instigation of Caracalla. Descendants of Pompeianus would become consuls in 231 and 241. Russell Crowe's character Maximus Decimus Meridius in the 2000 film Gladiator is loosely based on Pompeianus and others.
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The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland. Some moved in large numbers, including most notably the group which successively established kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa in the 5th century; the traditional view has been that the Vandals migrated from southern Scandinavia to the area between the lower Oder and Vistula rivers during the 2nd century BC and settled in Silesia from around 120 BC. They are associated with the Przeworsk culture and were the same people as the Lugii. Expanding into Dacia during the Marcomannic Wars and to Pannonia during the Crisis of the Third Century, the Vandals were confined to Pannonia by the Goths around 330 AD, where they received permission to settle from Constantine the Great. Around 400, raids by the Huns forced many Germanic tribes to migrate into the territory of the Roman Empire, fearing that they might be targeted next the Vandals were pushed westwards, crossing the Rhine into Gaul along with other tribes in 406.
In 409 the Vandals crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula, where their main groups, the Hasdingi and the Silingi, settled in Gallaecia and Baetica respectively. After the Visigoths invaded Iberia in 418, the Iranian Alans and Silingi Vandals voluntarily subjected themselves to the rule of Hasdingian leader Gunderic, pushed from Gallaecia to Baetica by a Roman-Suebi coalition in 419. In 429, under king Genseric, the Vandals entered North Africa. By 439 they established a kingdom which included the Roman province of Africa as well as Sicily, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands, they fended off several Roman attempts to recapture the African province, sacked the city of Rome in 455. Their kingdom collapsed in the Vandalic War of 533–4, in which Emperor Justinian I's forces reconquered the province for the Eastern Roman Empire. Renaissance and early-modern writers characterized the Vandals as barbarians, "sacking and looting" Rome; this led to the use of the term "vandalism" to describe any pointless destruction the "barbarian" defacing of artwork.
However, modern historians tend to regard the Vandals during the transitional period from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages as perpetuators, not destroyers, of Roman culture. The name of the Vandals has been connected to that of Vendel, the name of a province in Uppland, eponymous of the Vendel Period of Swedish prehistory, corresponding to the late Germanic Iron Age leading up to the Viking Age; the connection would be that Vendel is the original homeland of the Vandals prior to the Migration Period, retains their tribal name as a toponym. Further possible homelands of the Vandals in Scandinavia are Vendsyssel in Denmark and Hallingdal in Norway; the etymology of the name may be related to a Germanic verb *wand- "to wander". The Germanic mythological figure of Aurvandil "shining wanderer. R. Much has forwarded the theory that the tribal name Vandal reflects worship of Aurvandil or "the Dioscuri" involving an origin myth that the Vandalic kings were descended from Aurvandil; some medieval authors applied the ethnonym "Vandals" to Slavs: Veneti, Lusatians or Poles.
It was once thought that the Slovenes were the descendants of the Vandals, but this is not the view of modern scholars. Both Jordanes in his Getica and the Gotlandic Gutasaga tell that the Goths and Vandals migrated from southern Scandinavia to the area between the lower Oder and Vistula prior to the 2nd century BC, settled in Silesia from around 120 BC; the earliest mention of the Vandals is from Pliny the Elder, who used the term Vandilii in a broad way to define one of the major groupings of all Germanic peoples. Tribes within this category who he mentions are the Burgundiones, Varini and the Gutones. According to the Gallaecian Christian priest and theologian Paulus Orosius, the Vandals, who lived in Scoringa, near Stockholm, were of the same stock as the Suiones and the Goths; the Vandals are associated with the Przeworsk culture, but the culture extended over several eastern European peoples. Their origin and linguistic affiliation are debated; the bearers of the Przeworsk culture practiced cremation and inhumation.
The Lugii are identified by modern historians as the same people as the Vandals. The Lugii are mentioned by Strabo and Ptolemy as a large group of tribes between the Vistula and the Oder. None of those authors mentions the Vandals, while Pliny the Elder mentions the Vandals but not the Lugii. According to John Anderson, the "Lugii and Vandili are designations of the same tribal group, the latter an extended ethnic name, the former a cult-title." Herwig Wolfram notes that "In all likelihood the Lugians and the Vandals were one cultic community that lived in the same region of the Oder in Silesia, where it was first under Celtic and under Germanic domination." By the end of the 2nd century, the Vandals were divided in two main tribal groups, the Silingi and the Hasdingi, with the Silingi being associated with Silesia and the Hasdingi living in the Sudetes. Around the mid 2nd century AD, there was a significant migration by Germanic tribes of Scandinavian origin towards the south-east, creating turmoil along the entire Roman frontier.
The 6th century Byzantine historian Procopius noted that the Goths and Vandals were ph
Đakovo is a town in the region of Slavonia, Croatia. Đakovo is the centre of the rich Đakovo region. The etymology of the name is the Greek: διάκος in Slavic form đak; the Hungarian diák word has the same Greek origin and as such it's uncertain whether the name came directly from Greek or via Hungarian or local Slavic form. In Roman antiquity the settlement Certissia stood on the same spot until it disappeared during the Migration Period; the settlement's first mention in historical documents dates from 1239 when Béla IV of Hungary granted it to the Diocese of Bosnia, the Bishop moved his seat here in 1246. The predecessor to the newer St. Peter's Cathedral was built in 1355. In 1374 the settlement is documented under the name Dyacou. Croatian rebels in 1386 on July 25 captured Queen Mary of Hungary and her mother Elizabeth near the settlement; the Ottoman rule over Đakovo lasted for nearly 150 years. It was a kaza administrative center in Sanjak of Pojega and was known as "Yakova" during this period.
In 1805 a Lipizzan horse herd was evacuated to Đakovo when Napoleon invaded Austria & Hungary and a part of the herd remained permanently there. In a 1910 census the settlement's total population of 6304 was made of 4894 Croatians, 890 Germans, 249 Hungarians and 164 Serbians. In the late 19th and early 20th century the settlement was a district capital in the Virovitica County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. From 1 December 1941 until 7 July 1942 the Ustaše established and operated the Đakovo concentration camp for Jewish women and children. Đakovo is located 37 km to 34 km southeast of Našice. It is located near the motorway A5/E73, at the intersection of the state road D7 to Osijek, the arterial roads D38 to Požega, D46 to Vinkovci and the connecting road D515 to Našice. There is a total of 27,745 residents in the municipality, in the following individual settlements: Budrovci, population 1,260 Đakovo, population 27,745 Đurđanci, population 425 Ivanovci Gorjanski, population 580 Kuševac, population 1,028 Novi Perkovci, population 246 Piškorevci, population 1,907 Selci Đakovački, population 1,796 Široko Polje, population 1,012 Chief occupations include farming, livestock breeding and wool processing.
The Cathedral basilica of St. Peter in Đakovo is the town's most famous landmark and the most important sacral object, not only in Đakovo but throughout the whole region of Slavonia; the Cathedral was built 1866-1882 under Josip Juraj Strossmayer the Catholic bishop of Đakovo and Srijem. The landscaped park from the 19th century near the bishop's palace is a horticultural monument under special protection as well as the nearby Small Park dating from the turn of the 19th/20th century; the central traditional event is called Đakovački vezovi. It is a folklore show of the regions Slavonia and Baranja, organized yearly in the beginning of July, it presents traditional folk costumes, folklore dancing and singing groups, customs; the Cathedral hosts choirs, opera artists, art exhibitions are organized in the exhibition salon. The horse and wedding wagon show is a special part of the program. During the sports program, pure-bred white Lipizzaner horses can be seen on the racecourse, they come from the horse-breeding centre in Ivandvor, breeding horses since 1506.
The town and the surroundings offer many sports and recreation facilities, such as tennis courts, gym, swimming pool, etc. The lakes Jošava, Borovik as well as fishponds and canals offer fine angling opportunities. High and low game hunting is possible in the immediate surroundings or farther on the Dilj and mountain to the southwest; the traditional Slavonian cuisine, famous for its meat specialities and freshwater fish dishes are offered both in Đakovo and its surroundings. Of particular interest are the exquisite wines of the Đakovo region: Weissburgunder and Riesling. Đakovo is twinned with: Makarska, Croatia Sinj, Croatia Tomislavgrad and Herzegovina Malgersdorf, Germany Kirchenthumbach, Germany Ivan Vargić, footballer Domagoj Duvnjak, handball player Mordecai Ehrenpreis City of Đakovo Đakovo Profile Page from the Osijek-Baranja County Website
The Sarmatians were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD. Originating in the central parts of the Eurasian Steppe, the Sarmatians started migrating westward around the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, coming to dominate the related Scythians by 200 BC. At their greatest reported extent, around 1st century AD, these tribes ranged from the Vistula River to the mouth of the Danube and eastward to the Volga, bordering the shores of the Black and Caspian seas as well as the Caucasus to the south, their territory, known as Sarmatia to Greco-Roman ethnographers, corresponded to the western part of greater Scythia. In the 1st century AD, the Sarmatians began encroaching upon the Roman Empire in alliance with Germanic tribes. In the 3rd century AD, their dominance of the Pontic Steppe was broken by the Germanic Goths. With the Hunnic invasions of the 4th century, many Sarmatians joined the Goths and other Germanic tribes in the settlement of the Western Roman Empire.
Since large parts of today's Russia the land between the Ural Mountains and the Don River, were controlled in the 5th century BC by the Sarmatians, the Volga–Don and Ural steppes sometimes are called "Sarmatian Motherland". The Sarmatians were decisively assimilated and absorbed by the Proto-Slavic population of Eastern Europe. Sarmatae originated as just one of several tribal names of the Sarmatians, but one that Greco-Roman ethnography came to apply as an exonym to the entire group. Strabo in the 1st century names as the main tribes of the Sarmatians the Iazyges, the Roxolani, the Aorsi and the Siraces; the Greek name Sarmatai sometimes appears as "Sauromatai", certainly no more than a variant of the same name. Historians regarded these as two separate peoples, while archaeologists habitually use the term'Sauromatian' to identify the earliest phase of Sarmatian culture. Any idea that the name derives from the word lizard, linking to the Sarmatians' use of reptile-like scale armour and dragon standards, is certainly unfounded.
Both Pliny the Elder and Jordanes recognised the Sar- and Sauro- elements as interchangeable variants, referring to the same people. Greek authors of the 4th century mention Syrmatae as the name of a people living at the Don reflecting the ethnonym as it was pronounced in the final phase of Sarmatian culture. English scholar Harold Walter Bailey derived the base word from Avestan sar- from tsar- in Old Iranian, which gave its name to the western Avestan region of Sairima, connected it to the 10–11th century AD Persian epic Shahnameh's character "Salm". Oleg Trubachyov derived the name from the Indo-Aryan *sar-mat, the Indo-Aryan and Indo-Iranian word *sar- and the Indo-Iranian adjective suffix -mat/wat. By this derivation was noted the unusual high status of women from the Greek point of view and went to the invention of Amazons; the Sarmatians were part of the Indo-Iranian steppe peoples, among whom were Scythians and Saka. These are grouped together as "East Iranians". Archaeology has established the connection'between the Iranian-speaking Scythians and Saka and the earlier Timber-grave and Andronovo cultures'.
Based on building construction, these three peoples were the descendants of those earlier archaeological cultures. The Sarmatians and Saka used the same stone construction methods as the earlier Andronovo culture; the Timber-grave and Andronovo house building traditions were further developed by these three peoples. Andronovo pottery was continued by the Sarmatians. Archaeologists describe the Andronovo culture people as exhibiting pronounced Caucasoid features; the first Sarmatians are identified with the Prokhorovka culture, which moved from the southern Urals to the Lower Volga and northern Pontic steppe, in the 4th–3rd centuries BC. During the migration, the Sarmatians seem to have grown and divided themselves into several groups, such as the Alans, Aorsi and Iazyges. By 200 BC, the Sarmatians replaced the Scythians as the dominant people of the steppes; the Sarmatians and Scythians had fought on the Pontic steppe to the north of the Black Sea. The Sarmatians, described as a large confederation, were to dominate these territories over the next five centuries.
According to Brzezinski and Mielczarek, the Sarmatians were formed between the Don River and the Ural Mountains. Pliny the Elder wrote; the Sarmatians differed from the Scythians in their veneration of the god of fire rather than god of nature, women's prominent role in warfare, which served as the inspiration for the Amazons. The two theories about the origin of the Sarmatian culture are: The Sarmatian culture was formed by the end of the fourth century BCE, based on the combination of local Sauromatian culture of Southern Ural and foreign elements brought by tribes advancing from the forest-steppe Zauralye, from Kazakhstan and from the Aral Sea region. Sometime between the fourth and third century BC, a mass migration carried nomads of the Southern Ural to t
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Sremska Mitrovica is a city and the administrative center of the Srem District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. It is situated on the left bank of the Sava river; as of 2011, the city has a total population of 37,751 inhabitants, while the city administrative area has a population of 79,940 inhabitants. Once a capital of the Roman Empire during the Tetrarchy, the city was referred to as the glorious mother of cities. Ten Roman emperors were born in or near this city, Emperors Herennius Etruscus, Decius Traian, Claudius Gothicus, Aurelian, Maximian, Constantius II and Gratian. In Serbian, the town is known as Сремска Митровица or Sremska Mitrovica, in Rusyn as Сримска Митровица, in Croatian as Srijemska Mitrovica, in Hungarian as Szávaszentdemeter or Mitrovica, in German as Syrmisch Mitrowitz, in Latin as Sirmium, in Turkish as Dimitrofça. "Sremska Mitrovica" means "Mitrovica of Syrmia", while "Mitrovica" itself stems from the name "Saint Demetrius" or "Sveti Dimitrije" in the Serbian language.
The name of the city during the reign of the Roman Empire was Sirmium. Beginning in 1180 AD the name changed from "Civitas Sancti Demetrii" to "Dmitrovica", "Mitrovica", to the present form - "Sremska Mitrovica". Sremska Mitrovica is one of the oldest cities in Europe. Archaeologists have found a trace of organized human life dating from 5000 BC onwards. Ionian jewellery dating to 500BC was excavated in the city; when the Romans conquered the city in the 1st century BC, Sirmium was a settlement with a long tradition. In the 1st century, Sirmium gained a status of a colony of the citizens of Rome, became a important military and strategic location in Pannonia province; the war expeditions of Roman emperors Traian, Marcus Aurelius, Claudius II, were prepared in Sirmium. In 103, Pannonia was split into two provinces: Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior, Sirmium became the capital city of the latter. In 296, Diocletian implemented a new territorial division of Pannonia. Instead of previous two provinces, there were four new provinces established in former territory of original Pannonia: Pannonia Prima, Pannonia Valeria, Pannonia Savia and Pannonia Secunda.
Capital city of Pannonia Secunda was Sirmium. In 293, with the establishment of tetrarchy, the Roman Empire was split into four parts. During the tetrarchy, Sirmium was the capital of emperor Galerius. With the establishment of praetorian prefectures in 318, the capital of the prefecture of Illyricum was Sirmium. Beginning in the 4th century, the city was an important Christian centre, was a seat of the Episcopate of Sirmium. Four Christian councils were held in Sirmium. At the end of the 4th century, Sirmium was brought under the sway of the Goths, was again annexed to the Eastern Roman Empire. In 441, Sirmium was conquered by the Huns, after this conquest, it remained for more than a century in the hands of various Germanic tribes, such were Eastern Goths and Gepids. For a short time, Sirmium was the center of the Gepide State and the king Cunimund minted golden coins in it. After 567, Sirmium was again incorporated into Eastern Roman Empire; the city was conquered and destroyed by Avars in 582.
This event marked the end of the period of late Antiquity in the history of Sirmium.11 luxurious golden belts of Avar handicraft dating to the 6th century was excavated in the vicinity. For the next two centuries Sirmium was a place of little importance. At the end of the 8th century, Sirmium belonged to the Frankish State; the historical role of Sirmium increased again in the 9th century, when it was part of the Bulgarian Empire. Pope Adrian II gave St Methodius the title of Archbishop of Sirmium. After having adopted Christianity, the Bulgarians restored in Sirmium the Christian Episcopate, having in mind old Christian traditions and the reputation this city had in the ancient world. In the 11th century, Sirmium was a residence of Sermon, a duke of Syrmia, a vassal of the Bulgarian Samuil. After 1018, the city was again included into the Byzantine Empire, since the end of the 11th century, Sirmium was a subject of a dispute between the Byzantine Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, until 1180 when the Byzantine Empire gave up Sirmium, surrendering it to the Kingdom of Hungary.
In the 11th century, a Byzantine province named Theme of Sirmium had its capital in this city. For a while, about 1451, the city was in possession of the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković. In 1521 the city came into Ottoman hands and it remained under the Ottoman rule for two centuries. According to Ottoman traveler Evliya Celebi, Mitrovica had been conquered by the Bosnian sanjak bey Husrev-bey, she was renamed as "Dimitrofça". The name of the mayor of the city was Dimitar and since the middle of the 16th century, the city was populated with Muslims. According to the 1566/69 data, the population of the city was composed of 592 Muslim and 30 Christian houses, while according to the 1572 data, it was composed of 598 Muslim and 18 Christian houses. According to the 1573 data, the city had no Christian church. During the Ottoman rule, Sremska Mitrovica was the largest settlement in Syrmia, was the administrative center of the Ottoman Sanjak of Syrmia, it was temporarily occupied by Austrian troops between 1688 and 1690.
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