Pant is a small village settlement in Shropshire, England. It lies near the border with Wales. Pant means'hollow' in Welsh: it is located directly below the disused mines at Llanymynech Rocks Nature Reserve; the population at the 2011 census is listed under the Civil Parish of Pant. Pant has a few notable features: Llanymynech Golf Club is unique as the only 18 hole course in the UK to straddle the border between two countries; this quiet village was once much more lively, with a post office. The Llanymynech Rocks Reserve has known human activity since Roman times, when it is known to have had a copper mine. More there has been a limestone quarry. At their prime and Llanymynech had a tramway from the mines down to various kilns in the villages. Pant's state of the art kilns by the Montgomery Canal were used for only a short period after which they were superseded by the more efficient hoffman kiln at Llanymynech; the quite quaint love story of "The Pant Heiress" tells the story of a young lady from a wealthy Chester family who eloped with a man who worked on the trains that ran through Pant.
The couple got lived in a house in the village. After her husband died, she rented out rooms in her house, she enjoyed painting in the Cornish town of St. Ives. There is an abandoned gold mine found up Llanymynech Rock where many have collected samples of gold over the years; the mine is hard to find so there is still adequate quantities there. Pant was once on the railway line from Whitchurch to Welshpool and on the Montgomery Canal. Cambrian Heritage Railways have restored 0.75 miles of the railway line between Pant and Llynclys as a heritage railway. Trains operate as far as Penygarreg Lane Halt at present; the trust holds steam events on the restored stretch. There are plans to reopen the whole line from Oswestry to Welshpool. Work is under way to make the Montgomery Canal navigable through the village again. Pant residents are inconvenienced by the busy A483 road, which runs through the centre of the village. A possible bypass around Pant and Llanymynech has long been discussed, but there are no firm plans for this.
Listed buildings in Llanymynech and Pant Shropshire Star article
Sumitranandan Pant was an Indian poet. He was one of the most celebrated left-wing Communist 20th century poets of the Hindi language and was known for romanticism in his poems which were inspired by nature and beauty within. Pant was born in Kaui village, Bageshwar District in what is now the state of Uttarakhand, into an educated middle-class Brahmin family, his mother died a few hours after childbirth, it appears he did not seek affection from his grandmother, father, or older brother, which influenced his writing. His father served as the manager of a local tea garden, was a landholder, so Pant was never in want financially growing up, he grew up in the same village and always cherished a love for the beauty and flavor of rural India, evident in all his major works. Pant enrolled in Queens College in Banaras in 1918. There he began reading the works of Sarojini Naidu and Rabindranath Tagore, as well as English Romantic poets; these figures would all have a powerful influence on his writing.
In 1919 he moved to Allahabad to study at Muir College. As an anti-British gesture he only attended for two years, he focused more on poetry, publishing Pallav in 1926. This collection established him as a literary giant of the Hindi renaissance that had begun with Jaishankar Prasad. In the introduction to the book, Pant expressed dissatisfaction that Hindi speakers "think in one language and express themselves in another." He felt that Braj sought to help usher in a new national language. Pant moved to Kalakankar in 1931. For nine years he lived an secluded life close to nature, he grew enamored with the works and thinking of Karl Marx and Mahatma Gandhi, dedicating several verses to them in the poetry he produced during this time. Pant went to Russia after being invited by Russian government under the impression that his poetic and intellectual prowess was being recognized while he became a tool for Russian propaganda, he was chosen for his creation "Rhapsody to Lenin" in Hindi. The bureaucrats would get them drunk and after about fifteen days the alcohol would be withdrawn as the withdrawal would leave the subjects in a shaky position and the government would pressure them in giving favorable statements to USSR or recruit them as informants.
No guests were allowed in USSR without being specially selected for similar purposes. Pant returned to Almora in 1941, he read Aurobindo's The Life Divine, which influenced him. Three years he moved to Madras and to Pondicherry, attending Aurobindo's ashram. In 1946 he returned to Allahabad to resume his role among the country's other leading writers, he is considered one of the major poets of the Chhayavaadi school of Hindi literature. Pant wrote in Sanskritized Hindi. Pant authored twenty-eight published works including verse plays and essays. Apart from Chhayavaadi poems, Pant wrote progressive and humanist poems. Philosophical. Pant moved beyond this style; as the late scholar and translator of Pant, David Rubin, writes, "In the early forties the new psychological and experimental "schools" were emerging. It was typical of both Nirala and Pant that they themselves anticipated these trends and, by the time the new approaches were in vogue, they had moved on to newer areas of experimentation." In 1968, Pant became the first Hindi poet to receive the Jnanpith Award, considered to be India's highest accolade for literature.
This was awarded to him for a collection of his most famous poems titled Chidambara. Pant received the "Sahitya Academy" award, given by India's Academy of Letters, for "Kala Aur Budhdha Chand"; the Indian Government honored him with Padma Bhushan in 1961. Sumitra Nandan Pant composed the Kulgeet of the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee "Jayati Jayati Vidya Sansthan". Pant died on 28 December 1977, at Uttar Pradesh, India, his childhood house in Kausani has been converted into a museum. This museum displays his daily use articles, drafts of his poems, his awards, etc
Govind Ballabh Pant
Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant was an Indian freedom fighter and one of the architects of modern India. Alongside Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and Vallabh Bhai Patel, Pant was a key figure in the movement for India's Independence and a pivotal figure in the Indian Government, he was one of the foremost political leaders of Uttar Pradesh and a key player in the unsuccessful movement to establish Hindi as the national language of Indian Union. Today, as a mark of tribute, several Indian hospitals, educational institutions and foundations bear his name. To honour his exemplary services to the nation, Pant received India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1957. Govind Ballabh Pant was born on 10 September 1887 in Khoont village on the slopes of Shyahi Devi hill near Almora, in a Karhade Brahmin family his father migrated Pune Maharashtra to Uttar Pradesh. Having their roots in Maharashtra, his mother's name was Govindi Bai. His father Manorath Pant was a government official, on the move, hence Govind was brought up by his maternal grandfather, Badri Dutt Joshi, an important government official locally, who played a significant part in moulding his personality and political views.
Pant subsequently worked as a lawyer in Kashipur. Here, he began active work against the British Raj in 1914, when he helped a local parishad, or village council, in their successful challenge of coolie begar, a law requiring locals to provide free transportation of the luggage of travelling British officials. In 1921, he entered politics and was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Known as an capable lawyer, Pant was appointed by the Congress party to represent Ramprasad Bismill, Ashfaqulla Khan and other revolutionaries involved in the Kakori case in the mid 1920s. In 1930, he was arrested and imprisoned for several weeks for organising a Salt March inspired by Gandhi's earlier actions. In 1933, he was arrested along with Harsh Dev Bahuguna and imprisoned for seven months for attending a session of the then-banned provincial Congress. In 1935, the ban was rescinded, Pant joined the new Legislative Council. During the Second World War, Pant acted as the tiebreaker between Gandhi's faction, which advocated supporting the British Crown in their war effort, Subhas Chandra Bose's faction, which advocated taking advantage of the situation to expel the British Raj by all means necessary.
In 1934, the Congress ended its boycott of the legislatures and put up candidates, Pant was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly. His political skills won the admiration of the leaders of the Congress, he became deputy leader of the Congress party in the Assembly. In 1940, Pant was imprisoned for helping organise the Satyagraha movement. In 1942 he was arrested again, this time for signing the Quit India resolution, spent three years in Ahmednagar Fort along with other members of the Congress working committee until March 1945, at which point Jawaharlal Nehru pleaded for Pant's release, on grounds of failing health. Pant took over as the Chief Minister of the United Provinces from 1937 to 1939. In 1945, the British Labour government ordered new elections to the Provincial legislatures; the Congress won a majority in the 1946 elections in the United Provinces and Pant was again the Premier, continuing after India's independence in 1947. His judicious reforms and stable governance in the Uttar Pradesh stabilised the economic condition of the most populous State of India.
Among his achievements in that position was the abolition of the zamindari system. He passed the Hindu Code Bill and made monogamy compulsory for Hindu men and gave the Hindu women the rights of divorce and inheritance to ancestral property, his rich and judicious experience was sought in India’s political capital. Pant moved from Lucknow to New Delhi to be sworn in as Cabinet Minister without Portfolio in the Union Cabinet on 3 January 1955. Pant served as Union Home Minister from 1955–1961. Pant was appointed Minister of Home Affairs in the Union Cabinet on 10 January 1955 in New Delhi by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru; as Home Minister, his chief achievement was the re-organisation of States along linguistic lines. He was responsible for the establishment of Hindi as an official language of the central government and a few states. During his tenure as the Home Minister, Pant was awarded the Bharat Ratna. on 26 January 1957 for his selfless service as an Independent activist, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and Home Minister.
In 1960, he suffered a heart attack. He was treated by top doctors in India, including his friend Dr Bidhan Chandra Roy, the Chief Minister of West Bengal, his health started deteriorating and he died on 7 March 1961 at the age of 74, from a cerebral stroke. At that time he was still in office as the Home Minister of India. Mourning him, Dr Rajendra Prasad, the President of India was quoted as saying,“I had known Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant since 1922 and in this long period of association it had been my privilege to receive from him not only consideration but affection; this is no time to assess his achievements. The grief is too intense for words. I can only pray for peace to his soul and strength to those who loved and admired him”. Uttarakhand Mahaparishad is a socity NGO at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Govind Ballabh Pant's son, Krishna Chandra Pant, was a politician, he comes from a family of bureaucrats, Police personnel and scientists. His close relative H. C Pant served as the undersecretary in the Ministry of Telecommunications.
K. C. Pant Ila Pant Bakshi, S. R.. Govind Ballabh Pant: The True Gandhian. South Asia Books. ISB
Yadav Prasad Pant was a prominent Nepalese economist and politician. He served as Fifth Governor of Nepal Rastra Bank between Throughout his career he held several high level positions including senior economist at the UN ESCAP in Bangkok, Thailand, he died at the age of 82 in Bumrungrad Hospital in Thailand. Panta has introduced the Nepalese economy to the world by his writings
Underpants are an undergarment covering the body from the waist or hips to the top of the thighs or knees. In British English the term refers to men's underwear; the equivalent woman's garment are panties. Boxer shorts, boxers, or trunks have an elasticated waistband, at or near the wearer's waist, while the groin sections are loose and extend to the mid-thigh. There is a fly, either with or without buttons; the waistbands of boxer shorts are wider than those of briefs, bear the brand name of the manufacturer. Boxer briefs are form-fitting like briefs. Sometimes boxer briefs see next section. Midway briefs are similar in style to boxer briefs, but are longer in the leg, up to the knees. Trunk briefs are longer than briefs. Briefs have an elasticated waistband at or near the wearer's waist, leg sections that end at or near the groin, they come in ultra-absorbent varieties. Bikini briefs are a variation on briefs. Thongs are like bikini briefs. Panties are a type of underpants for women. Leggings
Trousers or pants are an item of clothing that might have originated in East Asia, worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately. In the United Kingdom, the word pants means underwear and not trousers. Shorts are similar to trousers, but with legs that come down only to around the area of the knee, higher or lower depending on the style of the garment. To distinguish them from shorts, trousers may be called "long trousers" in certain contexts such as school uniform, where tailored shorts may be called "short trousers" in the UK; the oldest known trousers are found at the Yanghai cemetery in Turpan, western China, dated to the period between the 13th and the 10th centuries BC. Made of wool, the trousers had straight legs and wide crotches, were made for horseback riding. In most of Europe, trousers have been worn since ancient times and throughout the Medieval period, becoming the most common form of lower-body clothing for adult males in the modern world, although shorts are widely worn, kilts and other garments may be worn in various regions and cultures.
Breeches were worn instead of trousers in early modern Europe by some men in higher classes of society. Distinctive formal trousers are traditionally worn with semi-formal day attire. Since the mid-20th century, trousers have been worn by women as well. Jeans, made of denim, are a form of trousers for casual wear worn all over the world by both sexes. Shorts are preferred in hot weather or for some sports and often by children and adolescents. Trousers are worn on the hips or waist and may be held up by their own fastenings, a belt or suspenders. In Scotland, trousers are known as trews, the historic root of the word trousers. Trousers are known as breeks in Scots, a word related to breeches; the item of clothing worn under trousers is underpants. The standard form trousers is used, but it is sometimes pronounced in a manner represented by, as Scots did not undergo the Great Vowel Shift, thus retains the vowel sound of the Gaelic truis from which the word originates. In North America, South Africa and Northern England pants is the general category term, whereas trousers refers more to tailored garments with a waistband, belt-loops, a fly-front.
So informal elastic-waist knitted garments would be called pants, but not trousers. North Americans call undergarments underwear, undies, jockey shorts, long johns or panties to distinguish them from other pants that are worn on the outside; the term drawers refers to undergarments, but in some dialects, may be found as a synonym for "breeches", that is, trousers. In these dialects, the term underdrawers is used for undergarments. Many North Americans refer to their undergarments by their type, such as briefs. In Australia, men's underwear has various informal terms including under-dacks, dacks or jocks. In New Zealand men's underwear is known informally as dacks. Various people in the tailoring and the fashion industry use the words trouser instead of trousers as a generic term, for instance when discussing styles, such as "a flared trouser", rather than as a specific item; the words trousers and pants are pluralia tantum, nouns that only appear in plural form—much like the words scissors and tongs, as such pair or trousers is the usual correct form.
However, the singular form is used in some compound words, such as trouser-leg, trouser-press and trouser-bottoms. Jeans are trousers made from denim or dungaree cloth. Skin-tight leggings are referred to as tights. There is some evidence, from figurative art, of trousers being worn in the Upper Paleolithic, as seen on the figurines found at the Siberian sites of Mal'ta and Buret'; the oldest known trousers are found at the Yanghai cemetery, extracted from mummies in Turpan, western China, belonging to the Eastern Iranian people of the Tarim Basin. Trousers enter recorded history in the 6th century BC, on the rock carvings and artworks of Persepolis, with the appearance of horse-riding Eurasian nomads in Greek ethnography. At this time, Iranian peoples such as Scythians, Sarmatians and Bactrians among others, along with Armenians and Eastern and Central Asian peoples such as the Xiongnu and Hunnu, are known to have worn trousers. Trousers are believed to have been worn by both sexes among these early users.
The ancient Greeks used the term "ἀναξυρίδες" for the trousers worn by Eastern nations and "σαράβαρα" for the loose trousers worn by the Scythians. However, they did not wear trousers since they thought them ridiculous, using the word "θύλακοι", pl. of "θύλακος", "sack", as a slang term for the loose trousers of Persians and other Middle Easterners. Republican Rome viewed the draped clothing of Greek and Minoan culture as an emblem of civilisation and disdained trousers as the mark of barbarians; as the Empire expanded beyond the Mediterranean basin, the greater warmth provided by trousers led to their adoption. Two types of trousers saw widespread use in Rome: the Feminalia, which fit snugly and fell to knee or mid-calf length, the Braccae, a loose-fitting trouser, closed at the ankles. Both gar
Breathing is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide. All aerobic creatures need oxygen for cellular respiration, which uses the oxygen to break down foods for energy and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product. Breathing, or "external respiration", brings air into the lungs where gas exchange takes place in the alveoli through diffusion; the body's circulatory system transports these gases to and from the cells, where "cellular respiration" takes place. The breathing of all vertebrates with lungs consists of repetitive cycles of inhalation and exhalation through a branched system of tubes or airways which lead from the nose to the alveoli; the number of respiratory cycles per minute is the breathing or respiratory rate, is one of the four primary vital signs of life. Under normal conditions the breathing depth and rate is automatically, unconsciously, controlled by several homeostatic mechanisms which keep the partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the arterial blood constant.
Keeping the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood unchanged under a wide variety of physiological circumstances, contributes to tight control of the pH of the extracellular fluids. Over-breathing and under-breathing, which decrease and increase the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide cause a rise in the pH of ECF in the first case, a lowering of the pH in the second. Both cause distressing symptoms. Breathing has other important functions, it provides a mechanism for speech and similar expressions of the emotions. It is used for reflexes such as yawning and sneezing. Animals that cannot thermoregulate by perspiration, because they lack sufficient sweat glands, may lose heat by evaporation through panting; the lungs are not capable of inflating themselves, will expand only when there is an increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity. In humans, as in the other mammals, this is achieved through the contraction of the diaphragm, but by the contraction of the intercostal muscles which pull the rib cage upwards and outwards as shown in the diagrams on the left.
During forceful inhalation the accessory muscles of inhalation, which connect the ribs and sternum to the cervical vertebrae and base of the skull, in many cases through an intermediary attachment to the clavicles, exaggerate the pump handle and bucket handle movements, bringing about a greater change in the volume of the chest cavity. During exhalation, at rest, all the muscles of inhalation relax, returning the chest and abdomen to a position called the “resting position”, determined by their anatomical elasticity. At this point the lungs contain the functional residual capacity of air, which, in the adult human, has a volume of about 2.5–3.0 liters. During heavy breathing as, for instance, during exercise, exhalation is brought about by relaxation of all the muscles of inhalation, but, in addition, the abdominal muscles, instead of being passive, now contract causing the rib cage to be pulled downwards; this not only decreases the size of the rib cage but pushes the abdominal organs upwards against the diaphragm which bulges into the thorax.
The end-exhalatory lung volume is now less air than the resting "functional residual capacity". However, in a normal mammal, the lungs cannot be emptied completely. In an adult human, there is always still at least one liter of residual air left in the lungs after maximum exhalation. Diaphragmatic breathing causes the abdomen to fall back, it is, therefore referred to as "abdominal breathing". These terms are used interchangeably because they describe the same action; when the accessory muscles of inhalation are activated during labored breathing, the clavicles are pulled upwards, as explained above. This external manifestation of the use of the accessory muscles of inhalation is sometimes referred to as clavicular breathing, seen during asthma attacks and in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Air is breathed in and out through the nose; the nasal cavities are quite narrow, firstly by being divided in two by the nasal septum, secondly by lateral walls that have several longitudinal folds, or shelves, called nasal conchae, thus exposing a large area of nasal mucous membrane to the air as it is inhaled.
This causes the inhaled air to take up moisture from the wet mucus, warmth from the underlying blood vessels, so that the air is nearly saturated with water vapor and is at body temperature by the time it reaches the larynx. Part of this moisture and heat is recaptured as the exhaled air moves out over the dried-out, cooled mucus in the nasal passages, during breathing out; the sticky mucus traps much of the particulate matter, breathed in, preventing it from reaching the lungs. The anatomy of a typical mammalian respiratory system, below the structures listed among the "upper airways", is described as a respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree. Larger airways give rise to branches that are narrower, but more numerous than the "trunk" airway that gives rise to the branches; the human respiratory tree may consist of, on average, 23 such branchings into progressively smaller airways, while the respiratory tree of the mouse has up to 13 such branchings. Proximal div