Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Shelby County, Texas
Shelby County is a county located in the far eastern portion of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 25,448, its county seat is Center. The county was created in 1835 as a municipality of Mexico and organized as a county in 1837, it is named for Isaac Shelby, a soldier in the American Revolution who became the first governor of Kentucky. Shelby County was represented in the Texas House of Representatives by the Center businessman and conservative Republican Wayne Christian. In 2012, Christian was defeated for renomination by current Representative Chris Paddie. Shelby County was formed in 1837, it was named for Isaac Shelby, a soldier from Tennessee during the American Revolution, first Governor of Kentucky. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 835 square miles, of which 796 square miles is land and 39 square miles is water. Panola County De Soto Parish, Louisiana Sabine Parish, Louisiana Sabine County San Augustine County Nacogdoches County Rusk County Sabine National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 25,224 people, 9,595 households, 6,908 families residing in the county.
The population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 11,955 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 72.65% White, 19.44% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 5.87% from other races, 1.44% from two or more races. 9.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,595 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 12.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females there were 92.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,112, the median income for a family was $34,021. Males had a median income of $26,501 versus $20,280 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,186. About 14.90% of families and 19.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.70% of those under age 18 and 16.90% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Shelby County: Center ISD Excelsior ISD Joaquin ISD San Augustine ISD Shelbyville ISD Tenaha ISD Timpson ISD The Light and Champion, a news and information company, marked its 140th year of operation in 2017, it serves Shelby County, as well as Louisiana. The Light and Champion produces a weekly print edition, a weekly free-distribution print product called The Merchandiser, operates a web site, www.lightandchampion.com, a Facebook page. The Light and Champion is owned based in Brenham, Texas.
U. S. Highway 59 Interstate 69 is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 59 in most places west of Tenaha. Interstate 369 is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 59 in most places north of Tenaha. U. S. Highway 84 Interstate 69 is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 84 in most places east of Tenaha to the Louisiana state line. U. S. Highway 96 State Highway 7 State Highway 87 State Highway 147 Farm to Market Road 139 Farm to Market Road 1970US 59 goes through Shelby County, it is planned to be upgraded to interstate standards as part of the planned Interstate 69 up to Tenaha, where the planned Interstate 369 will follow US 59 northward to both Interstate 30 and Interstate 49 in Texarkana. US 84 is planned to be upgraded to interstate standards as part of the planned Interstate 69 from Tenaha to the Louisiana state line. Greyhound Lines operates the Center Station at the Shelby County's Best Yogurt store in Center. Center Huxley Joaquin Timpson Tenaha Arcadia Brooklyn Dreka Patroon Possum Trot Shelbyville Weaver National Register of Historic Places listings in Shelby County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Shelby County Shelby County Sports Shelby County Today webpage Shelby County government's website Shelby County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas History of the regulators and moderators and the Shelby County war in 1841 and 1842, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Shelby County Chamber of Commerce website Shelby County Genealogy webpage Shelby County Community Links
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Rusk County, Texas
Rusk County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 53,330, its county seat is Henderson. The county is named for a secretary of war of the Republic of Texas. Rusk County is part of the Longview, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Longview–Marshall, TX Combined Statistical Area. Rusk County is represented by Bryan Hughes, a Republican from Mineola, Texas, in the Texas State Senator for Senate District 1, which includes Rusk County. Travis Clardy, a Republican from Nacogdoches, is the Texas State Representative for House District 11, which includes Rusk County. Trent Ashby, a Republican from Lufkin, born in Rusk County in 1972, represents District 57, which includes Angelina and several other rural East Texas counties. Prior to Texas annexation in 1845, the land while from time to time occupied by Caddoan peoples, was unpopulated until 1819 when Cherokee Indians, led by The Bowl settled in what is now Rusk County; the Treaty of Bowles Village on February 23, 1836 between the Republic of Texas and the Cherokee and twelve affiliated tribes, gave parts of western Rusk County along with parts of today's Gregg and Van Zandt counties, in addition to the whole areas of Cherokee and Smith counties to the tribes.
They remained on these lands until the Cherokee War in the summer of 1839. Thus the Cherokee were driven out of Rusk County only to return in 1844 and 1845 with the purchase of 10,000 aces of land by Benjamin Franklin Thompson a white man married to a Cherokee; this established the Mount Tabor Indian Community, some six miles south of present day Kilgore that spread to incorporate areas near Troup and Overton, Texas. Organized as a part of Nacogdoches County, Rusk was established as its own county by the Congress of the Republic of Texas on January 16, 1843. By 1850, it was the second-most populous county in Texas of the 78 counties, organized at that time, according to the 1850 census. Rusk County's population was 8,148 then. With the discovery of oil in Joinerville in October 1930, an oil boom began that caused county population to nearly double during the next decade, caused dramatic changes in the county towns. Rusk is one of the five counties that are part of the East Texas Oil Field, whose production has been a major part of the economy since that time.
Rusk County was one of 25 dry counties in Texas until January 2012. The city of Henderson at that time opted to allow serving beer and wine. Sadly, America's worst school disaster happened in Rusk County in 1937, when nearly 300 people, most of them children, were killed in a natural gas explosion at the London Independent School District. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 938 square miles, of which 924 square miles is land and 14 square miles is covered by water. U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 259 State Highway 42 State Highway 43 State Highway 64 State Highway 149 State Highway 315 State Highway 322 State Highway 323 Gregg County Harrison County Panola County Shelby County Nacogdoches County Cherokee County Smith County As of the census of 2000, 47,372 people, 17,364 households, 12,727 families resided in the county; the population density was 51 people per square mile. The 19,867 housing units averaged 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.89% White, 19.21% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 4.22% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races.
About 8.44% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 17,364 households, 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were not families. About 24.20% of all households was made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was distributed as 24.90% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,898, for a family was $39,185. Males had a median income of $30,956 versus $19,749 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,674. About 10.90% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.80% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.
The following school districts serve Rusk County: Rusk County's first authorized school was the Rusk County Academy. Lake Cherokee National Register of Historic Places listings in Rusk County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Rusk County Mount Tabor Indian Community Rusk County government's website Historic materials about Rusk County, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Rusk County from the Handbook of Texas Online Rusk County Sons of Confederate VeteransThe above website shut down, their new site can be found *Here Rusk County Sheriff's Office Rusk County Airport Mount Tabor Indian Community tribal government website
Carthage is a city in Panola County, United States. This city is 150 miles southeast of Dallas; the population was 6,779 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Panola County, is situated in East Texas near the Louisiana state line. Carthage was founded in 1847. During the Civil War, men from Carthage and Panola County served as Confederate soldiers, while one resident, Milton M. Holland, earned a Medal of Honor as a Union sergeant. After the war, population growth was slow, but large amounts of cotton, sweet potatoes and sugar cane were produced in the county; the city began to grow in 1888 when a railroad reached Carthage, along with telegraph and telephone lines. During the Great Depression, a gas field was discovered near Carthage. After World War II, this gas field was proved to be the largest in the United States; the city flourished, with the population increasing from about 1,300 to 5,000. During this period, a courthouse was built, along with a high school, Panola County Junior College was founded and built in Carthage.
KGAS- Radio began broadcasting from the city in 1955. The growing population brought the establishment of the Panola General Hospital. August 22, 1998 was Carthage's grand opening for the Texas Country Music Hall of Fame. According to the United States Census Bureau, Carthage has a total area of 10.5 square miles, of which 10.5 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is covered by water. As of the census of 2010, 6,779 people, 2,628 households, 1,745 families resided in the city; the population density was 645.6 people per square mile. The 2,909 housing units averaged 277.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.5% White, 21.1% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 6.5% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 11.0% of the population. Of the 2,628 households, 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were not families.
About 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was distributed as 24.6% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males. As of the 2000 Census, the median income for a household in the city was $31,822, for a family was $37,031. Males had a median income of $33,080 versus $21,473 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,332. About 11.8% of families and 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.2% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. The City of Carthage is served by the Carthage Independent School District; the two-year Panola College, a community college, is located across from Carthage City Hall.
The Texas Country Music Hall of Fame is located in Carthage, which houses the Tex Ritter Museum. The Jim Reeves Memorial is located just on the outskirts of Carthage, east on U. S. 79. Reeves and Ritter were from the nearby unincorporated communities of Galloway and Murvaul, respectively; the Footprints in the Sand monument is a 14-foot bronze sculpture of Jesus carrying an old man depicting the famous poem. It is located on the southwest loop in Carthage. Carthage resident Bob Harness is the sculptor; the old Panola County Jail Museum is located on North Shelby Street. Panola County Heritage Museum is located at 100 East Sabine Street across from the gazebo in downtown Anderson Park. Lake Murvaul is 15 miles west of Carthage on Murvaul Bayou. Jacke Davis, professional baseball player Milton M. Holland, former slave, Union Army soldier during the American Civil War, first native Texan to be awarded the Medal of Honor Philip Humber, MLB pitcher for five teams. Bill O'Neal, historian of American West, country music, baseball Perfect Stranger, a 1990s country band Jim Reeves, singer Brandon Rhyder, singer Tex Ritter, actor, father of John Ritter Jack Boynton Strong, Texas legislator and businessman Bernie Tiede, convicted murderer and subject of 2011 film Bernie Carthage is served by two local radio stations: KGAS 1590 AM and KGAS 104.3 FM, by a local newspaper, The Panola Watchman.
The nearest media market of notable size is in Louisiana. The film Bernie is a fictionalized account starring Jack Black, based on the infamous Carthage murder of an 81-year-old resident, Marjorie Nugent. In November 1996, Bernie Tiede shot Nugent in the back four times with a.22 rifle. Having previous experience as a mortician, he cleaned the body and placed it in a freezer in her house. Tiede continued his community involvement. In fact, he admitting to attending a Panola College theater rehearsal the same night he shot Nugent. Tiede fabricated continual lies to cover questions about Marjorie; when suspicions began to grow with the city's residents, her family who lived out-of-town filed a
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana