Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans; the urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits. One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco–Dacians inhabited the region and, after 279 BC, Celts settled the city, naming it Singidūn, it was conquered by the Romans under the reign of Augustus and awarded Roman city rights in the mid-2nd century. It was settled by the Slavs in the 520s, changed hands several times between the Byzantine Empire, the Frankish Empire, the Bulgarian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary before it became the seat of the Serbian king Stefan Dragutin. In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo.
It passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. Northern Belgrade remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918. In a fatally strategic position, the city was razed 44 times. Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia from its creation in 1918 to its dissolution in 2006. Belgrade has special administrative status within Serbia and it is one of the five statistical regions that make up the country, its metropolitan territory is divided into each with its own local council. The city of Belgrade covers 3.6% of Serbia's territory, around 24% of the country's population lives within its administrative limits. It is classified as a Beta-Global City. Chipped stone tools found in Zemun show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras; some of these tools are of Mousterian industry—belonging to Neanderthals rather than modern humans.
Aurignacian and Gravettian tools have been discovered near the area, indicating some settlement between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago. The first farming people to settle in the region are associated with the Neolithic Starčevo culture, which flourished between 6200 and 5200 BC. There are several Starčevo sites including the eponymous site of Starčevo; the Starčevo culture was succeeded by the Vinča culture, a more sophisticated farming culture that grew out of the earlier Starčevo settlements and named for a site in the Belgrade region. The Vinča culture is known for its large settlements, one of the earliest settlements by continuous habitation and some of the largest in prehistoric Europe. Associated with the Vinča culture are anthropomorphic figurines such as the Lady of Vinča, the earliest known copper metallurgy in Europe, a proto-writing form developed prior to the Sumerians and Minoans known as the Old European script, which dates back to around 5300 BC. Within the city proper, on Cetinjska Street, a skull of a Paleolithic human was discovered in 1890.
The skull is dated to before 5000 BC. Evidence of early knowledge about Belgrade's geographical location comes from a variety of ancient myths and legends; the ridge overlooking the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, for example, has been identified as one of the places in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. In the time of antiquity, the area was populated by Paleo-Balkan tribes, including the Thracians and the Dacians, who ruled much of Belgrade's surroundings. Belgrade was at one point inhabited by the Thraco-Dacian tribe Singi. In 34–33 BC, the Roman army, led by Silanus, reached Belgrade, it became the romanised Singidunum in the 1st century AD and, by the mid-2nd century, the city was proclaimed a municipium by the Roman authorities, evolving into a full-fledged colonia by the end of the century. While the first Christian Emperor of Rome —Constantine I known as Constantine the Great—was born in the territory of Naissus to the city's south, Roman Christianity's champion, Flavius Iovianus, was born in Singidunum.
Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the site passed to the Eastern Byzantine Empire. Across the Sava from Singidunum was the Celtic city of Taurunum. In 442, the area was ravaged by Attila the Hun. In 471, it was taken by king of the Ostrogoths, who continued into Italy; as the Ostrogoths left, another Germanic tribe, the Gepids, invaded the city. In 539 it was retaken by the Byzantines. In 577, some 100,000 Slavs poured into Thrace and Illyricum, pillaging cities and more permanently settling the region; the Avars, under Bayan I, conquered the whole region and its new Slavic population by 582. Following Byzantine reconquest, the Byzantine chronicle De Administrando Imperio mentions the White Serbs, who had stopped in Belgrade on their way back home, asking the strategos for lands. In 829, Khan Omurtag was able to add its environs to the First Bulgarian Empire.
The first record of the name Belograd appeared on April, 16th, 878, in
A Roman legion was a large unit of the Roman army. In the early Roman Kingdom "legion" may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few and unreliable; the subsequent organization of legions varied over time but legions were composed of around five thousand soldiers. During much of the republican era, a legion was divided into three lines of ten maniples. In the late republic and much of the imperial period, a legion was divided into ten cohorts, each of six centuries. Legions included a small ala, or cavalry, unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. For most of the Roman Imperial period, the legions formed the Roman army's elite heavy infantry, recruited from Roman citizens, while the remainder of the army consisted of auxiliaries, who provided additional infantry and the vast majority of the Roman army's cavalry.
The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted of auxiliaries rather than legions. Many of the legions founded before 40 BC were still active until at least the fifth century, notably Legio V Macedonica, founded by Augustus in 43 BC and was in Egypt in the seventh century during the Islamic conquest of Egypt; because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified; the republican legions were composed of levied men that paid for their own equipment and thus the structure of the Roman army at this time reflected the society, at any time there would be four consular legions and in time of war extra legions could be levied. Toward the end of the 2nd century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army; this prompted consul Gaius Marius to remove property qualifications and decree that all citizens, regardless of their wealth or social class, were made eligible for service in the Roman army with equipment and rewards for fulfilling years of service provided by the state.
The Roman army became a volunteer and standing army which extended service beyond Roman citizens but to non-citizens that could sign on as auxillia and were rewarded Roman citizenship upon completion of service and all the rights and privileges that entailed. In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions and this remained the figure for most of the empire's history; the legion evolved from 3,000 men in the Roman Republic to over 5,200 men in the Roman Empire, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century, ten cohorts made up a Roman legion; this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size with the first cohort being of double strength. By the fourth century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them; this had come about as the large formation legion and auxiliary unit, 10,000 men, was broken down into smaller units - temporary detachments - to cover more territory.
In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the Republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. A legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries, it was always accompanied by one or more attached units of auxiliaries, who were not Roman citizens and provided cavalry, ranged troops and skirmishers to complement the legion's heavy infantry. The recruitment of non-citizens appears to have occurred in times of great need. A Legion consisted of a Contubernium, consisted of 8 Legionaries; these Legionaries Were accompanied by 2 slaves. The Legionaries would select a man amongst their ranks to become a Decanus this was more of an election than a decision by one person; the size of a typical legion varied throughout the history of ancient Rome, with complements of 4,200 legionaries and 300 equites in the republican period of Rome, to 5,200 men plus 120 auxiliaries in the imperial period.
In the period before the raising of the legio and the early years of the Roman Kingdom and the Republic, forces are described as being organized into centuries of one hundred men. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them; such independent organization persisted until the 2nd century BC amongst light infantry and cavalry, but was discarded in periods with the supporting role taken instead by allied troops. The roles of century leader, secon
Castella is a popular Japanese sponge cake made of sugar, flour and starch syrup. Now a specialty of Nagasaki, the cake was brought to Japan by Portuguese merchants in the 16th century; the name is derived from Portuguese Pão de Castela, meaning "bread from Castile". Castella cake is sold in long boxes, with the cake inside being 27 cm long, it is somewhat similar to Madeira cake associated with Portugal, but its closest relative is pão-de-ló a Portuguese cake. There are similar types of sponge cakes named after the same fashion, in French: Pain d'Espagne, in Italian: Pan di Spagna, in Portuguese: Pão de Espanha, in Romanian: Pandișpan, in Bulgarian: пандишпан, in Greek: Παντεσπάνι, in Turkish: Pandispanya.. A similar cake, called taisan, is a traditional dessert in Pampanga province in the Philippines. In the 16th century, the Portuguese soon started trade and missionary work. Nagasaki was the only Japanese port open for foreign commerce; the Portuguese introduced many then-unusual things, such as guns and pumpkins.
The cake could be stored for a long period of time, so was useful for the sailors who were out on the sea for months. In the Edo period, in part due to the cost of sugar, castella was an expensive dessert to make despite the ingredients sold by the Portuguese; when the Emperor of Japan's envoy was invited, the Tokugawa shogunate presented the Castella. Over the years, the taste changed to suit Japanese palates. There are now many varieties made with ingredients such as powdered green tea, brown sugar, honey, they may be molded in various shapes. Siberia, castella cake filled with youkan, was popular in the Meiji era. Castella mix is used for the pancakes that are sandwiched together with sweet adzuki bean paste in the confection known as dorayaki. Castella were first introduced to Taiwan during the age of Taiwan under Japanese rule. In 1968, Ye Yongqing, the owner of a Japanese bakery in Taipei named Nanbanto, partnered with the Japanese company Nagasaki Honpu to establish Hometown of One, Taiwan’s first shop specializing in castella.
This shop adapted the recipe to better suit Taiwanese tastes, creating varieties that incorporated Taiwanese Longan honey and Japanese cheese. With these changes and with heavy promotion, castella became a favourite amongst the Taiwanese people; the most popular variety of castella in Taiwan is Honey Castella. Honey is not a necessary ingredient in the original Japanese recipe, honey castella are therefore uncommon in Japan. However, in Taiwan, customers prefer this modified version of castella, which has a strong scent of thick honey. Another Taiwanese variety, rock-baked castella is a double-baked cake in a circular shape, with a honey castella base and a cheese-based topping, they are more expensive than honey castella. Gairaigo Japanese words of Portuguese origin Castella.co.jp 文明堂 Shooken Nagasakido Shokando.jp
The Vienna Basin is a geologically young tectonic burial basin and sedimentary basin in the seam area between the Alps, the Carpathians and the Pannonian Plain. Although it topographically separates the Alps from the Western Carpathians, it connects them geologically via corresponding rocks underground; the level area has the shape of a spindle, over an area of 50 km by 200 km. In the north it stretches up to the Marchfeld plateau beyond the Danube River. In the southeast, the Leitha Mountains separate it from the Little Hungarian Plain. In the west, it borders on the Gutenstein Alps and Vienna Woods mountain ranges of the Northern Limestone Alps; the Danube enters the basin at the Vienna Gate water gap near Mt. Leopoldsberg, it leaves at Devín Gate in the Little Carpathians east of Hainburg. From the late 12th century onwards, the fortresses of Wiener Neustadt and Hainburg were erected at the southeastern and eastern rim as a defensive wall against attacks from the Hungarian lands downstream the Danube River.
The forces of King Matthias Corvinus entered the Vienna Basin during the Austrian-Hungarian War in 1485 to begin the Siege of Vienna. It was again invaded by Ottoman troops, who besieged the city in 1529 and 1683. More than 80 % of the basin area belongs to the Austrian states of Lower Vienna; the northern parts on the Morava and Thaya Rivers are part of Slovakia. Along the southern and western rim and mineral water springs occur in several spa towns like Baden, Bad Vöslau and Bad Fischau-Brunn. Parts: Vienna Basin proper; the part within the Czech Republic is called Dolnomoravský úval, whilst that within Slovakia is called Borská nížina Marchfeld in Lower Austria Chvojnice Hills in Slovakia. The Bor Lowland and Chvojnice Hills are known collectively as Záhorská nížina; the Vienna Basin formations are a series of sedimentary layers. It was formed by pull apart mechanism and the Vienna Basin fault system on which the Vienna Basin lies remains seismically active. Significant earthquakes that propagated across the Vienna Basin include the Neulengbach earthquake of 1590, the strong temblor that hit Carnuntum in the mid-4th century.
"Simplified Geological Map of the Weinviertel region"
A barbarian is a human, perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is applied as generalization based on a popular stereotype. Alternatively, they may instead be romanticised as noble savages. In idiomatic or figurative usage, a "barbarian" may be an individual reference to a brutal, cruel and insensitive person; the term originates from the Greek: βάρβαρος. In Ancient Greece, the Greeks used the term towards those who did not speak Greek and follow classical Greek customs. In Ancient Rome, the Romans used the term towards tribal non-Romans such as the Germanics, Gauls, Thracians, Berbers and Sarmatians. In the early modern period and sometimes the Byzantine Greeks used it for the Turks, in a pejorative manner; the Ancient Greek name βάρβαρος, "barbarian", was an antonym for πολίτης, "citizen". The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek, pa-pa-ro, written in Linear B syllabic script; the Greeks used the term barbarian for all non-Greek-speaking peoples, including the Egyptians, Persians and Phoenicians, emphasizing their otherness.
According to Greek writers, this was because the language they spoke sounded to Greeks like gibberish represented by the sounds "bar..bar... However, in various occasions, the term was used by Greeks the Athenians, to deride other Greek tribes and states but fellow Athenians, in a pejorative and politically motivated manner. Of course, the term carried a cultural dimension to its dual meaning; the verb βαρβαρίζω in ancient Greek meant to behave or talk like a barbarian, or to hold with the barbarians. Plato rejected the Greek–barbarian dichotomy as a logical absurdity on just such grounds: dividing the world into Greeks and non-Greeks told one nothing about the second group, yet Plato used the term barbarian in his seventh letter. In Homer's works, the term appeared only once, in the form βαρβαρόφωνος, used of the Carians fighting for Troy during the Trojan War. In general, the concept of barbaros did not figure in archaic literature before the 5th century BC, it has been suggested that the "barbarophonoi" in the Iliad signifies not those who spoke a non-Greek language but those who spoke Greek badly.
A change occurred in the connotations of the word after the Greco-Persian Wars in the first half of the 5th century BC. Here a hasty coalition of Greeks defeated the vast Persian Empire. Indeed, in the Greek of this period'barbarian' is used expressly to refer to Persians, who were enemies of the Greeks in this war; the Romans used the term barbarus for uncivilised people, opposite to Greek or Roman, in fact, it became a common term to refer to all foreigners among Romans after Augustus age, including the Germanic peoples, Gauls and Carthaginians. The Greek term barbaros was the etymological source for many words meaning "barbarian", including English barbarian, first recorded in 16th century Middle English. A word barbara- is found in the Sanskrit of ancient India, with the primary meaning of "stammering" implying someone with an unfamiliar language; the Greek word barbaros is related to Sanskrit barbaras. This Indo-European root is found in Latin balbus for "stammering" and Czech blblati "to stammer".
In Aramaic, Old Persian and Arabic context, the root refers to "babble confusedly". It appears as barbary or in Old French barbarie, itself derived from the Arabic Barbar, an ancient Arabic term for the North African inhabitants west of Egypt; the Arabic word might be from Greek barbaria. The Oxford English Dictionary defines five meanings of the noun barbarian, including an obsolete Barbary usage. 1. Etymologically, A foreigner, one whose language and customs differ from the speaker's. 2. Hist. a. One not a Greek. B. One living outside the pale of the Roman Empire and its civilization, applied to the northern nations that overthrew them. C. One outside the pale of Christian civilization. D. With the Italians of the Renaissance: One of a nation outside of Italy. 3. A rude, uncivilized person. B. Sometimes distinguished from savage. C. Applied by the Chinese contemptuously to foreigners. 4. An uncultured person, or one who has no sympathy with literary culture. †5. A native of Barbary. Obs. †b. Barbary pirates & A Barbary horse.
Obs. The OED barbarous entry summarizes the semantic history. "The sense-development in ancient times was'foreign, non-Hellenic,' later'outlandish, brutal'. Greek attitudes towards "barbarians" developed in parallel with the growth of chattel slavery - in Athens. Although the enslavement of Greeks for non-payment of debts continued in most Greek states, Athens banned this practice under Solon in the early 6th century BC. Under the Athenian democracy established ca. 50
Roman Dacia was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD. Its territory consisted of the Banat and Oltenia, it was from the beginning organized as an imperial province, fitting a border area, remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians' estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000; the conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan after two major campaigns against Decebalus' Dacian Kingdom. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the greater part of Moldavia, together with Maramureș and Crișana, was ruled by Free Dacians after the Roman conquest. In 119, the Roman province was divided into two departments: Dacia Inferior. In 124, Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces: Dacia Porolissensis. During the Marcomannic Wars the military and judicial administration was unified under the command of one governor, with another two senators as his subordinates; the Roman authorities undertook a organized colonization of Dacia.
New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, commerce flourished in the province. Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but to the rest of the Balkan area, it became an urban province, with about ten cities known, eight of which held the highest rank of colonia, though the number of cities was fewer than in the region's other provinces. All the cities developed from old military camps. Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, the seat of the imperial procurator for all the three subdivisions, was the financial and legislative center of the province. Apulum, where the military governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not the greatest city within the province, but one of the biggest across the whole Danubian frontier. There were political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacia's existence. Free Dacians who bordered the province were the first adversary, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians, hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius.
Following a calmer period covering the reigns of Commodus through to Caracalla, the province was once again beset by invaders, this time the Carpi, a Dacian tribe in league with the newly arrived Goths, who in time became a serious difficulty for the empire. Finding it difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, making it the first of Rome's long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Germanic tribes together with the Carpi in 248–250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, by the Goths and Heruli in 267 and 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was lost during the reign of Gallienus, but they report that it was Aurelian who relinquished Dacia Traiana, he evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, founded Dacia Aureliana with its capital at Serdica in Lower Moesia. The fate of the Romanized population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. One theory holds that the Latin language spoken in ancient Dacia, where Romania was to be formed in the future turned into Romanian.
The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula. The Dacians and the Getae interacted with the Romans prior to Dacia's incorporation into the Roman Empire. However, Roman attention on the area around the lower Danube was sharpened when Burebista unified the native tribes and began an aggressive campaign of expansion, his kingdom extended to Pannonia in the west and reached the Black Sea to the east, while to the south his authority extended into the Balkans. By 74 BC, the Roman legions under Gaius Scribonius Curio reached the lower Danube and proceeded to come into contact with the Dacians. Roman concern over the rising power and influence of Burebista was amplified when he began to play an active part in Roman politics, his last minute decision just before the Battle of Pharsalus to participate in the Roman Republic's civil war by supporting Pompey meant that once the Pompeians were dealt with, Julius Caesar would turn his eye towards Dacia.
As part of Caesar's planned Parthian campaign of 44 BC, he planned to cross into Dacia and eliminate Burebista, thereby causing the breakup of his kingdom. Although the planned expedition into Dacia did not happen due to Caesar's assassination, Burebista failed to bring about any true unification of the tribes he ruled. Following a plot which saw him assassinated, his kingdom fractured into four distinct political entities becoming five, each ruled by minor kings. From the death of Burebista to the rise of Decebalus, Roman forces continued to clash against the Dacians and the Getae. Constant raiding by the tribes into the adjacent provinces of Moesia and Pannonia caused the local governors and the emperors to undertake a number of punitive actions against the Dacians, yet for all this, there existed a measure of social and political interaction between the Roman Empire and the Dacians during much of the late pre-Roman period. This saw the occasional granting of favoured status to the Dacians in the manner of b
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c