Memory of Azov (Fabergé egg)
The Memory of Azov is a jewelled Easter egg made under the supervision of the Russian jeweller Peter Carl Fabergé in 1891 for Tsar Alexander III of Russia. It was presented by Alexander III as an Easter gift to the Tsarina Maria Feodorovna, it is held in the Kremlin Armoury Museum in Moscow. Carved from a solid piece of heliotrope jasper known as bloodstone, the Memory of Azov Egg is decorated in the Louis XV style with a superimposed gold pattern of rococo scrolls with brilliant diamonds and chased gold flowers; the broad flute gold bezel is set with two diamonds that complete the clasp. The egg's interior is lined with green velvet; the surprise contained within is a miniature replica of the Imperial Russian Navy cruiser Pamiat Azova, executed in red and yellow gold and platinum with small diamonds for windows, set on a piece of aquamarine representing the water. The name "Azov" appears on the ship's stern; the plate has a golden frame with a loop enabling the model to be removed from the egg.
The egg commemorates the voyage made by Tsarevitch Nicholas and Grand Duke George of Russia aboard the Pamiat Azova to the Far East in 1890. The trip was made after a suggestion by their parents to broaden the outlook of the future Tsar and his brother. At the time, Grand Duke George was suffering from tuberculosis, the voyage only exacerbated it. Tsarevitch Nicholas was the victim of an attempted assassination whilst in Japan and sustained a serious head wound. Although the Tsarina was presented with the egg before these events occurred, it was never one of her favourite eggs. Fabergé egg Egg decorating Faber, Toby. Faberge's Eggs: The Extraordinary Story of the Masterpieces That Outlived an Empire. Random House ISBN 1-4000-6550-X Forbes and Johann Georg Prinz von Hohenzollern. FABERGE. Prestel. ASIN B000YA9GOM Lowes, Will. Fabergé Eggs: A Retrospective Encyclopedia. Scarecrow Press ISBN 0-8108-3946-6 Snowman, A Kenneth. Carl Faberge: Goldsmith to the Imperial Court of Russia. Gramercy ISBN 0-517-40502-4 Description at wintraecken.nl 55°44′58.25″N 37°36′47.90″E
Lilies of the Valley (Fabergé egg)
The Lilies of the Valley Egg is a jewelled Fabergé egg made under the supervision of the Russian jeweller Peter Carl Fabergé in 1898 by Fabergé ateliers. The supervising goldsmith was Michael Perchin; the egg is one of the two eggs in the Art Nouveau style. It was presented on April 5 to Tsar Nicholas II, who gave it as a gift to his wife, the Tsarina, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna; the egg is part of the Victor Vekselberg Collection, owned by The Link of Times Foundation and housed in the Fabergé Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The egg topped with rose pink enamel on a guilloché field; the egg is supported by cabriolet legs of green-gold leaves with rose-cut diamond dewdrops. The gold-stemmed lilies have green enameled leaves and flowers made of gold set with rubies and diamonds; this egg's surprise is'elevated' out of the egg by twisting a gold-mounted pearl button. When raised, three portraits are visible under the Imperial crown set with a ruby: Tsar Nicholas II and his two oldest daughters, Grand Duchess Olga and Grand Duchess Tatiana, painted on ivory by Johannes Zehngraf.
The portraits are framed in rose diamonds and backed with gold panels engraved with the presentation date of July 31, 1898. The Lilies of the Valley Fabergé egg made an appearance in the cellar scene in the Peaky Blinders Season 3 Episode 5 where Alfie Solomons was inspecting a collection of jewels for Tommy Shelby making up a 70,000 GBP package at the 35:10 mark. Faberge - Treasures of Imperial Russia
Guilloché, is a decorative technique in which a precise and repetitive pattern is mechanically engraved into an underlying material via engine turning, which uses a machine of the same name called a rose engine lathe. This mechanical technique improved on more time-consuming designs achieved by hand and allowed for greater delicacy and closeness of line, as well as greater speed; the term "guilloche" is used more for repetitive architectural patterns of intersecting or overlapping spirals or other shapes, as used in the Ancient Near East, classical Greece and Rome and neo-classical architecture, Early Medieval interlace decoration in Anglo-Saxon art and elsewhere. Medieval Cosmatesque stone inlay designs with two ribbons winding around a series of regular central points are often called guilloche; these central points are blank, but may contain a figure, such as a rose. These senses are a back-formation from the engraving guilloché, so called because the architectural motifs resemble the designs produced by guilloché techniques.
The name, as guilloché, is French, dating back at least to the 1770s, is said to be called after a French engineer named Guillot, who invented a tool or turning machine. However no dates nor first name are provided for this shadowy figure, many dictionaries seem suspicious of his existence. Engine turning machines were first used in the 1500–1600s on soft materials such as ivory and wood. In the 18th century they were adopted for metals such as silver; some accounts give the credit of developing tightly-packed engraved guilloché decoration to the Nuremberg glass-making dynasty of the Schwanhardt family in the 17th century, using a wheel to engrave the glass. Engine turning machines made of cast iron and heavy wooden bases, with precision machined surfaces were made until circa 1967. Individuals continue the craft in limited quantities. A Guilloche Machine was granted a US Patent in 1968 by Wilhelm Brandstatter; the original assignor was a firm called Maschinenfabrik Michael Kampf KG. A photo of this machine can be seen at Turati Lombardi's history page.
In the 1920s and'30s, automobile parts such as valve covers, which are atop the engine, were engine-turned. Dashboards or the instrument panel of the same were engine-turned. Customizers would decorate their vehicles with engine-turning panels similarly. Guilloche describes a narrow instance of guilloche: a design architectural, using two curved bands that interlace in a pattern around a central space; some dictionaries give only this definition of guilloche, although others include the broader meaning associated with guilloché as a second meaning. Note that in the original sense a straight line can be guilloché, persons using the French spelling and pronunciation intend the broader, original meaning. Translucent enamel was applied over guilloché metal by Peter Carl Fabergé on the Faberge eggs and other pieces from the 1880s. In consequence of the nature of the design, a series of lines that are, or look much like they are interwoven into one another, any design engraved on metal, printed, or otherwise erected on surfaces such as wood or stone, that go in a similar style of constant wriggling that interlock - or look like they are interlocking - with one another, is referred to as guilloché.
Some of the more common ones are the following: Engraved: in fine timepieces, fine pens, jewelry charms, hair-styling accessories, wine goblets etc. Examples of famous works of Guilloché are the engravings on Faberge eggs. Erected: on stone for architecture, in wood for styling, on furniture or molding, etc. Printed: on bank notes, currency or certificates, etc. to protect against forged copies. The pattern used in this instance is called a spirograph in mathematics, that is, a hypotrochoid generated by a fixed point on a circle rolling inside a fixed circle, it has parametric equations. These patterns bear a strong resemblance to the designs produced on the Spirograph, a children's toy; the engine turning machine characteristic of guilloché is called by other names in specific uses: Rose engine Straight line engine turning Tour à guilloché Holtzapffel lathe, named after the founder of an ornamental lathe manufacturer John Jacob Holtzapffel Decoration lathe Damaskeening Geometric lathe Cycloidal engine Ornamental turning or ornamental lathe.
The different types of the machines refer to different models and different times during the development of the engine-turning machine. Spirograph Fretwork Cloisonné Roulette curve Security printing Basse-taille Geometric lathe Ornamental turning Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Guilloche". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia
Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia was the elder daughter and fourth child of Tsar Alexander III of Russia and Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia and the sister of Emperor Nicholas II. She married Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich of Russia, with whom she had seven children, she was the mother-in-law of Felix Yusupov and a cousin of Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich of Russia who, killed Grigori Rasputin, holy healer to her nephew, the haemophiliac Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia. During her brother's reign she recorded in her diary and letters increasing concern about his rule. After the fall of the monarchy in February 1917, she fled Russia settling in the United Kingdom, her grandson Prince Andrew Andreevich has been a head of the Romanov Family since December 2016. Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna was born on 6 April 1875 at Anichkov Palace in St. Petersburg, she was the elder daughter among the six children of Alexander III of Russia and his wife, Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia.
After the assassination of her paternal grandfather Tsar Alexander II of Russia, when Xenia was six years old, her father Alexander III ascended to the Russian throne in 1881. It was a difficult political time, plagued with terrorist threats. For security reasons, Alexander III moved with his family from the Winter Palace to Gatchina Palace. Xenia and her siblings were raised there in relative simplicity; as a child, Xenia was a tomboy and was shy. Like her brothers, Xenia was educated by private tutors. A special emphasis was laid on the study of foreign languages. Apart from her native Russian, Xenia studied English and German. Xenia learnt cookery and making puppets and their clothes for their theatre, she enjoyed horseback riding and fishing in the nearby river on the Gatchina estate, gymnastics and playing the piano. Her entire family enjoyed family holidays at the home of her Danish maternal grandparents, Fredensborg Castle, it was on such a visit that she met her cousin and lifelong friend, Princess Marie of Greece, daughter of King George I of Greece and his Russian-born wife, Queen Olga.
The Danish composer, Valdemar Vater, paid Xenia a tribute by writing the "Polka Mazurka". Xenia and her paternal first cousin once removed Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich of Russia, her eventual husband, played together as friends in the 1880s. Alexander called Sandro, was a friend of her brother, Nicholas. In 1886, 20-year-old Alexander was serving in the navy. Eleven-year-old Xenia sent him a card when his ship was in Brazil, "Best wishes and speedy return! Your sailor Xenia". In 1889, Alexander wrote of Xenia, "She is fourteen. I think she likes me."At age 15, though Xenia and Alexander wanted to marry, her parents were reluctant because Xenia was too young and they were unsure of Alexander's character. The Tsarina Maria Feodorovna had complained of Alexander's arrogance and rudeness, it was not until 12 January 1894 that Xenia's parents accepted the engagement, after Alexander's father, Grand Duke Michael Nikolaievich of Russia, intervened. The couple wed on 6 August 1894, when Xenia was 19, in the SS Peter & Paul Chapel of the Peterhof Palace.
Xenia's younger sister, wrote about the joy of the wedding, "The Emperor was so happy. It was the last time I saw him like that." They spent their wedding night at Ropsha Palace, their honeymoon at Ai-Todor. During the honeymoon, Xenia's father, Alexander III, became ill and died on 1 November 1894. After his death, Xenia's eldest brother inherited the Crown and became the new Tsar Nicholas II. Xenia contributed to charitable works, she was a member of the Women's Patriotic Association. From 1903, Xenia was patron of the Creche Society of St. Petersburg, which looked after poor working-class children while their parents were at work, she took a particular interest in hospitals for patients suffering from tuberculosis in the Crimea influenced by the death of her brother George from the disease in 1899. She was patron of the Maritime Naval Welfare Association, which took care of widows and children of naval personnel. Xenia founded the Xenia Association for the Welfare of Children of Workers and Airmen.
In addition, she was patron of the Xenia Institute, a St. Petersburg boarding school for 350 students. Like other members of her family, Xenia had been grateful to her father for keeping Russia out of wars. On 25 January 1904, Xenia recorded in her diary that war had been declared between Japan; the previous December, Xenia had told the War Minister, that there would be no war and that her brother did not want war. The War Minister said; as war broke out, there was unrest in Russia. On a cold Sunday in January 1905, over 150,000 peaceful people approached the Winter Palace under the leadership of Father Gapon; the people wanted to present the Tsar with a petition. The St. Petersburg police had asked for help from the army, which fired into the crowd, resulting in 2,000 casualties; the day would be known as "Bloody Sunday" and mark a turning point in the relationship between the Tsar and his people. In February, Xenia's uncle Sergei, was killed by a bomb in Moscow. Xenia was told the situation was too dangerous.
Xenia was exasperated on hearing of Russia's military defeat in Korea. She had been angry about the start of the war and recorded her thoughts on the end, "and ended more stupidly!" Xenia was in the Crimea at their home at Ai-Todor with her husband and children, when news of the mutiny of the Black Sea fleet re
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia was the second daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last monarch of Russia, of Tsarina Alexandra. She was born at Saint Petersburg, she was better known than her three sisters during her lifetime and headed Red Cross committees during World War I. Like her older sister Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia, she nursed wounded soldiers in a military hospital from 1914 to 1917, until the family was arrested following the first Russian Revolution of 1917, her murder by communist revolutionaries on 17 July 1918 resulted in her being named as a passion bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church. She was a younger sister of Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia and an elder sister of Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia, Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia and Tsarevich Alexei of Russia. All sisters were falsely rumored to have survived the assassination and dozens of impostors claimed to be surviving Romanovs. Author Michael Occleshaw speculated.
Grand Duchess Tatiana's siblings were Grand Duchesses Olga, Maria and Tsarevich Alexei of Russia. All of the children were close to their parents up until the end of their lives. Tatiana was described as tall and slender, with dark auburn hair and dark blue-gray eyes, chiseled features, a refined, elegant bearing befitting the daughter of an emperor, she was considered the most beautiful of the four grand duchesses by many courtiers. Of all her sisters, Tatiana most resembled their mother. Tatiana's title is most translated as "Grand Princess", meaning that Tatiana, as an "imperial highness", was higher in rank than other princesses in Europe, who were "royal highnesses". "Grand Duchess" became the most used translation of the title into English from Russian. However, her friends and the household servants called her by her first name and patronym, Tatiana Nikolaevna or by the Russian nicknames "Tanya," "Tatya," "Tatianochka," or "Tanushka."Like the other Romanov children, Tatiana was raised with some austerity.
She and her sisters slept on camp beds without pillows, took cold baths in the morning, were expected to keep themselves occupied with embroidery or knitting projects if they had a spare moment. Their work was sold at charity bazaars. According to one story, accustomed to being addressed only by her name and patronymic, was so disconcerted when she was addressed as "Your Imperial Highness" by lady-in-waiting Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden when she was heading a committee meeting that she kicked the woman under the table and hissed "Are you crazy to speak to me like that?" Tatiana and her older sister, were known in the household as "The Big Pair". According to a 29 May 1897 diary entry written by her father's distant cousin, Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia, she was given the name "Tatiana" as an homage to the heroine in Alexander Pushkin's novel in verse Eugene Onegin, her father liked the idea of having daughters named Olga and Tatiana, like the sisters in the famous poem. Like their two younger sisters, the two older girls shared a bedroom and were close to one another from early childhood.
In the spring of 1901, Olga had typhoid fever and was confined to the nursery for several weeks away from her younger sisters. When she began to recover, Tatiana was permitted to see her older sister for five minutes but didn't recognize her; when her governess, Margaretta Eagar, told her after the visit that the sickly child she had been conversing so with was Olga, four-year-old Tatiana began to cry bitterly and protested that the pale, thin child couldn't be her adored older sister. Eagar had difficulty persuading Tatiana. French tutor Pierre Gilliard wrote that the two sisters were "passionately devoted to one another."Tatiana was practical and had a natural talent for leadership. Her sisters gave her the nickname "The Governess" and sent her as their group representative when they wanted their parents to grant a favor. Though she was eighteen months Tatiana's senior, Olga had no objection when Tatiana decided to take charge of a situation, she was closer to her mother than any of her sisters and was considered by many who knew her to be the Tsarina's favorite daughter.
Tatiana was the conduit of all her mother's decisions. "It was not that her sisters loved their mother any less," recalled her French tutor Pierre Gilliard, "but Tatiana knew how to surround her with unwearying attentions and never gave way to her own capricious impulses." Alexandra wrote Nicholas on 13 March 1916 that Tatiana was the only one of their four daughters who "grasped it" when she explained her way of looking at things. Gilliard wrote that Tatiana was reserved and "well balanced" but less open and spontaneous than Olga, she was less talented than Olga, but worked harder and was more dedicated to seeing projects through to completion than her elder sister. Colonel Eugene Kobylinsky, the family's guard at Tsarskoye Selo and Tobolsk, felt Tatiana "had no liking for art. Maybe it would have been better for her had she been a man." Others felt Tatiana's artistic talents were better expressed in handiwork and in her talent for choosing attractive fashions and creating elegant hair styles.
Her mother's friend Anna Vyrubova wrote that Tatiana had a great talent for making clothing and crochet and that she dressed her mother's long hair as well as any professional hair stylist. Tatiana, like all her family, doted on the long-awaited heir Tsarevich Alexei
A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is composed of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, deposited in concentric layers; the ideal pearl is round and smooth, but many other shapes, known as baroque pearls, can occur. The finest quality natural pearls have been valued as gemstones and objects of beauty for many centuries; because of this, pearl has become a metaphor for something rare, fine and valuable. The most valuable pearls occur spontaneously in the wild, but are rare; these wild pearls are referred to as natural pearls. Cultured or farmed pearls from pearl oysters and freshwater mussels make up the majority of those sold. Imitation pearls are widely sold in inexpensive jewelry, but the quality of their iridescence is very poor and is distinguished from that of genuine pearls. Pearls have been harvested and cultivated for use in jewelry, but in the past were used to adorn clothing.
They have been crushed and used in cosmetics and paint formulations. Whether wild or cultured, gem-quality pearls are always nacreous and iridescent, like the interior of the shell that produces them; however all species of shelled mollusks are capable of producing pearls of lesser shine or less spherical shape. Although these may be legitimately referred to as "pearls" by gemological labs and under U. S. Federal Trade Commission rules, are formed in the same way, most of them have no value except as curiosities; the English word pearl comes from the French perle from the Latin perna meaning leg, after the ham- or mutton leg-shaped bivalve. All shelled mollusks can, by natural processes, produce some kind of "pearl" when an irritating microscopic object becomes trapped within its mantle folds, but the great majority of these "pearls" are not valued as gemstones. Nacreous pearls, the best-known and most commercially significant, are produced by two groups of molluskan bivalves or clams. A nacreous pearl is made from layers of nacre, by the same living process as is used in the secretion of the mother of pearl which lines the shell.
Natural pearls, formed without human intervention, are rare. Many hundreds of pearl oysters or mussels must be gathered and opened, thus killed, to find one wild pearl. Cultured pearls are formed in pearl farms. One family of nacreous pearl bivalves – the pearl oyster – lives in the sea, while the other – a different group of bivalves – lives in freshwater. Saltwater pearls can grow in several species of marine pearl oysters in the family Pteriidae. Freshwater pearls grow within certain species of freshwater mussels in the order Unionida, the families Unionidae and Margaritiferidae; the unique luster of pearls depends upon the reflection and diffraction of light from the translucent layers. The thinner and more numerous the layers in the pearl, the finer the luster; the iridescence that pearls display is caused by the overlapping of successive layers, which breaks up light falling on the surface. In addition, pearls can be dyed yellow, blue, pink, purple, or black; the best pearls have a metallic mirror-like luster.
Because pearls are made of calcium carbonate, they can be dissolved in vinegar. Calcium carbonate is susceptible to a weak acid solution because the crystals react with the acetic acid in the vinegar to form calcium acetate and carbon dioxide. Freshwater and saltwater pearls may sometimes look quite similar, but they come from different sources. Freshwater pearls form in various species of freshwater mussels, family Unionidae, which live in lakes, rivers and other bodies of fresh water; these freshwater pearl mussels occur not only in hotter climates, but in colder more temperate areas such as Scotland. Most freshwater cultured pearls sold. Saltwater pearls grow within family Pteriidae, which live in oceans. Saltwater pearl oysters are cultivated in protected lagoons or volcanic atolls. Pearls are formed inside the shell of certain mollusks as a defense mechanism against a threatening irritant such as a parasite inside the shell, or an attack from outside that injures the mantle tissue; the mollusk creates a pearl sac to seal off the irritation.
Pearls are thus the result of an immune response analogous in the human body to the capture of an antigen by a phagocyte. The mollusk's mantle deposits layers of calcium carbonate in the form of the mineral aragonite or a mixture of aragonite and calcite held together by an organic horn-like compound called conchiolin; the combination of aragonite and conchiolin is called nacre. The held belief that a grain of sand acts as the irritant is in fact the case. Typical stimuli include organic material, parasites, or damage that displaces mantle tissue to another part of the mollusk's body; these small particles or organisms gain entry when the shell valves are open for feeding or respiration. In cultured pearls, the irritant is an introduc
Caucasus (Fabergé egg)
The Caucasus Egg is a jewelled enameled Easter egg made by Michael Perkhin under the supervision of the Russian jeweller Peter Carl Fabergé in 1893. The egg was made for Alexander III of Russia, who presented it to his wife, Empress Maria Feodorovna; the egg is a long term installation at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, New York, as part of the Matilda Geddings Gray Foundation. The egg is made of yellow and varicoloured gold, ruby enamel, rose-cut diamonds, portrait diamonds, ivory, rock crystal and watercolour on ivory, it commemorates Abastumani in Caucasus where Grand Duke George spent most of his life after being diagnosed with tuberculosis. Miniatures were signed by Krijitski; the miniatures are revealed by opening four pearl-bordered doors around the egg. Each door bears a diamond-set numeral of the year, forming the year 1893. Behind the hinged cover at the top is a portrait of the Grand Duke in his naval uniform; this is the first Imperial egg known to be dated. Ruby red enamel was used only one other time for the Imperial eggs as Alexei's hemophilia was a constant worry for the family.
The surprise for this egg are the miniature paintings themselves. Fabergé egg Egg decorating A detailed article by Annemiek Wintraecken on the'Caucasus' egg and its miniatures from wintraecken.nl